Frank Michler Chapman.

Color key to North American birds, with bibliographical appendix online

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629b. Plumbeous Vireo (K s. plumbeus). Above
wholly plumbeous-gray with scarcely, if any, olive
tinge, below white, the sides gray faintly tinged with
greenish yellow; size of No. 6290

Range. Rocky Mountain region; breeds from northern Mexico
north to southwestern Dakota and Wyoming; winters south to south-
ern Mexico.

629c. Mountain Solitary Vireo (V. s. alticola}.
Larger than No. 629, W. 3.15, B. .46; head darker, its
color extending over most of the back.

Range. Breeds in Alleghanies from North Carolina to Georgia;
winters in Florida.

629d. St. Lucas Solitary Vireo (V. s. lucasanus}.
Smaller than No. 6293, but bill longer and stouter,
sides and flanks much yellower; young without
brownish below, and resembling young of No. 629.

Range. Cape Region of Lower California.

633. Bell Vireo (Vireo bellii). L. 5. Above olive-
green, crown grayer; lores and eye-ring white; two in-
conspicuous whitish wing-bars; below white, sides
tinged with yellowish. Most like No. 627, but back
greener, no white line lack of eye. Notes. Resemble
those of the White-eyed Vireo, but less harsh, song
less emphatic. (Goss.)

Range. Interior states from Illinois west to Plains; breeds from
Texas to Minnesota; winters in Mexico.

633.1. Least Vireo (Vireo pusillus'}. L. 4.8. Ads.
Above gray, slightly tinged with greenish toward rump;
below white, sides with little if any greenish tinge;
one inconspicuous whitish wing-bar; lores and eye-
ring inconspicuously grayish.

Range. Northwestern Mexico and northern Lower California;
breeds north to Arizona and middle California.

634. Gray Vireo (Vireo vicinior). L. 5.5. Above
slaty gray; below white tinged with grayish; one in-
conspicuous wing-bar; lores and eye-ring gray; bill
short. Notes. Song may be compared with the finest
efforts of the Blue-headed Vireo with the added charm
and mellowness of the song of the Yellow-throated
Vireo. (Henshaw.)

Range. Northern Mexico, north to western Texas, southeastern
California, and southern Nevada; winters in Mexico.


Perching Birds Chiefly Dull Colored

749. Ruby-crowned Kinglet (Regulus calendula).
L. 4.4. A conspicuous whitish eye-ring. Ad. <$. A
more or less concealed crown-patch; back olive-green;
underparts soiled whitish more or less tinged with
buffy; two white wing-bars. Ad. 9 and Yng. (Here
figured.) Similar, but no crown-patch.

Range. North America; breeds from the northern border of the
United States northward, and south in the Rocky Mountains to Arizo-
na, and in the Sierra Nevada of California; winters from south Caro-
lina and Oregon southward to Central America.

749a. Sitkan Kinglet (R. c. grinnelli). Similar to
No. 749, but more olive-green above; more buffy below.

Range. Pacific coast; breeds in southern Alaska; winters south-
ward to California.

470a. Buff-breasted Flycatcher (Empidonax fulvi-
frons pygmceus). L. 4.7. Ads. Below rusty buff;
above grayish brown.

Range. Western Mexico; north In spring to southwestern New
Mexico and Arizona.

586. Texas Sparrow (Arremonops rufivirgata}. L.
6.5. Ads. Above olive-green, sides of crown brown-
ish, its center grayish; below whitish; bend of wing
yellow. Notes. Song resembles that of the Chipping
Sparrow but with somewhat of the sweetness and
modulation of that of the Yellow Warbler.

Range. Eastern Mexico, north to southeastern Texas; casually to

638. Swainson Warbler (Helinaiaswainsonii). L. 5.
Bill large; no white in wings or tail. Ads. Crown
brown, back, wings and tail olive-brown; a whitish
line over eye; below whitish tinged with yellow.
Notes. Song, "a series of clear, ringing whistles, the
first four uttered rather slowly and in the same key,
the remaining five or six given more rapidly and in an
evenly descending scale." (Brewster.)

Range. Southeastern United States; breeds from Gulf States
north to southeastern Virginia, southern Indiana and southern Mis-

639. Worm-eating Warbler (Helmitheros vermi-
vorus). L. 5.5. Bill large; no white in wings or tail
Ads. Crown black with three buff stripes; back,
wings and tail olive-green; below buffy white deeper on
breast. Yng. Buff everywhere richer. Notes. Call,
a sharp chip] song, resembles that of Chipping Spar-
row but is somewhat weaker.

Range. Eastern United States; breeds north to southern Connect-
icut, southern Illinois and southern Wisconsin; winters south of
United States.

742. Pallid Wren-tit (Champa fasciata). L. 6.7;
T. 3.4. Outer tail-feathers shortest. Ads. Above
brownish gray; below buffy obscurely streaked with
gray. Notes. Song wooden and unmusical, beginning
deliberately and ending in a roll, chick: chick; chick,

Range. "Interior of California, Including the western slope of the
Sierra Nevada, from the head of the Sacramento Valley south to

I ^..,A. /"i;f^^^Io ' /A f\ IT\ *


northern Lower California." (A. O. U.)


Perching Birds Chiefly Dull Colored


742a. Coast Wren-tit (C.f.phaa). SimilartoNo.
742, but much browner above and deeper more pink
below; sides as dark as back.

Range. Pacific Coast from Monterey County, California, north to
southern Oregon.

707. Curve-billed Thrasher ( Toxostoma curvirostri).
L. ii.2. Ads. Above brownish gray; below mottled
with brownish gray; lower belly buffy; four outer pairs
of tail-feathers tipped with white; two narrow white
wing-bars. Notes. Call, a sharp, whit-whit; one of the
most silent of song Thrushes. (Merrill.) Song, re-
markably melodious and attractive. (Couch. ;

Range. Mexican boundary region of Texas and New Mexico south
Over the Mexico tableland to Oaxaca.

707a. Palmer Thrasher (T. c. palmeri). Similar to
No. 707, but wing-bars less evident; outer tail-feathers
without white tips.

Range. "Southern Arizona, from about fifty miles northwest of
Phoenix, south to Guaymas, Sonora." (A. O. U.)

708. Bendire Thrasher (Toxostoma bendiref). L.
10.2. Ads. Above brownish ashy; below soiled
whitish washed with buffy and lightly spotted with
dusky, chiefly on breast; outer tail-feathers narrowly
tipped with whitish. Notes. Call, tirup, tirup, tirup.

Range. Desert regions of southern Arizona south into Sonora,
Mexico; west rarely to southeastern California; resident except at
extreme northern limit of its range.

709. St. Lucas Thrasher (Toxostoma cinereum).
L. 10. Ads. Above grayish brown; below white with
numerous wedge-shaped spots; outer tail-feathers
tipped with white.

Range. Southern Lower California.

709a. Mearns Thrasher (7. c. mearnsi). Differs
from No. 709 in much darker upperparts, more rusty
flanks and crissum, much larger and more intensely
black spots on lower parts and less curved bill. (An-

Range. Northern Lower California, south to about Lat. 30 30 '.


Perching Birds Chiefly Dull Colored

710. Californian Thrasher (Toxostoma redwivurn).
L. 12. Ads. Above grayish brown; belly distinctly
buff; breast grayish, throat whitish, washed with buff;
no white in wings or tail. Notes. Song suggesting
both that of the Brown Thrasher and the Mockingbird.

Range, California west of the Sierra Nevada, north of about Lat.
35 ; south into Lower California.

7 I0a. Pasadena Thrasher (7. r.pasadenense). Sim-
ilar to No. 710, but grayer above; belly paler, throat

Range. Southern California.

711. Leconte Thrasher (Toxostoma, lecontei}. L.
10.5. Ads. Above brownish ashy, below creamy
white, under tail-coverts buff. Notes. Call, a sharply
reiterated whit or quit; song, remarkable for its loud
rich tone; can be heard distinctly for more than a rrlile.
(Mearns.) Call, low and musical, huee-e, whistled
through the teeth. (Stephens.)

Range. "Desert region of southern California, Nevada, and ex-
treme southwestern Utah, from Benton, Cal. (Lat. 38 ), southeast-
ward through Arizona to Sonora (Lat. 30 ). Local in San Joaquin
Valley." (A.O.U.)

7 Ma. Desert Thrasher (7. /. arenicola). Differ-
ing from No. 711 in having upperparts darker and
grayer, tail blacker, and breast gray. (Anthony.)

Range. Northern Lower California. (Rosalia Bay.)

712. Crissal Thrasher (Toxostoma crissalis). L.
12. Ads. Under tail-coverts reddish chestnut; upper-
parts brownish gray; underparts ashy, chin white.
Notes. No loud call note; song of remarkable scope
and sweetness. (Mearns.)

Range. "Southwestern United States, from western Texas to the
Colorado Desert, California, and northern Lower California; north to
Charleston Mountains, Nevada, and St. George, Utah." (A. O. U.)


Perching Birds Chiefly Brown or Streaked

538. Chestnut-collared Longspur (Calcarius orna-
tus). L. 6.2. Hind toe-nail as long as toe; all but
middle pair of tail-feathers (and sometimes these) with
white, two outer pairs white to the tip. Ad. <J\ Throat
and cheeks buff; breast and belly black; crown black,
nape chestnut; lesser wing-coverts black tipped with
white. Ad. $ . Above grayish brown" streaked with
black; below pale buff. * *&/. Like summer
but black and chestnut areas more or less tipped wit
grayish brown. Notes. Song, short, shrill, but very
sweet, often uttered on the wing, f Allen. )

Range. Great Plains: breeds from central Kansas and eastern
Colorado north to the Saskatchewan; winters from eastern Colorado
and Nebraska south Into Mexico.

539. McCown Longspur (Rhynchophanes mccpwnii) .
L. 6. Hind toe-nail as long as toe; all but middle pair
of tail-feathers with white, the outer one white to the
tip, the others tipped with black; lesser wing-coverts
chestnut. Ad. $. Throat and belly white, breast and
crown black: back grayish brown streaked with
black. Ad. $. Below white washed with brownish;
above grayish brown streaked with black. $ in winter.
Like ?. but a partly concealed black breast patch; tail
with more white. Notes. Call, a cfrip at each stroke
of the wing; song, of soft, twittering, pleasing notes.
(Goss.) "A twittering, hurried chant, suggestive of
the Horned Lark's performance, but terminating in de-
creasing power." (Silloway.)

Range. Great Plains; breeds from northwestern Kansas to Mon-
tana and the Saskatchewan; winters from eastern Colorado and Kan-
sas south into Mexico.

552. Lark Sparrow (Chondestes ' grammacus) . L.
6.2; Ads. Sides of the crown and ear-coverts chest-
nut; all but middle tail-feathers tipped with white; back
broadly streaked with black; sides of throat and spot
on breast black. Notes. Song, loud and musical sug-
gesting both a Song Sparrow's and a Canary's.

Range. Interior of North America from the Plains east to Illinois;
casually east of the Alleghanies; breeds from Texas to Manitoba;
winters south into Mexico.

552a. Western Lark Sparrow (C. g. strigatus).
Similar to No. 552, but streaks on upperparts generally

Range. Western United States from the Plains to Pacific; breeds
from Mexico to Manitoba and British Columbia; winters south to
Central America.


Perching Birds Chiefly Brown or Streaked

536. Lapland Longspur (Calcarius lapponicus). L.
6.2 Hind toe-nail as long as or longer than toe; two
outer tail-feathers with white at the end. Ad. <?, sum-
mer. Nape chestnut; crown, cheeks, throat and upper-
breast black; back black margined with rusty brown.
Ad. 9 , summer. Crown and back black margined
with rusty; nape brighter; below whitish; breast feath-
ers dusky at base; sides streaked with blackish. Win-
ter, <$. Black areas and nape veiled with whitish or
buffy tips: 9 , like 9 in summer.

Range. Breeds in northern Europe and northeast North America
south to northern Labrador; In America, winters south, irregularly, to
South Carolina, Kentucky, Kansas, Texas; west to Manitoba.

536a. Alaskan Longspur (C. /. alascensis). Simi-
lar to No. 536, but margins to back feathers much
paler, brownish gray or buffy; nape in winter more
buffy. Notes. Song, uttered on wing as bird with up-
stretched wings floats downward, sweet, liquid, tink-
ling, of same general character as that of Bobolink,
but shorter, less powerful. ( Nelson. )

Range. Breeds in Alaska, Aleutian and Pribilof Islands east to Fort
Simpson; winters south to eastern Oregon, Colorado, and western
Kansas. (Ridgw.)

s, 553. Harris Sparrow (Zonotrichia querula). L.
7.5. Ad. summer. Throat and crown black; nape
chestnut, cheeks brownish; two white wing-bars.
Ads. winter. Throat mottled with white, crown tipped
with grayish. Notes. A queer, chuckling note; song
of pleasing, plaintive whistling notes in musical tone
like those of No. 558, but delivered in a different song.

Range. Interior of North America; from Illinois west to the Dako-
tas; in summer, the region west of Hudson Bay (exact breeding range
unknown) ; south in winter to Texas (and Mexico?) ; accidental in
British Columbia, Oregon and California.

565. Black-chinned Sparrow (Spi^ella atrogularis] .
L. 5.7. Below slaty gray. Ad. tf. Throat and
front of face black; rest of head and underparts slaty
gray, the belly whitish; back reddish brown narrowly
streaked with black. Ad. 9 , Throat with little or
no black; crown washed with brownish. Yng. Simi-
lar to Ad. 9 , but never with black on throat; crown
more heavily washed with brownish. Notes. Song
said to resemble that of No. 563. (Bailey.)

Range.- Mexico and southwestern United States; breeds from
southern New Mexico and southern California southward; winters
south into Mexico and southern Lower California.

English Sparrow (Passer domesticus}. L. 6.3.
Ad.<$. Throat and upper breast black; crown slate;
band behind eye and on nape chestnut. Ad. 9-
Below dirty white; crown and rump dingy grayish
brown; back streaked with black and rusty brown; a
buffy stripe behind eye. Yng. tf. Similar to Ad.
but throat and head tipped with brownish gray. Notes.
Harsh and discordant.

Range. -Introduced into America from Europe in 1851 and later
dates; now distributed throughout the greater part of the United



Perching Birds Chiefly Brown or Streaked


537. Smith Longspun (Calcarius pictus] . L. 6.6.
Hind toe-nail as long as toe; two outer tail-feathers
mostly white. Ad. rj. Throat, breast and belly buff;
nape buff; crown and cheeks black; ear-coverts and
line over eye white; lesser wing-coverts black margined
with white. Ad. 9 . Above brownish black mar-
gined with buff and rusty brown; below pale buff,
sides of breast and flanks streaked with brown, cf **
winter. Like ? but lesser wing-coverts black and
white. Notes. Call constantly chirrup as they fly.

Range. Middle western United States; breeds in northern British
America; winters south over the plains and prairies to Texas; east to

579. Rufous-winged Sparrow (Aimophila carpalis).
L. 5.7. Outer tail-feathers shortest. Ads. Lesser
wing-coverts bright reddish brown; crown reddish
brown or chestnut margined with gray; back streaked
with black and margined with grayish brown; below
whitish; two black streaks from either side of the base
of the lower mandible. Notes. Call, fib, %tb, pb.

Range. Southern Arizona, north to Tucson and Camp Lowell and
south through Sonora to northern S naloa. (Ridgw.)

580. Rufous-crowned Sparrow (Aimophila rujiceps) .
L. 4; T. 2.6. No yellow at bend of wing; outer tail-
feathers shortest. Ads. Above reddish brown marg-
ined with buffy gray (no black streaks); below, in-
cluding middle of belly, brownish; sides of throat with
black lines. Notes. Song, very sweet, resembling,
that of Lazuli Bunting, but distinguishable. (C. A.

Range. Northern Lower California north to Marin County and
Sacramento Valley, California; local.

580a. Scott Sparrow (A. r. scottii}. Similar to No.
580, but above brighter reddish brown, the margins to
the feathers grayer, the underparts much paler, the
breast grayish, the throat and middle of the belly

Range. -Northwestern portion of Mexican plateau and adjacent
portions of Arizona, New Mexico and western Texas (El Paso Co.)

580b. Rook Sparrow (A. r. erem&ca). L. 6.
Ads. Crown reddish chestnut, back olive-brown
margined with gray. Similar to No. 5803, but back of
a different color from crown, the grayish margins

Range. Limestone Hill districts of middle Texas, from Kinney and
Maverick counties on the Rio Grande, northeastward to Cook County
and westward at least to Tom Grren County; south in winter to Mex-
ico. (Ridgw.)

580c. Laguna Sparrow (A. r. sororia}. Similar
to No. 58oa, but bill somewhat stouter, reddish brown
above averaging brighter and wider.

Range. Southern Lower California.


Perching Birds Chiefly Brown or Streaked

540. Vesper Sparrow (To&cetes gramineus}. L.
6.1. Outer tail-feather mostly white; hind toe-nail
not longer than toe; lesser wing-coverts reddish brown.
Ads. Above grayish brown streaked with black and
chestnut; below whitish, breast and sides streaked with
black and chestnut. Notes. Call, chip. Song, loud
and musical Look-look, see-see, me-me-me-me-me-me-sing,
followed by a confusion of notes.

Range. Eastern North America; breeds from Virginia, Illinois and
Missouri north to New Brunswick and Manitoba; winters from Vir-
ginia and southern Illinois to the Gulf of Mexico.

540a. Western Vesper Sparrow (P. g. confinis).
Similar to No. 540, but paler, less black above; bill
somewhat more slender.

Range. Western United States from the Plains to the Sierra;
breeds from Arizona and New Mexico north to the Saskatchewan and
British Columbia; winters south into Mexico.

540b. Oregon Vesper Sparrow (P. g. affinis).
Similar to No. 5403, but smaller, W. 3; bill still more
slender; plumage browner, more buffy; browner even
than No. 540, the underparts, including belly, suffused
with buff.

Range. Pacific coast; breeds In western Oregon (and north?) ;
Winters southwest of the Sierra to San Diego, California.

575. Pine-woods Sparrow (Peuccea cestwalis). L.
5.8; T. 2.5. Bend of the wing yellow; outer tail-
feathers much shorter than the middle pair. Ads.
Above reddish chestnut, head and back streaked with
black and margined with gray; below whitish, breast
faintly tinged with buff. Notes. Song, exceedingly sweet
and plaintive.

Range. Florida and southern Georgia; winters In southern Florida^

575a. Bachman Sparrow (T. a?, bachmanii}. Sim-
ilar to No. 575, but above brighter reddish chestnut,
black streaks fewer and usually confined to back;
breast and sides deeper buff.

Range. Lower Mississippi Valley, west to southern Indiana and
southern Illinois, east to Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina,
and Virginia (rarely); west to Concho County, Texas; winters south in
Atlantic States, to southern Florida.

576. Botteri Sparrow (Peuccea botteri}. L. 6; T.
2.8. Bend of wing yellow; outer tail-feathers shortest.
Ads. Above bright rusty brown (about the color of a
Field Sparrow), head and back streaked with black
and margined with gray; below buffy, the center of the
belly whitish. Notes. Song, begins with a faint trill
followed by a succession of disjointed syllables, cha,
cheewee, wee, wee, wee, wir. (Henshaw. )

Range.- Entire plateau of Mexico north to Lower Rio Grande Val-
ley in Texas and southern Arizona. (Ridgw.)

578. Cassin Sparrow (Teuccea cassini). L. 6; T.
2.8. Bend of wing yellow; outer tail-feathers shortest,
their ends with distinct grayish patches. Ads. Above

fray streaked with dull reddish brown and spotted or
arred with black; below grayish white. Notes. Song,
lengthened and pleasing, usually sung on wing.

Range. Texas and southern Kansas west to southern Nevada and
Arizona south into Mexico.


Perching Birds Chiefly Brown or Streaked

559. Tree Sparrow (Spi^etta monticola}. L. 6.3.
A black spot in the center of the breast. Ads. Cap
reddish brown, no black on head; two white wing-bars;
back streaked black, reddish brown and buff; below
whitish; upper mandible black, lower yellowish.
Notes. Call, a musical, tinkling, too-lay-it, song, "a
loud, clear and powerful chant."

Range. Eastern North America, west to the Plains; breeds In
Labrador and region west of Hudson Bay; winters south to South
Carolina, Tennessee and Indian Territory.

559a. Western Tree Sparrow (S. m. ochracea}.
Similar to No. 559, but back with much less reddish
brown, largely brownish buff streaked with black.

Range. Western North America east to the Plains; breeds In
Alaska; winters south to Mexican border.

560. Chipping Sparrow (Spi^ella socialist. L. 5.3.
.Ads. Crown reddish chestnut, forehead blackish] a
black line from eye to nape; back streaked with black,
reddish brown and grayish brown; wing-bars not con-
spicuous; below grayish white; bill largely black. Yng.
Crown like back; cheeks brownish. Notes. Call,
chip; song, an unmusical chippy, chippy, chippy, repeated.

Range. Eastern North America, west to the Plains; breeds from
Gulf States to Newfoundland and Great Slave Lake; winters in the
Gulf States and Mexico.

560a. Western Chipping Sparrow (5. s. ari^once}.
Similar to No. 560, but much grayer above; back with
little or no reddish brown.

Range. Western North America; breeds from Mexican border
states to Alaska; winters from California and Mexican border states
to southern Mexico.

563. Field Sparrow (Spi^ella pusilla) . L. 5.6; T.
2.5. Bill entirely pinkish brown. Ads. Crown red-
dish brown, a gray line over the eye, a reddish brown
stripe from behind it to nape; back reddish brown
streaked with black; below whitish, no streaks, breast
washed with buffy; two white wing-bars. Notes. Call,
chip\ song, a musical whistle, cher-wee, cher-wee-cher-wee,
chee-o, dee-e-e-e-e\ with many variations but usually end-
ing in a trill.

Range. Eastern North America; breeds from South Carolina,
Alabama and central Texas north to Quebec and Manitoba; winters
from Virginia and Illinois to Gulf States.

563a. Western Field Sparrow (S. p. arenacea).
Similar to No. 563, but much paler above; crown large-
ly grayish; back with but little reddish brown, breast
with little or no buff; tail longer, 2.7.

Range. Great Plains of interior; breeds from Nebraska and South
Dakota to eastern Montana; winters south to northeastern Mexico;
casually to Louisiana. (Ridgw.)

584. Swamp Sparrow (Mtlospi^a georgiana). L.
5.8. Ads. Forehead black with a gray median line;
crown bright chestnut; below grayish white; sides
brownish, nape gray; back grayish, black, and buff.
Yng. Crown streaked chestnut and black; gray line
over the eye sometimes tinged with yellow; other parts
deeper in color. Notes. Call, a sharp cheep-, song, a
simple tweet-tweet-tweet, etc., all on one note.

Range. Eastern North America, west to the Plains; breeds from
New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and northern Illinois, north to Labrador
and Manitoba; winters from Kansas, southern Illinois, and Massa
chusetts to Gulf States.


Perching Birds Chiefly Brown or Streaked

542. Sandwich Sparrow (Passer culussandwichensis).
L. 5.7; W. 2.9 A yellow line from the bill passing
over the eye; bend of wing usually tinged with yellow.
Ads. Above streaked with black, chestnut and brown-
ish 'gray; below white, (buffy in fall and winter),
breast and sides streaked with blark, the streaks nar-
rowly margined with chestnut. Notes. Doubtless re-
semble those of No. 5423.

Range. Northwest coast; breeds in western Alaska; winters south
to northern California.

542a. Savanna Sparrow (P. s. savanna^. Similar
to No. 542, but smaller, W. 2.7; yellow line over eye
shorter and less pronounced; bill smaller. Notes. Call
a sharp tstp, frequently uttered; song, a weak, musical
little trill following a grasshopperlike introduction,
tsip, tstp, tstp, se-e-e-s'r-r-r. (Dwight.)

Range. Eastern North America, west to the Plains; breeds from
northern New Jersey (rarely), eastern Long Island, and Missouri
north to Labrador and western Hudson Bay; winters from Virginia
and southern Illinois to Cuba and Mexico.

542b. Western Savanna Sparrow (P.s. alaudinus}.
Similar to No. 5423, but bill more slender, color aver-
aging paler, the yellow line not passing over the eye,
less evident before it and often wholly wanting.

Range. Western North America from the Plains west to the Si-
erra; breeds from Mexico City north to Alaska; winters from south-
ern California southward.

542c. Bryant Marsh Sparrow (P. s. bryantt).
Similar to No. 542b, but smaller, W. 2.6; colors much
darker, streaks belovv heavier; yellow over eye more
pronounced. A darker bird even than No. 5423, but
with the bill slender as in No. 542b.

Range. Resident in salt marshes about San Francisco and Mont-
erey Bay; winters south to San Pedro k Grinnell); casually to Mexico

Online LibraryFrank Michler ChapmanColor key to North American birds, with bibliographical appendix → online text (page 19 of 33)