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all these things the reports of the
United States consular officers are
dealing. Some cover conditions and
cases in just such a way as to serve
the teacher's purpose far better than
could be done by the most carefully
prepared scientific treatise. The pre-
vailing desire and demand for the
consular reports is the best proof
of this fact. And what is true of the
consular reports is just as true of
the work done by the Bureaus of La-
bor, Corporations, Census, Depart-
ment of Education, Agriculture, Law,


It may be superfluous to suggest a
method of using the reports. As a
matter of fact I have no special
method to offer. Each teacher must
be a law unto himself. I have seen
successful results come from the reg-
ular use of the reports JIuch will
depend upon the teachers, much up-
on the students, much upon the sub-
ject being taught. As long as the
subject covered is concerned with
commerce, little or no difficulty will
arise as to the selections to be made,
for these are numerous. Each teach-
er will have his own way of dealing
with collateral reading. The rules
that lead to success along any line of
collateral reading will lead to similar
results in collateral reading designed

[Contintu'd on Page JO.)

f^^f^Ui^/i^M^^fiUu^j^^ ^

Subjects for 5tu&y in tt^e

Science of (Eommerce,

F. O. CARPEXTER, English Higli School.


Two years ago the writer described a
course of study in Commercial Geography
for a single year. The edition of The BUSI-
NESS Educator for that month is now out
of print, but the requests for it are so fre
quent that it seems wise to publish it again
in revised form.


Three recitations per week.

The subjects that should be taught in the
course of Commerce, or Commercial Geog-
raphy, fall into four great classes:

A. Commercial products.

B. Transportation and power.

C. Trade (and its methods).

D. Commercial Geography.

A. Commercial products are those things
which are produced, collected, or made by
man to satisfy his needs for food, clothing
and shelter and to use in the varied forms
of human industry. They are of several

1. Raw materials.

2. Materials in process of manufacture.

3. Finished products.

B. Transportation deals with all the
methods by which men carry or transport

-commercial products or themselves from
one place to another. It is the method by
which the producer is able to sell his pro-
duct to an unknown consumer perhaps
thousands of miles away.
The divisions of the topic are:

1. Power — Man, animal, water, wind,
steam, compressed air, electricity,
engines, etc.

2. Land transportation — means, routes.

3. Water transportation — rivers, lakes,
canals, oceans, marine aids to navi-
gation, sailing vessels, steam ships,

C. Trade — The subject of trade deals with
all the methods by wlxich men exchange
(i. e. "sell") the things they make for the
things they need and want. Its divisions

1. Means of communication; as, mail,
telegraph, telephone.

2. Business methods and aids; as, sten-
ography, typewriting, card index,
advertising, clerks, profit sharing,

3. Mechanism of trade; as, wholesale
and retail stores, commission houses,
negotiable paper, banks, clearing
houses, etc.

4. Natural conditions affecting trade;
as, climate, topography, and ' eco-
nomic conditions of labor, etc.

D. Commercial Geography — This subject
in its true sense is only a comparative
study of nations, their productions, and
their commercial importance and rivalry
in the markets of the world.

It deals with the productions of each
country, the domestic industries, foreign
trade, etc.

The four classes. A, B, C, D, should be
assigned as follows:

The three hours per week should be num-
bered 1st, 2nd, 3rd. and arrange this waj*:

Class A — Commercial Products — 1st
and 3rd hours from September ] to May 1.

Classes B and C. 2nd hour (middle hour)
September 1 to March 1.

Class D. 2nd hour, March 1 to May 1; 1st,
2nd and 3rd hours, May 1 to end of school
yea r.


The subjects which should be studied
under Class A in one year's course are as
follows and should be studied strictly in
the order indicated :
I. Foods:

(a) Cereals, fruits, nuts, vegetables,

sugar, spices, vegetable oils,

gums, etc.

{b) Beef, pork, mutton, poultry,

dairy products, fish and shell fish.

(c) Mineral foods, drugs, etc.

(d) Beverages — tea, coffee, chocolate,
wines, mineral water, ice, etc.

II. Textiles — Cotton, wool, silk, flax,
hemp, etc. Semi-textiles ; as, leather,
rubber, paper, etc.

III. Building Materials — stone, brick,
cement, plaster, wood, lumber, forest
industries, etc. Structural iron and
steel, copper, lead, etc. Glass, china,
paint. Methods of building.

IV. Fuels and Lights— Wood, coal, coke,
and by-products; petroleum and its
products; natural and artificial gas;

V. Minerals and Metals — (not included

in III and IV.)

Abrasive materials, chemicals.

Useful metals=iron, copper, tin, lead,

zinc, etc.

Precious metals=gold, silver, plati-
num, etc.
VI. Human Industries —

(a) Industries — Extractive, trans-
forming, transporting, distribut-
ing, consuming.

{h) Men, who render services, per-
sonal, domestic, social, profess-
ional, productive, public.

(c) Instruments — tools, instruments,
machinery, etc.

Note — Section VI belongs ii
= by human industry that produ




I. Power.

(a) Kinds — Man, animal, water, wind,
steam, compressed air, gas, elec-

{ly) Machines — engines, water wheels,
II. Land Transportation.

(a) Paths, roads, railroads, bridges,

{h) Packs, barrows, sledges, carts,

cars, automobiles.
(c) Railways: 1. Routes and road

bed. 2. Rolling stock. 3. Freight.

4. Methods of operation.
III. Water Transportation.
(a) Rivers and lakes.
{b) Canals.

(c) Oceans: 1. Harbors, docks, break-
waters. 2. Open sea, routes, cur-
rents, winds.

(d) Vessels: Sail, steam, freight,
pleasure, war, etc.

(e) Aids to Navigation: Lighthouses,
buoys, pilots, charts, '• Lloyds."


1. Means of communication: Mail, tele-

graph, telephone, phonograph, sten-
ography, typewriter.

2. Office aids: Card index, *'follow-up"
systems, letter files, new methods,

3. Trade mechanisms, wholesale and
retail stores: Commission offices,
salesmen, employment bureaus, credit,
negotiable paper, banks, clearing
houses, packing and delivering of
goods sold.

4. Government regulations: Tariffs, cus-
tom houses, revenue service, mints,
departments of treasury, agriculture,

5. Natural conditions: Climate, latitude,
topography, economic conditions of
labor, etc.

This division deals with Commercial
Geography in its true sense.
North America:

I. (a) United States: Chief product-
ions, domestic trade, exports.
World markets for U. S. products.
Commercial rivals of U. S. for
world trade.
{b) U. S. Colonies. Alaska, Porto
Rico, Philippines.
II. Canada and Artie countries.

III. Mexico, Central America, West

South America:

IV. (a) East coast and river nations.

(6) West coast and Andean nations.

Europe (Eurasia)

V. Great Britain and colonies.
VI. France and colonies.
VII. Germany and the colonies.
VIII. Russia and Siberia.

IX. Holland and Belgium and colonies.

X. Sweden, Norway, Denmark.
XI. Spain, Switzerland, Italy and col-
XII. Greece and the Balkans.
XIII. Turkey and tributaries.


XIV. Asia Minor and Arabia.
XV. Persia and Central Asia.
XVI. India and Indo China.
XVII. China.
XVIII. Japan.
XIX. Australasia: Australia, New Zeal-
and, Pacific Islands.


XX. Mediterranean States.
XXI. SoudanandCentral Africa (Congo).
XXII. Abyssinia and Eastern Africa.
XXIII. Cape Colony, South and West

These countries are to be studied in the
same manner as the U. S. in Sec. I (a), i. e.
productions, exports, markets, foreign

f^^^ud/n^dy^^i^iu:a^ ^

These countries are lo be studied with strict re-
gard to their importance^in world comnierce, trade
and industry. Questions of politics, race differ-
ences, etc., must be omitted, unless they have some
special bearing on commerce. Those questions,
however valuable and interesting in themselves,
have no place in t


Commercial Geography is placed in the
last part of the year, because the pupil,
after he has learned what the chief, com-
mercial staples of the world are, i. e., foods,
textiles, etc., and their routes and modes
of transportation — is better prepared to
understand the needs and commercial im-
portance of the great rival nations which
continually strive with each other for
mastery and the control of the commerce
and markets of the world.

Before the topics in Class D are taken up
regularly March 1, the class should, in all
cases, be required to study the following
topics. This can very wisely be done in
the early fall, when school begins, wliile
the pupils are fresli and eager, and before
the winter sets in.


Pupils of towns and small cities should
study first their town, its size, shape, pro-
ductions, etc. A map of the town should
be drawn on a scale of four inches to the
mile, showing the forests, farms, villages,
roads, streams, etc. It sliould be divided
into inch squares (each representing a
square quarter mile). Tlie pupils should
make surveys of these quarter miles and
draw a sketch mapof it (B in. square) giving
all important details, fields, crops, etc. The
main points should be copied on the large
school map. (Tlie Commerce and Industry
Outlitie Maps are planned for this work.
Commerce and Industry Co., 50 Bromfleld
St., Boston.) They should then draw a map
of the whole town, scale one inch to the
mile. They should next draw a map
of their state on a scale of 5() miles to the
inch. They will then be ready to begin
with their country, the United States, and
will be better able to understand it, after
this knowledge of their home land.

The study and map of towns and states
should touch political matters as little as
possible. It should consider only the re-
sources, productions and industries of the
town as commercial values to the citizens.

The topics for the year should be as

Numbers mean recitations given to each subject.

TOPICS FOR 1S05-1906
Sept., A — Foods in general, 1; cereals in
general,!; wheat, 4.
B — Power, 3.
Oct.. A — Foods: Corn, 2: oats, barley,
buckwheat, rye. 1: rice, millet,!;
fruits and nuts. !; vegetables, 1;
sugar, 2; oils, spices, mineral
foods, !.
B— Land transportation, 2; water
transportation, 2.
Nov., A — Foods: Beef, 2; pork, mutton,!;
poultry and eggs, 1; dairy pro-
ducts, 1; fish, 1.

C — Trade: Means of communication,
niail, 2; telegraph, telephone, 1;
stenography, typewriting, etc., 1.
Dec, A— Foods, beverages, water, ice, 1;
tea, coffee, cocoa, mate, !; malt,
wines, etc.. 1.
C — Trade: Office aids, card index,
etc.,1: trade methods, 2.
Jan., A — Textiles in general, 1; carding,
spinming, weaving, 1; cotton, 3;
wool, 3.
C — Trade: Methods, 2; Gov't regu-
lations,!; natural conditions, !.
Feb., A — Textiles: Silk,!; flax,!; hemp,
sisal, jute, etc., !.
Semi-textiles: Leather, 2; rubber,
1; paper, !; furs and feathers,
B and C continued or reviewed. Map
drawing, production charts and
graphs, i.
Mar., A — Building materials: Wood, 1;
forest industries, 1; stone and
quarrying, 2; brick, cement, etc.,
1; structural metal, 1; glass,
cliina, paint, 1.
D — Local Geography: Town, 2;
state, 2.
April, A-Fuels and Lights: Coal, 2; pe-
troleum,!; gas,!; electricity,!.
Minerals and Metals, 3; Human
Industries, 1.
D - United States, 3; U. S. Colonies, !.
May, The classes A, B, C. should have been
finished by May !st.
D — The various sections of D, from
II, Canada, etc., to XXIII, are to
be taken in regularorder as shown
above. Sections II to XIX in
May; Sections XX to XXIII in

Three hours per week is less tlian
the program ought to have, but it
is as much as is allowed in most
schools. The course properly
should be given five hours per
week and if that is permitted, the
above program sliould be fol-
lowed, except that A, B, C could
be ended by April !st. and the
additional time spent in a more
detailed study of the different
comtnercial nations.
Reviews should be made in connection •
with regular recitations. The writer's rule
is " A lesson once given out and recited, is
always afterward to be ready, as review,"
and no special revieis' lessons are given.

Tliree theses slrould be required, the first
one on a food topic, by Dec. !st ; the second,
on a textile or other topic in A, by March
1st ; the third on some topic in B, C, or I), by
June 1st. Pupils should be required to visit,
when possible, the place where the subject
of the thesis is made or sold. Tiieses deal-
ing with the local industries of the pupil's
own town should be used if possible.

Charts, maps, and graphs should be used
as much as time will permit. Actual speci-
mens of products, photographs of produc-
tions, industries and places should be used
constantly if they can be obtained.
Teachers who are not prepared to teach in

detail all the topics in Class A, or who do
not cover the ground as fast as planned
above, may condense the topics of minerals
and metals and Industries into single talks
or lectures.

Note —The writer requests and desires the com-
ments and criticisms of his fellow teachors upon
suggested, and would be glad to
reports as to its actual use in the class

Cypewriting-eontinued from Page 21.

justify the teaching of the method.

* * * * It all hinges on the ability
of the average youth to acquire re-
flexes. ***** What light can
psychology' throw upon the sub-
ject? *****"

On July sixth, I received the
following reply :

" I have no ofiiniou on the subject
of your interesting letter of any
scientific value. My iinpression how-
ever, decidedly is that the operation
of a typewriter by the touch method
does come under the rule of acquired
reflexes, and that the average youth
has the ability to acquire "such re-
flexes. * * * "

On July 24, I received the following
letter from Professor Robert Mac-
Dougall, Chair of Descriptive Psy-
chology, New York University :

Dear Sir : Professor Gordy has
sent me your letter, asking me to
add a word or two to his own
answer. * * * * What I have to say
is further simplified by what you
have already said in your own letter
which, in itself, is the gist of what
psychology has to say in the matter.
The transition from laborious effort
to such acquired reflexes is the very
basis of efficiency in any reaction
involving skill. The advantage to be
gained cannot possibly be in doubt.
Increa.sed rapidity is the first result,
but with that comes security and
general absence of friction. In
general we are not said to have ac-
quired skill until this automatism
has been established.

The only question is that which
you mention — whether in regard to a
particular type of acquired reflexes
the labor involved in raising oneself
to the level of action in question may
not be too great to make the training
pay, or whether the capacity to
automatize actions of a particular
kind be common or exceptional. * * *
About the practicability of training
the average typewriter in this method,
* * * I am of the opinion that it
would repay even a very unusual
amount of trouble to master this
form of usage, on account of the
great and unquestionable advantages
which would flow from it."

Let science, then, have the lastword
in support of the contention of count-
less operators who have weighed the
touch method in the balance of ex-
perience and found it not wanting.

VO\[Z\K it comes to 3nt^IIectuaI ZHeat, of tt^e (£om=
mcrcial (Ebucational Branb, tt^e Business (Ebucator
meets a modern neeb.

^^^3Bu4/n^d^^^^/iua/fr ^

The Main Commercial Room of the Columbus, O., Business College. A portion of the Offices sho-s
with Shorthand and Typewriting Rooms in rear.



Of course, the chief business of both
private and public commercial schools is to
teacii business methods. Yet often there
are spare moments \\iiicii can be made of
the utmost value. How? Ky asking some
competent speaker or business man to
address the pupils on a suljject directly
concerned with the course. The courteous
and ready manner in which this inesti-
mable service is rendered without price
shows how close to the hearts of busy mer-
chants, lawyers, and teachers lies the cause
of commercial education. Everywhere a
wide awake, enthusiastic teacher can tind
men who gladly answer such calls.

The matter is presented in an informal,
direct, and plain manner. The talk is made
to the pupils in language that cannot be
misunderstood. The following speakers,
who have spoken before my class, and their
subjects give some idea of the possibilities
which are everywhere to be had for the
asking: Mr. H. C. Spencer gave a graphic
and logical e.xhibition of how to learn to
write as business men wish; Mr. J. C.
Barber gave a forceful talk on commercial
law and usages. .Mr. Barber is a teaclier at
Kryant & Stratton's and is a past master in
his subject. Mr. Gamwell. of the R. I. Hos-
pital Trust Company, explained the prac-
tical working of a modern bank, while Mr.
A. S. lleaney. of the W. I. Commercial
School, talked most interestinglvon "Rapid
Methods of Calculation". Mr M.D.Fulton
discussed and illustrated penmanship in
a manner which held his hearers spell-
bound. Attorney G. A. Littlefield gave a
most inspiring talk before the entire de-
partment on Com.iiercial Law.

The marked advantages to the pupils are:

1st, the impressing of the truths of tlie
classroom; 2nd, evident reality for practi-
cal use of the methods and principles
taught; 3rd, the importance attaciied by
busy men to the school and its lessons.

Mention should be made of the good ac-
complished in keeping alive in the minds
of progressive business men an interest in
the school system. "Where man's heart
is, tliere his interest is," is as true of the
school as of business.

E* C. Ulilev*


itli regret that we announce the
death of r*rof. E. L. Wiley, the junior mem-
ber of the firm of Wiley Bros., proprietors of
the Mountain City Business College, Chat-
tanooga. Tenn.

On the evening of August 2d, Mr. Wiley
left the college office to go to his home, and
in attempting to board a car which passes
the college building, lost his hold and was
thrown under a car following. He was very
badly hurt, and died at the hospital about
two hours after the accident.

A very iuipressive service was held the
followingmorning.after which the remains
were sent to St. Clairsville. Ohio, for inter-
ment. On August 5th at 10:30 o'clock,
funeral service was held at the home of his
mother, and as theclock in the tower^truck
the hour of twelve he was laid to rest beside
his wife, who had died nearly three years

A bright little son not yet three years of
age is now an orphan indeed, but is being
tenderly cared for by loving friends.

Mr. Wiley was born near St. Clairsville.
Ohio. February 29. 18fiO. His boyhood days
were spent near the place of his birth. He

received a good education from the public
school, and at an early age showed marked
talent in penmanship. His writingwas the
wonder of the neighborhood. Until early
manhood the summers were spent in hard
farm work and the winters in attending
school. Although the conditions were
often very unfavorable, he practiced writ-
ing at every opportunity.

When quite a young man he was appointed
clerk in the office of the Probate Judge.
This gave him much knowledge of import-
ant business matters. He afterwards
taught several terms in the common un-
graded schools. His knowledge of business
and skill in pennaanship naturally led him
to the Spencerian Business College, of
Cleveland, Ohio. While completing a
course in this school, he took private les-
sons in writing from Prof. P. R. Spencer,
who was then the leading penman in this
country. He had a high appreciation of the
encouragement and friendship of Mr.
Spencer. After leaving the Spencerian, he
was employed in the Bradford, Pa., Busi-
ness College, was superintendent of writing
in the public schools of Painesville, O., and
afterward manager of the Capital Business
College. Salem, Ore. Following out a plan
which was formed while both were yet
boys, he now became associated with his
brother. J. A., and they purchased the
Mountain City Business College in 1890.
This association continued to the time of
his death, the latter continuing the bus-

Among the prominent business college
men and professional penmen he had inti-
mate acquaintances who highly appreci-
ated his accomplishments. The Penman's
Art Journal recently said of him: "There
are few men in this country who can turn
out better business writing than K. L.
Wiley. His letters are gems."

Cut down in the prime of life, he has gone
from us, but his influence for good remains
with all who knew him.

^^^3Bu^i/u^dyi^dfu:aii7^ ^


Federation and Association Announcements.



President Ulbite*s Bugle Call.

All coniniercial teachers should arrange,
if possible, to attend the Business Sessions
of the Coniniercial Teachers' Federation at
Chicago during holidaj' week. Every year
finds an increasing number at these meet-
ings as the benetits and advantages of sucii
attendance become more and more under-
stood by the members of the Business Col-
lege fraternity. The Executive Committee
is hard at work preparing a program, which
promises to be of special interest and value
to every teacher and commercial school

No teacher who has the best interests of
his students at iieart can afford to miss this
opportunity for the mutual exchange of the
best ideas of the best talent in the profes-

The program will comprise a wide range
of subjects that are of exceptional interest
to every one engaged in commercial work.
Those, who attend, find so much of value
that they never miss the sessions, if pos-

Come and help make this the best ses-
sion ever enjoyed.

W. E.WHITE, Prest.

Cbe 6reat Opportunity of the Business
managers' Association.

There have been periods in the history of
all the great educational movements, when
great impulses have been given, which have
elevated the aims and conduct of the work
throughout the nation.

Primary, secondary, and college and uni-
versity departments, of our educational
forces have all experienced this at various
times in our own land, and the English and
Continental educational worlds have only
recently been stirred to their depths by the
throes of a revolutionary and progressive
change in their educational systems.

Careful observers of THE Bl'SIXESS EDU-
CATOR'S special field are impressed with
the signs of an awakening in our ranks in a
broader and fuller recognition of the oppor*
tunities and obligations we can not avoid
meeting in the near future: opportunities
for greater usefulness in the training of the
thousands of young men and young women,
whom our nation's wonderfully developing
trade and commerce will require from us.

We everywhere have a demand for the
best of our graduates, greatly in excess of
what we can supply.

As educators who have assumed the great
duty of meeting this demand that the na-
tion's progress may not be hindered, we
cannot fail to prepare ourselves by enrich-
ing our courses and increasing the effect-
iveness of our teaching force, and bj- secur-
ing as our patrons a greater number than
ever of the brightest youth of the land.

At every great conference of business
men, this question of the importance and
need of more highly trained young assist-
ants is discussed with great seriousness,
and every encouragement is given to the
Universities to endeavor to supply this de-
mand. The fact that the great body of the
brightest young business men in this coun-
try are graduates of the Business Colleges,
is too often unknown or unrecognized by
these business men, and we have a great
work to do in claiming the recognition due
us, and in receiving the cooperation which
would be so mutually helpful.

Online LibraryFrank OvertonThe Business Educator (Volume 11) → online text (page 17 of 103)