Frank Munsell Thomas Patrick Hughes.

The American annual of photography online

. (page 13 of 18)
Online LibraryFrank Munsell Thomas Patrick HughesThe American annual of photography → online text (page 13 of 18)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

stopping-down will stop this, of course, and the innocent
camera gets the blame !

A refinement that I have found well worth while is a table
of depths of focus at varying distances and with diflferent
stops. The newer models of a certain make of camera are
equipped with such a table, but as much of my work is either
for lantern slides or for enlargements, I have calculated my
own for a finer definition (smaller circle of confusion) and
have drawn it on the outside of my case under the protecting
flap, using waterproof ink. Where distant landscape is to have
a foreground of rocks or human figures, this will assure satis-
factory results in the "negative, as far as relative sharpness is

In working with a small camera, technically perfect nega-
tives are, of course, the photographer's aim, as with these al-
most anything can be done in the home studio, while with such
small negatives defects are almost incurable. If exposure and
development are correct, one has still to overcome the bugbear
of dirt; and the constant jarring to which the camera is ex-
posed on The Trail seems to "soak in" all dust that may arise
from the fine forest humus when sliding down or crawling up
hill. Every time a new film is inserted, therefore, be careful
to clean the inside of the camera thoroughly, and once in a
while the holster, too. It will pay.


Digitized by LjOOQ IC

At the same time be on the lookout for leaks in the bellows,
where the finder or cable release may wear the leather during
the constant jolting. A little pocket search-light held inside the
camera at night will show them up, and a bit of surgeon's
plaster will cure them, applied to the outside of the bellows
where its white color will not set up any fog-causing internal
reflections. Shading the lens while making exposures will also
go far to aid in the brilliancy of the resulting negative, espe-
cially in the case of pictures that are taken towards the sun.

Exposures made by meter seldom go far astray, yet the hu-
man element enters even here, and there is a chance that in
^'exposing for the shadows" some of the delicate nuances of
distant hill-forms or cloud-shadows may be lost.

As negatives made with slow exposures and a ray-filter are
apt to be very rich in gradations, I generally reduce the
"normal" time of development to about eighty-five per cent,
of that given for the "normal" pyro tank developer, in order
to get the most out of the negative and avoid clogging the
high-lights. For the same reason a very correct exposure of
the print is necessary, with full development; and it may be
said in passing that there is no paper like smooth platinum for
getting the most out of a negative. Usually people think of this
medium as one for large exhibition prints only. Try it on
your little negatives, cutting 5x7 paper in quarters, modify-
ing your developer with mercury or glycerine to suit.

I still feel astonishment at the capabilities of the little camera
with its fine lens and shutter equipment. Working at F/ii,
enlargements to 5 diameters can be made that are hard to tell
from. contact prints, and there is so much in the negatives
that they repay working up with diflFusion lens, and all the
other dodges of the pictorialist. Yet the contact print is by
no means too small for the album ; and it is certainly the ideal
camera for Trail work, whatever we may use at home.

The Trail calls to adventure; it offers every variety of
photography — genre, landscape, speed-work. Winter as well
as summer it is alluring to those who love the silences of the
hills ; in the autumn a plate-back and a dozen autochromes will
give you results that are worthy of that wonderful process and
the hazy noons and chill twilights will make you exult in life.

Try it next vacation !


Digitized by LjOOQ IC



Digitized by VjOOQ IC



^ ANY people are deterred from going into photo-
graphic pursuits from the mistaken jdea that it
is an expensive hobby, and that they will not be
able to afford the luxury (to them) of a camera.
There is a way, however, to have all the pleas-
ures that a camera affords without going to any great expense.
It is the object of this short article to give a few ideas to those
whose purses may not be over-stocked with cash, and to show
that not only may good work be done, but that work of the
highest character is frequently done with apparatus of the most
extreme simplicity.

It is often said that more depends on the "man behind the
gun" than on the gun itself, and so in this case the results are
often as good from the simplest and least expensive apparatus
as from the most costly. Take landscape photography as an
example. What can be more beautiful than the fine soft, and
yet almost crisp, definition of a good single landscape lens?
Yet the lens is not costly in any way, and in a pinch even a
non-achromatic spectacle lens will produce photographs of no
mean quality.

So also with cameras — while I am no advocate of cheap
goods, and so always advise the worker to obtain the best ap-
paratus he can aflford, yet the results so frequently are not in-
dicated hy the apparatus used that it often causes one to almost
ask why so much money is spent. What is more common, for
instance, than to see a man spend one hundred dollars for an
anastigmat lens, and then to use it in such a way as to destroy
the very effects for which the lens was particularly designed?
Then again, in regard to plates and films, the new worker
is often puzzled to know which is best to adopt, and if he de-
cides on plates, what kind of plates and also what size. This
is, of course, a question which every intending worker must
decide for himself, but long experience has most thoroughly
convinced me that the average results obtained by plates are
far superior to those of films and, therefore, if economy is an
object, by all means use plates at the start.


Digitized by LjOOQ IC


Illustrating article "Inexpensive Photography,'* by H. W. Hales,

Digitized by VjOOQ IC

Learn also to give time exposures before learning to make
snapshots and carefully study the effects of lights and shadows.
Good composition also is a very important factor in obtaining
artistic effects, and it is largely owing to its absence that so
many snap shots are worthless from a pictorial point of view.
For purely landscape work with a small plate camera a single
achromatic landscape lens, a good steady tripod, a focusing
cloth, and thjc^e or six double holders and plates, the beginner
not only cfin obtain a great deal of pleasure, but he will prob-
ably lay i permanent foundation for much favorable work.
As he gains knowledge of the subject his interest and also the
quality of his work will gradually increase and he will not
have the many misses and failures that beset so many who be-
gin photography at the wrong end. Not only that but he will
find a large saving of cash without any less enjoyment, and it
is to call attention to this fact that these few lines have been

To sum up, therefore, the writer would say that if you have
a taste for photography, by all means indulge in it if possible.
It is a hobby which leaves no regrets, and it has opened up
almost a new life to many a person who already had artistic
ability. The photographs accompanying this article have been
made with simple apparatus in order to show what can be done
with a single achromatic view lens.


Illustrating article "Inexpensive Photography," by H, W. Hales,


Digitized by VjOOQ IC



Digitized by VjOOQ IC

Illustrating article "Bird Hunting With a Camera," by Clarence Bundy.


Jj MONG the varied uses for which we amateurs


use our cameras, none is more pleasing or pro-
ductive of more lasting enjoyment than secur-
ing photographs or picturing the home life
of those birds making their homes with us all
or part of the year. This sport is far ahead of "gunning/*
requiring more skill and perseverance, imparting an intimate
knowledge of birds, besides the added zest of healthful exer-
cise and the satisfaction of having caused no loss of life.

The camera outfit should be at least 4 x 5 in size, with long
l)ellows, and preferably a 5 x 7 lens instead of the regular
4 X 5 as supplied with the camera thus allowing one to secure
a large image without approaching so close as to frighten the


Digitized by LjOOQ IC

Digitized by VjOOQ IC

Digitized by VjOOQ IC

bird. For nests, however, the regular 6 in. lens is best, as
the longer focal length does not allow one to get close enough.
The best time to secure pictures of the birds themselves is
during the incubation and after the nestlings are well grown,
as the parents are then bold and daring. By careful focusing
a large stop may be used, thus allowing a rapid, fully timed
exposure. One thing to be borne in mind is, leave everything
about the nest as you found it. If it is necessary to tie back
two or three branches in order to secure a better view of the
nest, do not fail to restore them to their former places, as
neglect to do so may mean desertion by the parents or death


to the youngsters from the hot sun. And never, never remove
a nest entirely to a different place in order to secure a better
light. If you can't get a proper exposure in the place selected
by the parent birds, do not take it.

One's enthusiasm should never grow beyond a sensible and
human proceeding. I realize this is done.

Two necessary accessories to the bird hunter's outfit is a
small hand mirror and a tilting tripod rod. The mirror al-
lows one to reflect light on dark places in the nest or other
poorly lighted situations. Tlie tripod top can be used to point
the camera downward if necessary, for ground nests, etc., thus
giving an effect as the eye sees, which means naturalness.


Digitized by LjOOQ IC

Unless one is possessed of a good stock of patience, it
would be best to choose some other form of photographic
work, as one must often wait for a long time — at times hours
— for the right condition of weather or for the birds to
assume a proper pose; but any one in earnest will forget this
when he gets what is wanted. The photo of Mrs. Bob White
(Figure i) was secured just when the youngsters were leaving
the shell, and though the lens was within, six feet of her beak
and I moved freely about in front of her^ slie never thought
of deserting her precious babies.

There is much to be said on this subject
to the amateur. Actual experience counts
more than theory in bird photography, as n
rules can be laid down to meet every condit
experience is said to sometimes be a dear
rewards is this line of work are great, to sa
health-giving open air exercise required.

The knowledge acquired, the different
towards birds in general, and the lasting pie;
tures secured recommend bird hunting with the camera as a
true sport, and one unprofancd by thought of injury to any
of our wild creatures.


Illustrating article "Bird Hunting With a Camera," by Clarence Bundy.


Digitized by CjOOQlC

VERMONT FLOWERS c. erwin ayers.


Digitized by VjOOQ IC



I ORE than 20 years ago the enlarging bug bit me,
and the poison is still in my system.

My first experience was with a "fixed focus"
enlarger, which only worked with one size nega-
tive, and was just pointed at the sky, preferably
a northern exposure, and some beautiful work was gotten from
it, but its scope was so limited that I soon made an enlarger
for my 4" x 5" plate camera. This was the most satisfactory
enlarger I ever operated, and was the cheapest, as the total cost
was around $3.00. A soft pine box, 10" x 10" x 12", was se-
cured. Two electric lamp sockets ; 2 60-watt Tungsten lamps ;
a socket plug and few feet double electric cord ; 2 pieces ground
glass 8" X 10", and an assortment of screws, completed the out-
fit that was bought. I had a sheet of bright tin 12" x 36",
which was used as reflector, being bent into parabolic shape for
the purpose. Holes were bored in each end of box, about 3"
from bottom, for the lamp sockets ; this brought the lamps very
near the focus of the parabola, and gave excellent illumination.
White cardboard was also used and .seemed to be quite as good
as the tin. The two pieces of ground glass were placed 8" and
9", respectively, from the bottom of the box. One end of box
and the top frame were screwed on. Camera was attached to
its frame, and the enlarger was ready for business, when
coupled to an electric socket. The results from this enlarger
approached nearer the daylight quality than any other I ever
operated ; hence this lengthy description.

No. 3 was a stock machine, using the diffusion principjle; it
was equipi>ed with extension bellows and bed, easel and easel
frame. The housing was of metal, and it was electrically oper-
ated. Having doubled the bellows extension, lantern slides
could be made from 4" x 5" and 5" x 7" negatives. This was
a fine outfit, but could not be used for D. O. P. enlargements,
which was the only objection to it. Some vandal ruined it,
after stealing most of its fittings.


Digitized by LjOOQ IC

THE CULVERT. warren r. laity.


Digitized by VjOOQ IC

No. 4 was a projecting machine, with 4" condensers, which
made it useless for anything but the smaller negatives. It was
electrically operated, having carbon fingers, which produced an
arc of great brilliancy, making the machine too fast for any-
thing but D. O. P., and not allowing sufficient time for "doctor-
ing*' it. This did not suit me, for I cannot make negatives that
will stand any such treatment. My experience with this
machine was meagre. I regret this, for am sure there were
wonderful possibilities in the machine ; especially would this be
so at this time, when V. P's are so popular, for the small nega-
tives could have been handled without trouble.

This brings me to my present enlarger, which is an "In-
gento", with 6^" condensers, electrically operated. For brom-
ides, a 60-watt Mazda with frosted globe is used. For carbon
black, a 250-watt Nitrogen Mazda, with clear globe, ground
glass being used between it and the condensers. For satisfac-
tory work on D. O. P., a Nitrogen Mazda of about 500 watts
should give good results, in a reasonable time. This machine
should suit the most fastidious. It has fewer faults and fewer
limitations than any enlarger I have ever operated. An F-4.5
convertible anastigmat, of 7" equivalent focus, is used for a
projecting lens, generally wide open. One thickness of cheese
cloth is placed over the lens, for diffused effects.

Have had no experience wath the Mercury Vapor **M"
Tubes, but imagine they approach daylight closer than any
artificial light.

Am convinced that a low voltage, high amperage locomotive
headlight lamp would give superior results, used in any en-

My experience with condensers leads me to believe that they
do better work used with ample diffusion, which can be accom-
plished by placing a ground glass between light and condensers,
very close to the latter. . This almost eliminates granularity and
small defects, such as pin holes and scratches, and softens the
general effect. A frosted, or ground glass lamp globe is an aid
to this. When you lessen the effects of negative imperfections,
by diffusion, you are adding to the pleasure of enlarging, and
removing one of its objectionable features. The ground glass
betzvcen the condensers is not nearly so efficient. Try it.

Let it be understood that I am not posing as an authority in


Digitized by LjOOQ IC







Digitized by VjOOQ IC

this matter; am simply an enthusiast, seeking more light, and
trying to pass on to other seekers things that I ohserve, that
they may eliminate some of the difficulties, and profit by my

Enlarging is a fascinating pastime, that is bound to become
more popular, for the small camera has come to stay, and it
needs the enlarger to increase its usefulness and value. One
does not have to use the expensive enlarger, for any handy
man can make one which will give as good results as the other,
and have the added pleasure of turning out work by means of
his own handiwork. There is nothing better than an enlarger
similar to the one I built. Get this fact into your mind, that,
it is yourself, not the machine, that is the real factor in this
work. Know your outfit, its capacity and its limitations, and
then get out the best there is in it.

My photo work is confined almost entirely to making 1J/2"
X 2j/^" pictures, and enlarging them to 4" x 6". This requires
a bellows extension of about 9" to 10", and the easel from 30"
to 40" from lens board. The exposures vary from i to 15 sec-
onds, on P. M. C. bromide, using the 60-watt, frosted Mazda,
without other diflFusion. The secret of successful and satisfac-
tory enlarging is plenty of properly diffused light, regardless
of its source.

When using condensers, it is very important to have the
center of light on axis of the condensers, and to have the light
placed just where it should be. This can always be ascertained,
by removing negative and carrier, after having focused your
picture on the easel, and then throwing the light upon the easel
through unobstructed lenses. When the light circle is evenly
distributed, and of same intensity over the easel, the source of
light is correctly placed, and you are ready to proceed. It is
wise to re-focus through the negative, before proceeding.
Whenever you change from one size enlargement to another,
this process should be gone through with, for each change calls
for change in position of the light. Condensers give better
results, when no diffusion is used, with a very concentrated
source of light.

Another phase of enlarging, is to make a negative of the en-
largement. Plates, films or paper may be used for this. I pre-
fer a smooth paper for the enlargement, for I can "doctor" it,


Digitized by LjOOQ IC


Digitized by CjOOQlC

and then make a copy on plate or film. Where you have many
prints to make from same negative, or a valuable picture that
you wish to preserve in a larger form, this process solves the
problem. A skilful worker, with stomp, brush and pencil, can
work wonders with an enlargement, from a defective nega-
tive. Any good plate may be used in copying, but the Orthos,
Panchros and Portrait Film should give the better result. It
is very important to have the enlargement evenly lighted, and
the lens well shaded, when copying ; for it is easy to go wrong.
Enlarging is one of many photographic arts that is well
worth while, and will handsomely repay for time and attention
bestowed upon it. Like all other things photographic, it re-
quires cleanliness, system and use of brains.

A YOSEMITE TRAIL. carl kattelmann.


Digitized by VjOOQ IC

ONCE CLOISTERS : edgar a cohfnt



Digitized by VjOOQ IC




rf HERE are times when we get a thin negative
7) that is full of detail, and which we wish to en-
5f large. To do so in the usual way means a flat
jji muddy print which no one wishes to look at.
i^ Some time ago I w^as looking at some neg-
atives of this sort and was going to prepare an intensifying
solution, when it flashed across my mind to try an exposure
through one of my filters. I made a trial print in accordance
with the factor of that particular filter. The result was be-
yond expectations.

Further experiments along the lines of increasing or decreas-
ing the exposure, taught me that practically any kind of results
are possible.

Any filter that increases the exposure from 3 to 30 times will

do, but naturally the denser kinds will give the stronger prints.

This method wnll save workers much bother, and as I have

used it for some time, and made many enlargements by it, I

ofl'er it to the fraternity as an aid to better work.


Digitized by LjOOQ IC

BEAUTIFUL EYES. jared Gardner.


Digitized by VjOOQ IC



,-f F the thousands of people who make a hobby of

photography it is safe to say t

ity of them start their first

the art by using a hand cam

natural for them to think tha
era was invented long after the stand that it
on it, and intended to supersede it.

This is by no means the case as each form of instrument
has its own place and its own limitations. For hasty snap-
shots of street scenes, races, hurdle jumping, and such like
subjects, the hand camera has all its own way, but for serious
and deliberate pictorial work there are many advantages
gained by using a stand camera. Good pictorial work is often
done by the hand camera, as we know, but it is difficult and
takes a cleverer man to do it.

Fortunately there are many good "hand and stand*' cameras
to be had which combine the advantages of both kinds. In pic-
torial work which can be done deliberately and carefully, such
as landscape or architecture, it is best to use the instrument
as a stand camera, viewing and focusing the subject on the
ground glass.

There are many reasons for this. First there is getting the
exact amount of subject on the plate. The small briUiant finder
may be quite correct, but it is only so when the eye is exactly
opposite the central point. Looking at the finder even slightly
from an angle gives a wrong view, and it may turn out that an
important piece is cut off and something unnecessary included.
On the ground glass we see the exact amount which will come
on the plate. Sometimes in taking a landscape a straggling
branch will project into the picture and spoil it. This is per-
haps unnoticeable in the small finder, but can easily be seen on
the ground glass. Or the horizon line in a seascape may come
out sloping w^hen using a hand camera, owing to the difficulty


Digitized by LjOOQ IC

NORMAN DOORWAY. j. f. adnams.



Digitized by VjOOQ IC

of keeping the eye both on the finder and the level at the same

Pictorial effect is often better when one plane is in sharp
focus and the remainder a little out. If we are using a stand
camera we can try this selective focusing until we see just what
we want to get, but if it is a hand camera there is the difficulty
of judging distances, and the impossibility of seeing whether
we have the desired result or not.

It is well known that there is a danger in using a hand cam-
era to photograph a lofty tower or other building, of not keep-
ing the camera level and so getting the vertical lines converging
upwards. This is not so likely with the stand camera, as we
see at once if the lines are converging and can correct them.

When taking a landscape sometimes we judge that it would
be greatly improved if a figure could be got at a certain spot
so as to take off some bareness, or introduce a pleasing bal-
ance of effect. We wait for the figure to come along, some
passing pedestrian or bicyclist, a few cows or sheep or what
not. With the stand camera we have everything focused and
arranged and can give our luidivided attention to placing the
figure when it turns up, but with a hand camera we have to
\yatch for the figure and at the same time see to keeping the
camera level and iK)inted to the subject properly. We perhaps
get confused and either snap the shutter a little too soon, or too
late, and so get the figure in the wrong place.

Some people are much troubled by the idea of the picture be-
ing upside down on the ground-glass screen, that is a detail
which you get used to in a little while and it does not trouble
you at all. Others object to the api)aratus being less portable
than the hand camera, but if one can get better results, a little
more weight in carrying is of no consequence whatever.


Digitized by VjOOQ IC



Digitized by VjOOQ IC

Immrtiit Knmiol jFormtilfirt

In the following section we have gathered together a typical col-
lection of Formulae and Tables, which will assist the photographer
in his every-day work. It will be noticed that makers' formulae are
omitted. These can best be obtained by direct application to the

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 13 15 16 17 18

Online LibraryFrank Munsell Thomas Patrick HughesThe American annual of photography → online text (page 13 of 18)