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Frank Morton Todd.

The story of the exposition; being the official history of the international celebration held at San Francisco in 1915 to commemorate the discovery of the Pacific Ocean and the construction of the Panama Canal (Volume v.4) online

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Castle Brothers, of San Francisco, put in a dried fruit exhibit that
showed a wonderful perfection in this commodity. Pears, figs, peaches,
apricots, prunes, and even the democratic dried apple looked like boxes of
confectionery. As soon as any of it darkened from exposure to light it was
replaced, so the exhibit was always fresh, and the fruit looked almost so.

The Winters Dried Fruit Company had a corner devoted to packed fruit
and nuts, the best product of Yolo County. There were some fine Jordan
almonds, and black figs in packages.

The California Fruit Canners' Association made a striking exhibition of
cans and glass jars of the best California product. The apricots and pears
in glass were very fine and perfect. This concern issued a readable and
instructive pamphlet on fruit canning.

Hunt Brothers, of San Francisco, with their main cannery at Hayward,
made some very fine jar exhibits, and showed their well-known brands of
canned fruits and vegetables. They had a handsome booth with a small
moving-picture adjunct.

There was a grand display of the Sylmar brands of ripe olives and olive



328 THE STORY OF THE EXPOSITION

oil, installed by the Los Angeles Olive Growers' Association. The product
came in part from what was said to be the largest olive grove in the world
under one management, a tract of 2,000 acres with some 100,000 trees on it,
about twenty-five miles from Los Angeles.

Floral calendars have been done before and often. They are beautiful
but not edible and the enthusiasm they arouse is rather aesthetic than
gastric. C. C. Morse & Company, of San Francisco, maintained in the
Palace throughout the Exposition season a commercial exhibit of seeds and
products that might have served as a vegetable calendar. If you
Calendar ^^re a good table gardener you might have told the time of the
year by the products on display. There were 82 varieties of
lettuce and 40 of corn. There were 21 varieties of cucumber, each variety
in condition for slicing, for pickling, and for ripe preserving. There were
26 varieties of muskmelon, 44 of onion, making one of the greatest onion
exhibits ever seen, 2(> varieties of tomato, 24 of beet, 22 of squash, 36 of
bean, in pods and dried. There were eight changes of the material, and
every time the scene was set in the best of exhibit style. The show finished
strong in October with a regular harvest home spectacle of squashes and
pumpkins of the most gorgeous green and golden color.

There was a large exhibit of seeds by Sutton & Sons of Reading, England,
accompanied by models of vegetables and pictures of flowers.

Mrs. E. A. Wright of Oakland conducted a model jam kitchen where the
best available preserving processes produced appetizing results. The
Pacific Coast Syrup Company of San Francisco demonstrated preserving
processes.

The Stewart Fruit Company, operating some thirty packing plants
in various parts of the State, established a fruit packing plant where it
showed the improved methods of grading, cleaning, packing, and stamping
fruit.



CHAPTER LXII
ORCHARD MACHINERY

MOST of the agricultural machinery was either in the Palace of
Agriculture or the Palace of Machinery, but the spray pump was
peculiarly a horticultural aid, and so its representatives were
exhibited in that Department. The previous ten years had revolutionized
the methods of combating orchard pests, and the most improved power
and hand spraying implements with insecticides and washes were shown by
several manufacturers.

Indeed, pest fighting had reached such a stage of effectiveness that it
might have been called antiseptic agriculture. Like clean culture in
orchards, these practices had crept East, and had been applied widely, until
we find in a bulletin of the Maine Agricultural Experiment Station that one
energetic sprayer had obtained 420 bushels of potatoes from a

, .... ^ r • J LI Meditating

measured acre, with no decay m storage, on account 01 six double Potatoes
sprayings, while the produce of fields in the vicinity where no
spraying had been done was showing from 25 to 75 per cent of rot. Spray-
ing had been found to be applicable and profitable in undreamed-of ways.

The Field Force Pump Company of Elmira, New York, exhibited a 400-
gallon tank with a ten-horse-power gasoline engine. It had traction spray-
ers for beans and potatoes, all sorts of portable hand pumps for low-growing
vines and small trees, knapsack sprayers and barrel sprayers and sprayers
that traveled on two wheels like a pushcart.

The Bean Spray Pump Company of San Jose, California, showed some
remarkable developments in the spraying machinery line, with internal
combustion engines and centrifugal pumps. It showed a pump for the
small orchard, giving high pressure by hand; and large horse-drawn pumps
for major operations, with which you could spray orchards or forest trees or
whitewash a barn.

Many of the spray pumps in use operated under heavy pressures. The
Air Tight Steel Tank Company of Pittsburgh entered its " Atsco" sprayer,
which worked under far lighter pressure than the ordinary pump, and
atomized the liquid at the nozzle. This was claimed to be an improvement,

329



330 THE STORY OF THE EXPOSITION

inasmuch as the fine, light mist produced by it was supposed to drift all
about and stay where it struck, so that there were no "holidays," as a sailor
would say, a sort of non-missing mist. C. Solomon, Jr., the San
lYorf; Francisco importer, was the local agent and exhibitor, and he

made the booth very handsome, with a trellis hung with Japanese
paper wistaria, and a back drop depicting the use of the spray in a beautiful
California orchard amid typical California scenery.

One of the great American outdoor sports is pushing the lawn mower.
The mower that started it, the first one made in America, was on exhibition,
in the booth of the Caldwell Lawn Mower Company, of Newburgh, New
York. It made one think how fine life must have been for thousands of
American householders before it was invented, and how much better the
cities of this country have looked since.

Here again the horse looked forth on signs of emancipation — and perhaps
of extinction. The horse-drawn lawn mower was giving place to one pro-
pelled by a motor and guided by a man walking behind it, and there were
larger motor mowers for parks and golf courses. All had demountable
cutters, that could easily be taken out and ground.

Many of the exhibits in the Palace of Horticulture depended on re-
frigeration to keep them in condition throughout the season, and that
refrigeration was supplied by an automatic machine installed by the Auto-
matic Refrigerating Company of Hartford, Connecticut. The

Automatic ^ , • r i i 11 • 1

Weather System or absorption or heat by anhydrous ammonia, and con-
densation afterward, was operated by motors, which in turn were
under the control of a thermostat so that steady temperatures were assured
no matter what might be the factor of human frailty on the part of the man
in charge. In the Exposition year such systems were being applied to
apartment houses, hotels, and individual residences.

An exhibit that everybody liked to watch at work was the grading
machine of the Price Fruit Sizer of North Yakima, Washington. Instead
of passing fruit through holes of various sizes, this machine worked by
momentum, and so graded according to weight, tossing wooden apples by a
sort of minature catapult into canvas pockets at various distances. Inas-
much as the impulse was uniform the lightest apples went the farthest; and
the precision of the machine, doing it over and over again with all sizes of
fruit, seemed miraculous. It dropped the same wooden ball into the same
pocket every time, and the pockets were not large. They were of course
devised in such shape as to prevent bruising, and the machine could toss
eggs a dozen feet without breaking them. Twenty-six of these contrivances
were sold to Watsonville packing houses before the Exposition was over.




THE SPRING FLOWER SHOW




THE CALIFORNIA SECTION



CHAPTER LXIII
HORTICULTURAL OCCASIONS AND EVENTS

THE special features of the Department of Horticulture covered a wide
field of activity and added many attractive Special Day Events to
the Exposition. They were as follows: Spring Flower Show, March
19, 20, 21 ; May Flower Show, May 7, 8, 9; Sweet Pea Show, June 1 1 and 12;
Dahlia Show, September 18 and 19; Fall Flower Show, October 21 to 26;
Horticulture Day, October 21 ; Apple Contest, November 6 to December
4; Winter Shrub and Berry Show, November 24 to December 4.

The Spring Flower Show, March 19, 20, and 21, was held in conjunction
with the Pacific Coast Horticultural Society. The display of cut flowers
and flowering shrubs and bulbs grown in flats was distinctive, compre-
hensive, and beautiful, and a large attendance attested its success. It was
held in the central part of the building, and presented a magnifi-
cent display of Darwin tulips, violets, rhododendrons, hyacinths, Bloom
narcissus, daffodils, freesias, ranunculus, hydrangeas, and Easter
lilies. There were good prizes for the bulbous plants, and gold, silver, and
bronze medals as well as diplomas offered in some of the contests. On the
second day there was a show of table decorations and on the third one of
bridal bouquets. These introduced very beautiful features.

The May Flower Show was conducted in conjunction with the California
State Floral Society and the Alameda County Floral Society, and the dis-
plays of roses and herbaceous peonies, and of iris and other garden flowers,
were large and fine. The exhibit of wild flowers, under direction of Miss
Charlotte Williams, including California's wonderful poppies, was unusually
interesting and comprehensive. All the shrubs that flower in May in this
vicinity were represented. Over 400 varieties of outdoor roses were shown.

The Sweet Pea Exhibition, held under the auspices of the American
Sweet Pea Society, brought out what was said to be the largest single exhibit
of this blossom ever seen in America: that of C. C. Morse & Company of
San Francisco. It contained 135 varieties, and showed the evolution of the
sweet pea, from its lowly beginning in 1837 on a little six-inch stem, down
to the royal specimens produced in 191 5, on stems twenty-six inches long

331



332 THE STORY OF THE EXPOSITION

with five flowers on each one. The National Sweet Pea Society of Great
Britain participated in the event by conferring its medals as awards, and
prizes were donated from all parts of the United States. The latest crea-
tion, the Fiery Cross, was shown publicly for the first time in this country
by W. Atlee Burpee of Philadelphia. It was first announced that this
show would be held on the 4th of June but on account of inclement weather
it was postponed to June 1 1 and 1 2.

The Dahlia Show came along on September 18 and 19 and was held by
the Exposition in conjunction with the California State Floral Society and
the Alameda Floral Society. This was the most colorful of all the shows
and certainly drew a record attendance. One grower, Mr. T. A. Burns,
put in more than 1,000 varieties of cut dahlia. The color-mad crowds
were suffocating in their density and had to be put out of the building at
10:15 at night almost by force.

But the shows kept getting better and better, and the attendance larger
and larger; and the most enjoyable occasion, with the largest attendance,
was the Grand National Fall Flower Show on October 21 to 26. It was
held in conjunction with the Pacific Coast Horticultural Society and the
Chrysanthemum Society of America. There was a magnificent display of
chrysanthemums, in great variety. The showing of ferns was very fine and
luxuriant, while J. A. Carbone of Berkeley put in eighty of the
and Orchids "^ost curious and gorgeous kinds of orchid. October 21 was Horti-
culture Day, and the Exposition attendance exceeded 92,000.

Finally these occasions closed with the first Winter Shrub and Berry
Show ever held in the country. It was arranged in conjunction with the
California State Floral Society and the Alameda County Floral Society, and
was one of the most interesting and beautiful of the whole series of special
horticultural events. There was no schedule of awards, but the exhibits
were of the highest quality and utmost interest in their respective classes.
The show opened on the 24th of November and ran until the end of the
Exposition season.

Commencing November 6, and continuing until the close of the Exposi-
tion, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, California, and Arkansas engaged in a
five-box sweepstakes apple contest, which was won by Fred Conklin of
Brewster, Washington, on five boxes of Winesaps.

The system of seasonal judging in floriculture was probably the best ever
maintained by an Exposition. From May i until Closing Day, Mr. H.
Plath and Mr. E. James scored the garden exhibits weekly, having as addi-
tional jurors in that time Mr. J. R. Fotheringham, Mrs. Myrtle Shepherd
Francis, and Mr. Charles W. Johnson. The six special flower shows were



HORTICULTURAL OCCASIONS AND EVENTS 333

greatly assisted by the Pacific Coast Horticultural Society, the California
State Floral Society, and the Alameda County Floral Society, the American
Sweet Pea Society, and the American Chrysanthemum Society, and such
individuals representing them as Mrs. John A. Scannavino, Mrs. Richard H.
Grey, and Mr. F.G. Cuthbertson; while effective jury service was rendered by
Mrs. Herman Rosse of Palo Alto, and Mrs. M. S. Francis of Ventura, in
addition to many others named below.

At the Spring Flower Show, prizes were taken in Class A, by Ferrari Bros.,
for flowering bulbs in pots, and for pink, yellow, red, red and yellow, double
pink, and double yellow tulips; by the San Mateo County Commission,
second, and by Pelicano, Rossi & Co., third, for flowering bulbs in pots;
for Easter lilies in pots, by Domoto Bros.; for lilies of the valley, by Ferrari
Bros.; by Schwerin Bros., first prize, and E.James, second prize, for rhodo-
dendrons; by Ferrari Bros., first prize, and Schwerin Bros., second
prize, for azaleas; by E. James, first prize, and Ferrari Bros., ^^"^

second prize, for roses in pots; by E. James, first prize, and H.
Plath, second prize, for spiraeas; by E. James, first prize, and H. Plath,
second prize, for the best collection of Primula obconica; by the Hillsborough
Nurseries, first prize, and E.James, second prize, for the best twelve Primula
obconica; by Domoto Bros., first prize, and E. James, second prize, for
hydrangeas; and by I. W. Hellman, Jr., first prize for cinerarias.

Class B prizes were taken by Schwerin Bros., for hyacinths and tulips.
Mrs. J. A. Scannavino received honorable mention for Darwin tulips.
I. W. Hellman, Jr., took first prize and Mrs. Scannavino second for narcissus
and daffodils; for Easter lilies, in vases, the Hillsborough Nurseries took
first prize, and Domoto Bros., second. For flowering shrubs George Nunn
took first prize and Domoto Bros., second. Mrs. R. E. Darbee took first
prize for violets, and Pelicano, Rossi & Co., second. Second prize (there
was no first) for ranunculus went to the United Floral Supply Co. For
anemones, the first prize went to the United Floral Supply Co., and the
second to I. W. Hellman, Jr. Mrs. R. E. Darbee received honorable men-
tion for the most artistically arranged basket of bulbous flowers.

Pelicano, Rossi & Co. were awarded the first prize, a silver medal, for a
bridal bouquet of butterfly orchids and lilies of the valley. The second prize,
a bronze medal, went to A. Lundborg for a bridal bouquet of white cyclamen.

The jurors in these events were Mrs. William H. Crocker, Mrs. Du Val
Moore, Mrs. Edgar J. de Pue, Mrs. P. E. Bowles, Mrs. Charles S. Wheeler,
Mrs. George W. Pinchard, Mrs. L. S. Sherman, Mrs. W. S. Davis, Mrs.
Frederick P. Stone; and Messrs. F. Pelicano, J. Baedocchi, Charles Mitchell,
A. O. Stein, Otto Stein, and Sidney Clack.



334 THE STORY OF THE EXPOSITION

Prizes were awarded at the May Flower Show as follows:

No. I — Roses, John Smith, first prize; Mrs. E. M. F. Spencer, second.

No. 2 — Roses, John Smith, first and second prizes.

No. 3 — Roses, John Smith, first prize.

No. 5 — Pansies, J. G. Wintjen, first prize.

No. 6 — Iris, Mrs. J. Branin, first prize.

No. 1 1 — Delphiniums, Major Vanderbilt, first prize; Mrs. Green, second
prize.

No. 14 — Poppies, Clarissa Mitchell, first prize.

No. 15— Garden flowers, Mrs. T. J. Sachau, first prize; C. Garrison,
second prize.

No. 18— Roses, Mrs. C. W. Clark, first prize.

No. 27 — Roses, Domoto Bros., first prize.

No. 28 — Roses, E. Gill Nursery Company, first prize; Vallance Nursery,
second prize.

No. 29 — Carnations, Peninsula Nursery Company, first prize; Holland
Nursery Company, second prize.

No. 31 — Lilies, Y. Okimo, first prize.

No. 36— Iris, Mrs. R. E. Darbee, first prize; Fred Agari, second prize.

No. 33 — Herbaceous peonies, Paul Grallert, first prize.

Special awards were given to Mrs. Neal T. Childs, The E. Gill Nursery
Company, Paul Grallert, Dean Iris Gardens, Mrs. Muhler and Mrs. R. H.
Grey.

Those who received special mention for culrivated displays were:

California Nursery, flowering shrubs; Mrs. Frowberk, marigolds; Hogan
and Kooyman, Formosan iris; Mrs. Niehaus, calceolaria; Mrs. Luders,
cinerarias; San Leandro exhibitors, complete display of garden flowers.

In the wild flower display, the exhibits of the Misses Edith and M. Alice
King, plucked from Twin Peaks and the Lake Merced district, received first
prize.

Mrs. John A. Scannavino was manager of the culrivated flower display
and Miss Chariotte F. Williams in charge of the wild flower exhibit.

The appointed jurors were Messrs. H. Plath, E. James, J. R. Fothering-
ham, Charies H. Totty, George Roeding, Dr. Barton W. Everyman, Mrs,
Marion T. Campbell, and Mrs. Ernest Meiere.

In the Dahlia Show, September 18 and 19, the gold medal prize was
awarded Leslie E. Doolittle of Pacific Grove. The silver medal went to
Mrs. W. E. Estes of 1458 Forty-seventh Avenue. The manager of the
event was Mrs. John A. Scannavino. The jurors were Messrs. J. W. Bagge,
H. Plath, and E. James.



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LIVE STOCK HEADQUARTERS




A SANITARY DAIRY BARN



HORTICULTURAL OCCASIONS AND EVENTS 335

The Fall Flower Show opened with Horticulture Day on October 21,
and ran six days. Prizes were as follows:

The silver cup offered by the Chrysanthemum Society of America for the
best 10 blooms, one variety of chrysanthemum, on long stems, was won by
the Lynch Nursery of Menlo Park. The gold, silver, and bronze medals
offered by William Wells, Merstham, Surrey, England, and Charles H.
Totty of Madison, N. J., for the best 3 blooms of the "Earl Kitchener"
chrysanthemum, where awarded to the Lynch Nursery, Mrs. C. R. Waters
of Menlo Park and Shibuya Ishida, of Stege, respectively.

Percy Ellings of Menlo Park won the medal given by the National
Association of Gardeners for the best six chrysanthemums of six varieties.
The Elmer D. Smith prizes for the best six white, yellow, and pink chrysan-
themums went to the Lynch Nursery and the Hillsborough Nursery. Mrs.
George H. Roos of Menlo Park won the Mitchell silver medal for 12 chry-
santhemums.

Other awards were: best 30 chrysanthemums in 6 varieties, George H.
Young, Ross Valley, first; best 12 white chrysanthemums, William Young,
San Mateo, first; best 12 yellow chrysanthemums, Mrs. Sig Stern, first; best
12 chrysanthemums, any color; William Young, San Mateo, first; Mrs.
George H. Roos, Menlo Park, second; best 36 chrysanthemum
plants, Hillsborough Nurseries, silver medal; George H. Young, ^/„|^°"
Ross Valley, bronze medal; best 4 vases of 14 varieties of roses, 12
blooms each, James B. Smith, Burlingame, first; Mrs. George H. Roos,
Menlo Park, second; best vase one variety, 25 blooms, James B. Smith,
Burlingame, first; William Young, San Mateo, second; best collection, 12
varieties, herbaceous perennials, James B. Smith, Burlingame, first; George

A. Pope, Burlingame, second; best collection 12 varieties annuals, James

B. Smith, Burlingame, first; George A. Pope, Burlingame, second; best
collection single dahlias, 12 varieties, George A. Pope, Burlingame, first;
Ruth C. Gleadell, San Francisco, second; best collection tuberous begonias,
50 varieties, and best collection 25 varieties, Henry E. Bothin, Ross Valley,
first in both; best collection of vegetables, George A. Pope, Burlingame,
first.

The following special awards were made:

To Mrs. R. E. Darbee, a silver medal for a Marie Antoinette vase con-
structed of chrysanthemums, orchids, and roses.

To Frank R. Clark, a bronze medal for a miniature Tower of Jewels in
chrysanthemums, hung with Tower jewels and lighted with electric bulbs
within.

Pelicano, Rossi & Co., exhibited a dining table done in pink, white, and



336 THE STORY OF THE EXPOSITION

yellow roses, and ferns. This took rirst prize in its class. The same firm
took first prize for the best arranged hamper, or basket, the second going to
Mrs. R. H. Grey. For the most artistically arranged basket of cut flowers,
Pelicano, Rossi & Co. received first prize and Mrs. R. E. Darbee second.

The jurors were: Mr. C. W. Johnson, Mrs. M. S. Francis, Mr. William
Munro, Mr. Ed Schwerin, Mr. Charles Abraham, Mr. William Eldred, Mr.
George Walters, Mr. J. W. Bagge, Mr. John Gill, Mrs. Laurance I. Scott,
Mrs. Jos. D. Grant, Mrs. Louis F. Monteagle, Mrs. Henry P. Crocker,
Mrs. Randolph Whiting, Mrs. George B. Carr, Miss Marcella Willis, Mrs.
Louis Kast, Miss Edna Rooney, Mrs. Edgar de Pue, Mrs. Du Val Moore,
Mrs. Charles S. Wheeler, Mrs. Frederick P. Stone, Mrs. Philip E. Bowles,
Mrs. John Flourney, and Mrs. M. Koshland.

The Winter Shrub and Berry Show was an entire novelty and a great
success. Mrs. John A. Scannavino was general manager, assisted by Mrs.
T. J. Sachau, and the committee in charge consisted of Mrs. E. G. Ely, Dr.
L. Friederichs, Mrs. John Bronin, Mrs. T. J. Sachau, and Mrs. Edna M. F.
Spencer. The jurors were Messrs. H. Plath and E. James.



CHAPTER LXIV
THE DEPARTMENT OF LIVING EXHIBITS

THE spirit of the Exposition, expressed through the Department of
Fine Arts, the Department of Mines and Metallurgy, the whole
Division of Exhibits, through its great events and occasions,
through every organ it developed with which to perform its functions, could,
in the Department of Live Stock, be best represented by the words of a sign
on one of the paddock fences, reading:

"a utility demonstration, not a fat stock show. . . . THE PUR-
POSE OF THIS demonstration IS TO PROVE THAT WELL-BRED STOCK WILL
MATURE AT AN EARLY AGE AND WILL BRING HIGH PRICES. A DISPLAY FOR
THOSE INTERESTED IN RAISING STOCK AND FOR THE MEAT-EATING PUBLIC."

The classification in Live Stock was very broad, but practical. Oxen
were excluded as of little more than curious interest now; and freak breeds
of cattle, sheep, and swine, and some of horses that had small utility value,
were excluded also. But nothing was kept out that could teach the great
lesson of Utility.

You don't have to build a palace for the live stock department of an
exposi tion, but you do have to have corrals, barns, dairy, and poultry buildings,
a stadium for the stock shows and a building for the congresses of breeders.
And the Department is worth it and all the prize money besides. Intelli-
gent breeding builds wealth. And hardly any field of industry has more
progress to show from one exposition to another. It is the opinion of
experts that since the St. Louis Exposition the Hereford cattle, just for an
example, have been so improved that the individuals will average 150
pounds more in weight, while the type has been radically changed.
Under the applied eugenics of the breeder, the Poland China hog Nature
has become an altogether different being. Character, shape, dis-
position, right through the animal world that is tributary to man, are being
remade from day to day, and in some quarters of that world the improve-
ment has even been carried into those secret sanctuaries of nature wherein

VOL. IV — 22 237



338 THE STORY OF THE EXPOSITION

it is determined whether a ewe shall bring forth one lamb or several at a
lambing.

For the first time in the history of world's expositions the Live Stock
barns were especially constructed for exhibition purposes. And the
arrangements, especially the feed alleys, greatly pleased the exhibitors,
many of whom said they had never been given such conveniences before.



Online LibraryFrank Morton ToddThe story of the exposition; being the official history of the international celebration held at San Francisco in 1915 to commemorate the discovery of the Pacific Ocean and the construction of the Panama Canal (Volume v.4) → online text (page 35 of 41)