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of the smaller inside oval run parallel to those of the outer oval. Again the flourished ending of the fourth Z drops parallel to the line
just above. Observe the rule that parallel lines are always in harmony.

The small loop connecting the two parts of Q should be rather long and narrow and lie on the base line. If the finishing oval is
thrown below the ruled line, as in the second Q it should be dropped so low as not to interfere with the small letters which may follow.
In the A'and -V the U'shade is modified somewhat. The heaviest part is near the base line and the shade ends almost abruptly. This is
called a "snap" shade There must be a quick release of the pressure upon the pen to make this shade correctly. The second part of A' is
not so tall as the first part. The distance between the two downward strokes is quite narrow. The looped X, number five, is a popular
letter. In this style the heaviest part of the shade is higher as in the U\ The last part of the last ;A' is a small r greatly enlarged. The
-Y is so similar to the X that special instructions are hardlv needed. Notice that the third part of the letter is not so tall as the second

Practice of the small o should help you to get the movement for small letters which I tried to describe in the last lesson. Move from
letter to letter with a free swing of the arm. In making the letter itself, let the hand rest on the little finger, the principle motion still
coming from the arm. The little finger rest is the center of control by which you can restrain and control the more awkward arm move

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tnent and cause it to produce the small forms with exactness. The a is made in just the same way as the o, except that the oval is
made slant more and is pointed atthe top. The o lends itself readily to such flourished exercises as appear in the first line of Plate 8-
These exercises are valuable, for they help the student to maintain a free movement while writinx the .small letters, which is rather a
difficult task forthe amateur. In making the c I make the introductory stroke and the dot, then lift the pen and replace it on the upward
stroke iust below the turn. Many fine penmen lift the pen after the introductory stroke, tlien begin again with the dot. Use the way
in which you can produce the best result. Individuality in such matters is perfectly proper. ITpon some lines of the small letter plates
several words are given. It is intended that you shall take one word at a time and repeat it as tlie word cocoa is written.

The groups of the letter e on Plate !• were each written without lifting the pen. Where the greatest accuracy is desired the pen may be
lifted on the downard stroke. The letters r and ,s are the hardest of the short letters. The point of each is slightly higher than the other
short letters. The shoulder of r should be distinct. The letter may be shaded, if desired. The dot of s is placed to the left of the upward
stroke. Line four of this plate gives another style of r. When the final r is used, the oval should be in a horizontal position.

If any point about these lessons is not made plain, I shall be glad to clear it up for you.

A Good Example of Pen Drawing Sketched from Life hy G. S. Henderson,
New York City-

M^3Bia/n^d4^i^(/iu^air- ^




(T-T-f.^'TT^y _.

Line and Shade by the late C. C. Canan.

W. H. M., Jr. Yon have done very well in
your first efforts from Mr. Doner's lessons.
Of course you did not have time enough to
master the work as thoroughly as you
should, but doubtless by the time the
October number gets into your hands you
will have systematized your practice con-

G. E. H., Columbia. Curvedown stroke in
o more. Finish words more carefully.
Watch spacing between letters. Curvedown
stroke of s more. Also close a.

J. M. S., Penna. Your up stroke of s is too
straight. You need to give attention to the
figures. Your 2 looks like a check mark.
Study the S carefully.

C. V. C. Beat work thus far received on
Mr. Doner's lessons. Keep up the pace you
have started with and you are sure of a pro-
fessional certificate, which means a pro-
fessional hand writing. Curvedown stroke
of o as much as up stroke.

R. F. K., Chicago. Use plainer capitals.
Be more careful in the ending of words.
Sharpen the shoulder of r. Your loops are
too sharp at the ends. You are doing well.

J. R. B., Ark. Your work has a good deal
of the professional swing and accurac3' to it.
If you will follow closely the lessons of Mr.
Doner and Mr. Heath, now running in The
Business Educator, you can easily win
our Professional Certificate by next spring,
which we hope you will conclude to do.

B. H. H., Jamaica. You are doing quite
well. Your capitals are in good shape. They
are now up to our requirement for a certifi-
cate. You will do well to give attention to
the small letters, and bring them up to the
capital scratch.

eriticisms By F. S. Heath.

A. W. C, N.J. You have done finely for a
home student. The work you sent is the
best received ao far. Your small letters are
quite accurate, but a little too angular in
some places. Last part of ii and in are tal-
ler than the first part in much of your work.
Try to remedy this. The oval at end of in-
ner should swing out farther to the right.
Capitals are strong and generally well form-
ed. You curve first stroke of D too much.
Send ^ork regularly.

E. L. C, X. C. Your small letters are very
good and have an easy, graceful appear
ance. They would he greatly improved if
they were more uniform in size. Capitals
are not so good, lacking strength and finish.
Give them special attention, comparing
your forms with the copy often. Shall be
glad to hear from you frequently.

A. E. C, Pa. To do the most in the quick-
est time you should work with more system.
One form of H and several words in your
practice paper were not from my copies*.
Take each copy and work from it carefully
and presistently until you see improve-
ment- Then send me your best work. Do
not think there is no merit in your work be-
cause of what I have said. You have a good
start and should make a good ornamental
writer by careful study and work. I want
to hear from you again.

M. N. S., Pa. You write a good business
hand and should master the ornate with-
out difficulty. Practice a great deal on
bold shaded exercises until you get the
ability to cut smooth shades. You need to

develop more movement power than you
use in order to do smooth graceful work.
Use more care in the small letters. Orna-
mental writing is more carefully written
than business writing. Come again.

J. R. N., O. Your work shows skill and
that you are on the right track. The move-
ment exercises are well executed. O is too
round. It should be only two thirds as wide
as tall. Oval of D is too far from first part.
Get a true couipound curve for the stroke
that connects the two parts of H. The full
final ovals should be horizontal aud so
thrown that the ruled line passes through
their center. The low final oval should drop
entirely below the line. I shall expect to
see improvement in your ^vork each month.


Automatic Shading Pens and Inks are
acknowledged to be the best made. We in-
vite comparison with other makes. Send
for Catalog.

40 De«rborn Street Chicago. 111.


A Business College— Good chance for a
live school man. Situated in a clean city
—no saloons. Good towns, and country sur-
rounding to sustain a business school.

Bedrock price— Terms Cash— Possession
at once. Address

Farina. Illinois. Box 277



"Cl^at Zrian is tl^c Best €bucatc5 IDl^o is tl^c ITTost



M^^u^i/n£d^<^/fu^f/i^ *

I)ausam Items.

Mr. L. H. Hausam, the progressive teacher
in tlie Salt City HusinesB College, Hutchin-
son, Kans., and proprietor of Hausam's
School of Penmanship, recently reported of
his pupils as follows:

E, L. Keller hecomes th» penman and
principal of commercial department of
Way's School, Aberdeen, S. D, Mr. Keller is
a y^>ung married man of good appearance
and has the material in him to go to the

E. B. Clark is the penman and assistant
commercial teacher in the Topeka, Kans.,
Business College. He is well on the road to
master penmanship and turns out some
really good work. He is a bright, fine look-
ing fellow.

E. E. Bohl is the penman in the Pittsburg
Business College He is very energetic and
will make a good showing for himself. He
will assist in the commercial department
but will devote most of his time to penman-

S. E. Maish becomes principal of the com-
mercial department of the Pittsburg, Kans.,
Business College. He is a strong fellow and
will do good work as the successor of another
studentof mine, W. O. Crosswhite, who goes
to Sandusky, O.

C. E. Wright becomes principal of the com-
mercial depart men toft he Ouachita College,
Arkadelphia. Ark. He is an all around man
—commercial, shorthand and penmanship,
and a bright fellow.

Carl L. Swenson becomes the penman in
the Concordia, Kans., Xormal and Business
t'ollege. Mr. Swenson is a good penman
and very enthusiastic. He will be heard
from. He has had several year's experience
teaching common school.

This is a fine record for Mr. Hausam and
we congratulale him upon the success he is
achieving and the enthusiasm he is arous-
ing in matters pertaining to penmanship.

Do y

ou wan

t good



Then trv n



SI .iiialitv of ca

ds. Sa

nil.- do/ell f.j


Postpaid to

any nai 1

..1 til.' world .

laniental Capif







all specimen o




W. Manuel. B

r.x 889.

Ind. HsLrbor,


or 3407 Grapevi

ne Street.


Ix ,rlinl II nl,,' it Thix mr,i,iH null shoiilil hiirr

(l.,„,l ii,str,i„ie,ils. Tliia uuilht In lie ,;mrincln<i.
li. K. Roach, Oakland, Oal., Sept. 3,1907

Dear Sir: Your Oblique California Rosewood
penholder is the best I have ever used.

It 16 in every way highly Professional, and
worth many times what you charge for it.

You may soon expect a large order from me.

THE ADJUSTMENT iif tliiu holder has never been
eqitaluil TheJiHinli in iiUii Hujierior. Send 36c and
ijet II Kixmpir Special ralea bu Ihe doz. or hundred.


Care of Vashon Mil. Ac&d. Burton. Wash.


The Ureal Work of Heiepce in Penmansliip.
The New EdHcation in Penmanship $1.00

The Art of Reading Character in Hand-
writing Graphology - - .25

,\ new Scientific Oblique Pen Holder, Hau-
sam's Idea, Hand Carved. Substantial,



Same as above but extra long - $1.00
Ornamental Capitals, HcientificaUy Ar-
ranged - - .2.5

Catalog. Journal and a written card free.



Frank Arthur Tjarnell,
Mr. and Mrs. A. Tjarnell.
< Holyoke. Mass.

On August 17th a baby boy weighing S'i
lbs., arrived at the home of Mr. and Mrs.
H. W. Strickland, Wilmington, Del,, which
was promptly labeled William Bancroft
Strickland. Mr. Strickland has charge of
the penmanship work in (Joldey College,
and we s.incerley hope that this new assist-
ant of his will add joy to his work.

Born to Mr. and Mrs. H. G. Phelps. Boze-
man, Mont., Aug. 19th, 1907, a fine baby girl.

The Business Educator hereby extends
heartiest congratulations and sincere well-
wishes to the parents and the new census

Mr. J. F. Caskey, Commercial Department,
Haverhill. Mass.. High School, swings a pen
far, far above the average commercial
teacher. The cards before us possess a dash
and accuracy quite pleasing to the eve.
And when it comes to getting results on the
part of pupils, he steps right up in the front
ranks of teachers.

Mr. S. C. Bedinger, penman in Hill's Busi-
ness College. Sedalla. Mo., swings a pen of
uni]sual strength and grace as shown by
specimens recently received from him. We
hope to present some of his work before long
in these columns^

A number of very well written cards in or-
namental style have been received from the
well known card writer. W. A. Bode. Fair
Haven, Pa. Mr. Bode's work undoubtedly
highly pleases his very large number of
customers, which number we iinderstand
is still increasing.

I will writ* your PADflC
name on one doten wHnUO
for 15c.

I will give free a pacli of lam-
ples and Bend terms to agents
with each order«nta 'Wek.nted.

err best blanli
Sample 1(X)
Card Circular
- red stamp .


l(Xi postpaid, 23c. Leas for more. Ink, QloHBy Black
or Very Best Whit*. I5c. per bottle. 1 Oblique Pen Hol-
der, 10c. Qillott'i No. 1 Pens. 10c. per doz. Leisoni in
Card Writing. Circular for stamp.

W. A. BODE. Box 176. FAIR HAVEN. PA.




Is Superior to All Others,



20 to 50 per cent, shorter,
more le^ble. and can be

in Half tKe Time.

^^ilK tKis Syatem it is

"Dictation from Start to Finisli.

Sample Copy ani Mail Instructions

to Shorthand Teachers. $1.

Ferguson Shorthand Co.


f)oiv to Engross a $et of Rcsolu:

tions $ucb as Sbown on tbc

Opposite Page,

by the Editor.

We have had numerous requests for a les-
son in simple engrossing and we have con-
cluded to give something along that line.

By way of material we use .Soennecken
pens for lettering, Zanerian Fine Writer
pens for the script, and Zanerian liquid
India ink for the lettering, and the same
greatly diluted for the script. By way of
paper we use a good grade of bonfl or card-

Before beginning work on a resolution,
thought needs to be given to the work, as to
which portion to emphasize by placing the
same in large lettering and which to sub-
ordinate by putting in small script.

In the lettering, as well as in the script,
much attention needs to be given to spac-
ing in and between the letters.

Defective spacingmars not only the beau-
ty of the page but interferes with the read-
ing. There is no rule that you can follow
very successfully in spacing, except that
you try to keep apparently the sameamount
of space between each letter, and a little
more between words than between letters.

The reason spacing is empasizeil here so
strongly is that pencil head and base lines
are used to regulate the size of the letters
but space lines can not be used to advan-
tage. In order that the lettering be perfec-
tly vertical and script uniform in slant, ver-
tical pencil lines may be drawn with the T
square for the head lines, and with the
triangle for the script.

It would be well for you to recognize the
fact that accuracy in every little detail is
not as important as uniform width of line
and uniform spacing. Of course, with a be-
ginner precision is one thing that should be
striven for, but not at the expense of uni-

The lettering as shown on the occompany-
ing resolution was first made with the .Soen-
necken pen and then trued by straighten-
ing the edges with a rule, and then by re-
touching the shoulders or projecting points
free hand. For the lettering and re-touch-
ing we use a straight holder, but for the
script a specially adjusted oblique holder
should be used.


HAND CUT Per 1000 Per 3000 Per Saiu

3 Ply, Wedding Bristol, 10.7,5 e2.10 «3.2.')

6-Ply, Wedding Bristol. 95 2.7U 4 25

3 IMy. Black Cards, S.'i 2.40 3.75

3 Ply, Colored Cards. 85 2 40 3.75

These cards sent by express. The following cards

sentiments. 24 styles. lOU, 25c. Serial C: Ilower
inents. 12 styles, 100, 25c. Serial D. reliidous mottoes,
12 styles, 100,25c. Serial E: with fancy borders, 12
styles. KX), 25c. Comic cards, great sellers. 12 styles,
IIX), 25c Written cards, sample dozen, with Agents
Prospectus 15c. Send for new Manual and pri^e list.
All orders promptly flUed. Send today.






am the man who won the
World's First Prize In Peii-
miiTiHhlp. By my now system I can
make an expert ppnman of you by
mail. Am placing my students as
Instructors in commercial colleges.
If you wish to become a better pen-
man write mo for full particulars.
I will send you FREE one of iiiv

uake of PenN and a co]
D Journal.


,^^3Bu^^/n^^^^^f/iu^aUr^ ^

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/r,/ ^virsolurtt, //zW^rr ///<



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M^^udmm/i^(/uai/i^- ^




^^ tr

M. Grove,



Cesson Cwo.

The shaded stroke of e, f, o and a are the
same. .Study the position of these shades.
The e is finished by making the loop stroke
downward, slightly shading it will add
strength. Make dot of c round. Make last
thick part of o long and narrow Do not
slant oval part of n too much. You will find
the rand s difficult letters. Do not get too
much slant in the up stroke, and watch the
width of the letters; about one third as wide
as high. The second style of r is used in the
body of a word, or as final, finished with a

In practicing words, study spacing and
keep your work compact. When holding
your work at a distance, so that the light
lines cannot be seen, a word should look like
a series of strait lines on the same slant and
the same distance apart. When n follows
o, do no get the spacing too wide.

Aim to secure nice, rounding turns and
smooth, uniform strokes.


I advertise to write cards. I have been practicing for
several years under the best instructors trying to excel.
A short time agro I sent each card writer advertising in
this paper lils price for a dozen cards and was surprised
to find that my own work was superior to any received.
If you want cads, profit by my experience and get the

ntirely satisfactory. Agents wanted.

L#eek.i-n. Hoi^r to Spr«e^€l Ink..

We have had thousands of compli-
ments passed on our card writing.
Send 'J5 cents for 1 dozen cards and 40
reasons why we knowr how to spread
ink. Don't hang on to old ideas but get
the new.

Office at Mt. Carmel, 111..
Cor. 4 and Poplar Bldg. 331.

W H Y ""^^^ '^^* " ^°^" -^"^^^ written

cards {any style) for 25c or 1()0
for $1.00, all postpaid. 1,000
^^^^^^^ blank white cards, fine qual-
ity 3-ply. 70c: or same card
1 ply, 80c. Send 20c for a sample 100. Les-
sons by mail. Catalogue free. Address,
Room 15. Union Block.
IStK and Farnam Sts.. OMAHA, NEB.





For Teachers and Pupils,

By D. W. MOFF,

SuPKRVisoR OF Writing,
Lawrence, Mass.

Original Investigation or €xpcri=
mental Drills.

Some months ago I promised a verbatim
report of some of our experimental drills.
Pursuant to this I enlisted the services of a
stenographer. Herewith is a report in full
of two experiments, numbers 1 and 2, which
will give a good idea of the plan which
teaches by asking. The principles under-
lying this plan are by no means new to the
pedagogical world. It was thus that So-
crates taught the youth of ancient Athens
—by asking, not by telling. By so asking
as to lead the pupil to discover the truth.
Leading modern educators pronounce it one
of the most effective methods in vogue.

I first adapted tlie Socrates method to the
teaching of penmanship in 1887. In the
course of a model lesson given in 18S8 at the
Cedar Rapids^meetingof the ''Western Pen-
man's Association" — the parent organiza-
tion of the "Business Educator Asso-
ciation "I put its members through a
few of these same stunts. Some of my
readers may recall it .

During these twenty years I have found
no other device or plan so fruitful in its
permanent benefits to the thoughtful stu-
dent as this. I find that once a pupil has
worked a thing out for liimself he is less
apt to forget it, and really understands it
better. Consequently his efi'orts are intel-
ligently expended.

Believing that experiments numbers 1
and 2 will make the plan sufficientlj' clear
as to the method of questioning classes, I
shall but briefly suggest similar lines of
investigation in the subsequent outlines.
Thus we avoid the needless waste of valu-
able space in these columns. Any number
of other experiments may be tried with

experiment number 1.


Teacher.— "I wish you to discover, each
for himself, the strongest and best way to
sit when writing, and why.

"Extend your feet forward, lean backward,
and stretch out the arms until nearly
straight. While sitting thus write a<s best
yoj! CHii the word mountain. As you write
be careful to note whether this position

makes it easy or hard to manage the arm.
Keady-write. (After two minutes.)

"Attention! Incline the body forward.
Draw the feet back under the chair, with
only the toes touching. Observe how the
arms are doubled up at the elbow. Notice
how much weight this position throws upon
the arms. Let us write the same word
again, and see if this position makes it
hnrdcroT eusier to use and manage the
arm. Ready —write! (After another trial.)
"Attention ! Sit erect. Feet flat upon the
iloor, just under the knees. Back strong.
Left arm resting firmly, and right arm
lightly upon the desk. Elbows just back of
the edge. Let us see how we can manage
the arm while sitting in riiis position. Take
the same word. Keady— write" {After a
third trial.)

"Pens down! Just close your eyes until
you hear the signal "eyes open." James is
peeping! That isn't square!

"You who found it easier to manage the
arm while in theflrst position may raisethe
hand." (Xo hands.)
"While in the second?" (No hands.)
"While in the third ?" (All hands up.)
"You who could see no difference?" {No
"Eyes open !"

"Why did ^e vote with eyes closed ?"
James.— "So we could think better."
Henry.— "So we wouldn't see how the
others voted."

Teacher.— "Henry's is the exact and only
reason. I notice that when the vote is
taken with the eyes open, some let others
do their thinking for them. They wait to
see what the others think before voting
themselves. With this plan, you see, each
must use his own thinking machine, as he
can't see how the others vote."

Experiment number 2.


"Take hold of your right wrist with your
left hand. Are the wrist muscles tliick or


Teacher.— "Feel of the right arm just be-
low the elbow. Are the muscles there
thicker or thinner than at the wrist ?"

Online LibraryFrank OvertonThe Business Educator (Volume 13) → online text (page 17 of 89)