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written impulsively, that he would on
reflection see, as a matter of justice
to himself, that an apology should be
made and so on. The apology came
by next mail, and all were happ>\
The soft answer had turned away the
wrath.

The best suggestion I can make for
dealing with abusive letters is to let
them rest a day before replying. By
that time you will be able to take a
good-humored, rational view of the
matter and smile at the things that
the day before made you hot under
the collar.

Just remember that when the other
fellow has made you mad he has suc-
ceeded in his purpose. Even if he
does succeed, don't give him the sat-
isfaction of knowing it. Your own
satisfaction in knowing that you



treated him better than he deserved,
that you are too big a man to be sup-
ersensitive or to return petty insults,
will more than repay you for the loss
of the very temporary pleasure you
would have had in "throwing it into
him."

Oi course you know how pleasant
it is to go into a store or an office, to
receive considerate attention and to
get a hearty "thank you." It's just
the same way in business corres-
pondence. No matter how small the
favor, never fail to write your court-
eous acknowledgment. It need not
be long. Just a sentence or two will
usually do, but do try to write that in
a natural style, so that it will be re-
ceived as a true reflection of your
feelings. By "natural", I mean a
style that is devoid of hackneyed ex-
pression. Say "Thankyou," "Ithank
you for your attention," "We appre-
ciate your thoughtfulness", "If we
can ever do anything out here for you
please let us know" or anything rath-
er than the greatly worn expressions
such as "Thanking you, we are,"
"Trusting to receive your further val-
ued favors," etc. Remember that the
better class of correspondents nowa-
days laugh at these old nest-egg ex-
pressions. You never use them in
conversation. Why use them in writ-
ten conversation— which is all that a
letter is?

As I write of courtesy, I think of a
Western correspondent of mine from
whom there always comes a prompt,
courteous reply, no matter how un-
important the subject. Although I
did not for years meet the man, I
formed an impression from his let-
ter.s— as we do of all our correspond-
ents—that he was a most business-
like, sincere man. When I did meet
him in later years, my mental pic-
ture of him did not have to be
changed.

Said the President of the great
Chemical Bank of New York: "If I
could speak the language of twenty
nations, I should preach courtesy in
them all."

Even when it is necessary to be
firm, there is something to be gained
by being gentlemanly.

Courtesy is one of the greatest of
business assets; and it costs nothing
to possess it.

(Editor's Note. Only people who have a great
deal of correspondence with a large number of
people covering many years of time can fully
appreciate the valued importance of the above
communication- Teachers will do well to read
the article to their students. It will bear rich
fruit and may save some person sad experi-



^^J^SBud/nfU^^OuaOfr ^




METHODS IN



ARITHMETIC

Q. M. VAN TrVL,

OS Wdsl- ISSth St., New York City, N. Y.



=^



■^J



$8 90 = 2m'nt's. int.



INTEREST CONTINUED.

Last month I stated the four fun-
damental principles of interest solu-
tions by what is commonly called the
bankers' method. I also jj^ave some
examples and illustrations in which
60 days and 6 days were the founda-
tions of our solutions. The time in
the several examples given last
month was in each case some easy
fractional part of 60 days or 6 days.

My purpose, in this article, is to ex-
plain those solutions in which the
time may be any number of days, or
years, months and days.

First, I will consider a few cases in
which we have any number of days
less than 60. Take for instance the
finding of the interest on $1,200 for 37
days at 6 per cent.

$1 200 = 6 days' interest.

7 20 =36 "
20 = 1 "



$7 40 - 37 "
$12 00 = 60 days' interest.



00 = 30
20= 6
20= 1



$7:40 = 37 "

In this case the number of days, 37,
is not a convenient fractional part of
60. It is then necessary to separate 37
days into such numbers as are multi-
ples and divisors of 6 days, as in the
first solution, or into such numbers
as are convenient fractional parts of
60 days, as in the second solution.

Just at this point students will need
a little drill in determining what com-
bination of numbers of days are best
to use. No set rule, however, can be
given, each student studying out his
own combinations.

Practice on the following will help.

Separate the following numbers in-
to groups of numbers each of which
shall be a convenient fractional part
of 60 days.

41 days , 30 days i of 60 days

41 days = -^ 10 " Mi " " "
/ 1 " MO
^30 " \



10



56 days -



45 davs



20 "
6 "


1-10 •




30 "


\


' "


15 "


i


' 30


etc.







In the following numbers it is gen-
erally better to form such groups as
will contain multiples of 6 days and
fractional parts of 6 days.

Thus :

4yaays - J iday, i of 6 "



97 ,, „ f 24 days, 4x6 "
-' - \ 3 " i of 6 '•

IQ .. _ I 18 " 3 X 6 "
^^ - \ \ day, i of6 "

36 days = 6 v 6 days,
etc.

Practice will soon make clear to
each student what is best to use in
each case.

From such problems as the follow-
ing the teacher can learn if his pupils
have grasped the idea presented in
the above exercises :

Find the interest at 6% on:
$ 320 for 33 days $ 1,300 for 16 days



640 '


' 18 ■'


1,150 "


18 "


960 '


' 13 "


1,800 "


59 "


1,000 •


• .39 "


2,400 "


.32 "


1„S60 •


45 "


450.60


17 "


3,000 '


27 "


213.60


11 "



When the time is more than 60 days
the method is exactly the same as for
numbers of days more than 6, i. e. we
use multiples of 60 days the same as
we do multiples of 15 days.

Take $.365 for 298 days at 6"„.

$3|65 =60 days' interest.



]4i60 =240 "


" =4 60 days


11825 = ,30 "


" =iof" "


12166= 20 "


" = 4 " " "


365 = 6 ■'


" =1-10" "


1216= 2 "


" = J of 6 "



18 1282

$18.13 = interest for 298 days 6"o.
Drill on the following :
Find the interest at 6% on:
?290 for 160 days $ 750 for 100 days



320 '


• 180 "


850 '


• 93 "


298 '


' 220 "


940 '


101 "


445 '


' 113 "


760


• 116 "


645 '


' 75 "


1,250


' 87 "


836 '


' 90 "


1,500


• 147 "



.Students sometimes experience a
little difficulty in their first attempts
to apply this method to problems in
which the time is expressed in years,
months and days. This makes it
necessary to emphasize the fact that
for the purpose of reckoning simple
interest 60 days and two months are
the same, so that in finding the inter-
est on f890 for 9 months and 15 days,
we say that pointing 00^2 places gives
the interest for two^months, thus :



days



4 ■,
\ of



42275

$42.28 = interest for 9 months and
15 days.

In case the time is longer than 1
year change the years and months to
months before finding the interest.
Find the interest on $1,460 for two
years, 6 months, 20 days at 6 per cent.

2 years, 6 months = .30 months.
114 60 = 2 months' int.



219 00
4 866



15 X 2 mo.
Jof " "



223 866

$223.87 = interest for 2 yr., 6 mo.,
20 days.

Find the interest at 6% on :
$84.25 for 8 months. 12 days.
75.00 " 9 " 15 "

68.32 " 3 " 22 "

245.50 " 1 year, 6 months, 25 days
627.13 "1 "9 " 13 "
1,369 72 "2 "3 " 14 "

By far the greater number of inter-
est solutions in business are prob-
lems in which the time is a short pe-
riod, hence the greater amount of
time and space devoted to it.



§.T. W. D. Grant, whose por-
trait appears herewith and
who will conduct the coniins
year in these columns, the
department devoted to ad-
vertising, was educated at
Alliany, N. Y., Academy,
and Amherst, Mass.. College
( B. A. Coursei. and belongs
to Delta Upsilon fraternity.
He lias been engaged in pnlilishing and adver-
tising work the past eight years in Boston and
New York City. He was advertising manager
of Hapgoods — "the national organization of
lirain brokers." While there he learned much
concerning employment comlitions. and gtiined
not a little of material nserl in his big-selling
book entitled "How to Market Aliility."

He was subscription manager of the Butterick
Publishing Co.. handling two hundred and fifty
girls and over 3,000 oon names, on the mailing
list of the Delineator, Designer and New Idea
magazines. Later on he w.is circulation manager
of the Physical Culture magazine, and is at
present advertising and publicity manager of a
large real estate concern doing extensive busi-
ness in all of the large cities in this country.

During the coming year in the Business
Educator he will endeavor to teach managers
and proprietors of schools to prepare their cata-
logues, etc., to buy printing to the liest advan-
tage, to do their own advertising generally, and
to help them to teach their pupils some of the es-
senti.dsof advertising. In other words, he will
try to tell our reailers some of the things he ha<l
to lind out in the school of experience. Mr.
( jrant is a believer that every man shcndd direct
his own advertising, rather thaji to turn it over
to someone less familiar with, and consenuently
less interested in, the business.



f^^^ud/n^yi^dfu^i^ffr* ^



23




TYPEWRITING

H. BBEITENSTEIN,

Abbott Business College,

BILLINOS, MONT.



^ /f '



- ^



In one of my previous articles I
mentioned that I felt that I had about
exhausted the discussion of the var-
ious phases of typewriting as they
relate to the teacher, so you can im-
agine my surprise when I received
more letters of inquiry last month
than ever before. It was my inten-
tion when I took charge of this de-
partment to answer these inquires
through the columns of The Busi-
ness Educator, but the questions
usually asked concerned topics that 1
had discussed in earlier numbers of
the magazine, and I, therefore, refer-
red those seeking the information to
previous numbers of the Educator,
or answered them direct by mail.

I recently received a letter, howev-
er, that I think will afford me a good
subject to discuss this month, for 1
am sure that every teacher has had
the same question asked him many
times. An extract from the letter is
given herewith. "Will you please
tell me the easiest way to acquire
speed in typewriting? (The italics
are mine.) I have been a stenograph-
er for about two years, and do not
feel that I have the speed that I
should have in typewriting."

Now, teachers, this is a question to
which we should give some careful
thought and one which it would be
well to speak of occasionally in the
class room— not that there is an easy
way to get up speed on the typewrit-
er, because no one has yet discovered
it, nor ever will; but because this is
the //«;'(/«/ feature of the shorthand
course, and certainly the hardest
feature should have the most atten-
tion.

It may be that the one who asked
the question was never a student in
a business college, although this is
hardly to be expected nowadays as
the business public is so rigid in its
demands that one can not perfect
himself at home as was once possible;
he must go to some up-to-date busi-
ness school where the teachers are
keeping abreast of the times by con-
tact with the large business houses,
banks, etc, studying their methods
and learning what is required of a
Stenographer or bookkeeper. So if



we take it for granted that this F. B.
who signed the letter mentioned
above is a graduate of a business col-
lege, then it is evident that some
teacher failed to tell him that there
was no easy way to acquire speed in
typewriting, and hence I am justified
in writing this article.

I would advise that even the suc-
cessful stenographer, and certainly
the advanced student, should prac-
tice the fing'ering exercises over and
over again hundreds of times until
each finger knows the key it should
strike. Then all that is necessary is
some more pains-taking, thoughtful,
and accurate practice.

We might learn a lesson from the
great pianists who spend from four
to eight hours every day merely prac-
ticing runs and scales. A good vocal
teacher does not start his pupils sing-
ing songs. In fact it will be months
before the simplest arrangement is
attempted. The time is spent in vo-
calizing, placing of tones, etc. The
rest is easy. If we can induce our
students to master fingering, then
they can begin to think of speed, or
rather they will not have to think of
it for It will take care of itself.

I say "induce our students", be-
cause it is iny opinion that typewrit-
ing like spelling depends more upon
the student himself than upon the
teacher. Of course, there must be a
teacher to point out the right way, to
require a certain amount of work,
and to give advice and inspiring
talks upon the subject; but after
all the student must do the real
work, inust practice, Practice, PRAC-
TICE.

Concerning the inquiry that I re-
ceived from California relative to the
Underwood typewriter, I will say
that I do not know of any way of ad-
justing the ribbon feed so that the
ribbon need not be removed for cut-
ting a stencil. It is compaiatively
an easy operation to remove the rib-
bon on this particular machine, and
as far as I know this is the only way
it can be handled.

(The above article was written for the May
lumiberofthe B. E. Imt came too late for that
number owing to Mr. Breitenstein's serious ill-
ness (Itirinfc March and April caused by a long
siege of appendicitis.)



^



COMMERCIAL TEXTS AND

TEACHING,

A Criticism by C. T. Cragin,

Manager. Thompson's Institute,

Holyoke. Mass.



^^



-J



I have just received a nicely printed,
brown covered pamphlet containing
a large amount of interesting infor-
mation about the cost of doing busi-
ness in commercial schools. This
pamphlet tells how much it costs to
get business, how much it costs to
house a student, to teach him, to fur-
nish him a typewriter. And from it I
learn that the average Class A schools
of this country, that is, schools in
cities of 200,000 and upwards, are los-
ing 26c a month on every student
they take, while the Class B Schools,
in cities of less than 200,000 inhabi-
tants are making 27c a month. If
this reoort is true, and I wouldn't
think of questioning the reliability of
the committee on tuition, it is indeed
a cheerful prospect for the proprie-
tors of class A schools and shows
why the teacher who averages over
.■flOO a month sometimes has to wait
for his salary, and explains in some
measure why even the proprietors of
class B schools are seldom afflicted
with gout or killed in seventy iniles
an hour automobile smash-ups.

But what particularly interests me
in this brown covered pamphlet is the
very able 11 page article entitled,
"Why lengthen. Why Strengthen the
Bookkeeping Course," by my friend,
J. A. Lyons, the hustling publisher
from Chicago. Mr. Lyons says, "Is
it possible for schools so to train pu-
pils in the science and in the art of
bookkeeping that they can pass from
the school room to the office and
there do acceptable work as a book-
keeper, and without passing through
a long probationary period." And
then, he assumes, for the time being,
that our answer is yes, and proceeds
to ask: Second, "What do you con-
ceive to be the purpose of yourcourse
in Bookkeeping? Is it to give disci-
pline to the inind— to train for clerk-
ships and office boy positions, or is it
to enable you graduates to attain the
highest possibilities of a thorough
course such as is conteinplated in
question one?"

I am very well aware that the edu-
cational world is not waiting with
breathless eagerness to hear from
me on this subject but I like to say
things once in a while just for my
own gratification even if they don't
amount to much, and while I agree
with pretty much everything Mr.
Lyons says about the shortcomings
of present business college courses
in bookkeeping and the desirability
of improving conditions, yet I am
afraid I cannot subscribe to the idea
that the business college ever did or



f^^'^u^i/wU^^dui^aXf?^ ^



ever will, directly, supply any great
percentage of the first class book-
keepers of this country.

A good deal of water has run under
the bridge since I had my first expe-
rience with business colleges, and I
have seen the growth of the modern
business college almost from its be
ginning. There were no shorthand
students in this country 30 years ago,
at least none to speak of. It was all
bookkeeping. I was 22 years old when
I went to business college, and I was
one of the younger set at that. There
were plentj' of men in the big East-
man college at Poughkeepsie, gather-
ed from all parts of the fTnited States,
Canada and South America, and they
were all ages from 18 to 50, very few
under 18, the majority of them over 21.

Within recent years I went into a
big school in Mr. Lyons' own city of
Chicago. They said they had over
2, .500 students that year. Many of
the girls wore pigtails down their
backs and lots of the boys were in knee
breeches. Not many of the husky
fellows of my day went direct from
the business college to become book-
keepers in the big offices of the coun-
try, very few indeed, though lots of
them got positions as bookkeepers in
the smaller business houses of that
day.

The bookkeeping of that time was
not less complicated than the book-
keeping of the present day, indeed I
think it was rather more complicated.
For it is a mistake to think that all
the multitude of detail that goes with
modern bookkeeping makes the book-
keeping more complicated, on the
contrary the object of pretty much all
this detail is to make the mere book-
keeping more simple, but modern
bookkeeping needs much more of
mathematics and of the ability to
reason and classify and think for it
shows a good deal more, than did the
bookkeeping of 30 years ago. It
seems to me that our aim at the pres-
ent time in the school-room, with the
class of material we get to work up-
on, is to simplify rather than to com-
plicate our bookkeeping course. I do
not know what the rest of the schools
of this country are getting, but I
have had a school experience extend-
ing over various widely separated
sections of this big countrv, and I
have found the same conditions
everywhere, perhaps a little aggra-
vated in late years.

A lot of city students whose knowl-
edge of arithmetic is pretty nearly a
minus quantity and with almost no
reasoning power whatever. The
country boys and girls are better in
this respect, they are better in
mathematics and their reasoning
power is better. I may be away out
of date when I express the opinion
that not one boy out of five who goes
to the business colleges of this coun-
try can be made an absolutely first-
class accountant by any process



whatever. Girls are better up to a
certain point. They will do clerical
work more readily and more accurate-
ly than boys, but, when you reach a
certain point, then they stop. Possi-
bly if we could have the boy the same
length of lime that it takes to make a
Chartered Accountant in Scotland,
seven years, we might make a book-
keeper capable of handling the ac-
counts of the Standard Oil Company
or any other big corporation.

The English Accountant and the
German Accountant goej through a
course pretty nearly as extensive and,
naturally, when he gets through he
knows something about accounts.
But our boy comes to us from the
Grammar School or the High School.
He cannot add 100 figures in a col-
umn five wide and twenty deep in
three minutes and add it right to save
his immortal soul, when we get him.
I mean the average boy, of course
there are exceptions. He expects to
stay with us about six months, a
year at most, and then hewants a job.
What are we going to do about it?
It is a condition not a theory that
confronts us. Mr. L. L. Williams, of
Rochester, is a veteran educator
with a good lot of gray matter under
his rather sparsely covered dome of
thought and the big Rochester school
is one of the best in the country,
getting as it does the cream from the
great business city on the Genesee
and the rich country towns of West-
ern New York. Mr. Williams excited
great commotion a few years ago in a
teachers' convention by saying that
business colleges were simply clerk
factories, or words to that effect.
I; did not sound imposing enough for
the distinguished educators who were
present and they hopped on Mr. Wil-
liams with great vigor, but he did
not mind that for he can take care of
himself, and like the immortal Jim
Bludso, is "an awkward man in a
row." I must confess that I have come
to think very much as Mr. Williams ex-
pressed it.

The business college is a training
school for clerks. We must take the
material we have. We must brace up
their arithmetic, this is the big basic
study of the modern business school.
Given a boy that is absolutely A 1 in
arithmetic, a boy whose mathematics
are all right and you can make an ac-
countant out of him, but you cannot
do it in the modern business school.
You dont have him long enough and
you won't get him long enough. H
he is going to school three or four
years, he will go to the high school
where his tuition and his books and
everything else is free. I wish this
were not the case. I wish we could
keep him out of the business school
until he was sixteen or seventeen
years old, then keep him in it two
years. I wish we could get our mod-
ern educators, with their expansive
ideas of cultivating the child's mind



in every possible direction so that he
will strike his affinity, to realize that
about three quarters of these children
have to get out and hustle for bread
and butter; and that a knowledge of
reading, writing, arithmetic and com-
mon English was of more importance
than many of the new tangled notions
with which our public schools are
loaded down. I know this is old
fashioned, and I will be told I am
away out of date, but 1 have been in
the business world and 1 know what's
wanted there, and 1 know what they
get there.

The young man who is trained thor-
oughly in mathematics and who is
taught to reason, and you can teach
a boy to reason if you have him from
the beginning easily enough, that
boy will become a first class account-
ant as soon as he gets into the office
and gets a chance at the business.
But nobody is going to make him
head bookkeeper. The business
houses of the country never did nor
ever will go to business colleges for
their bookkeepers. They will go
there for office help, for assistants
and all that, and as one drops out an-
other will move up or as marked tal-
ent shows itself it will make its way
to the head.

If I were going to write a book on
bookkeeping, which thank the good
Lord I am not, I don't believe I would
try to catch every minute technical
custom of every big business house in
the particular lines of business it was
necessary to take up, but on the con-
trary I would, in the early part of that
book, give a good deal more attention
than I or anybody else has thus far de-
voted to the study of the few great
basic accounts of business. I would
give thebeginnera lot of practice in de-
termining when these accounts were
to be debited and to be credited, and
I would try to teach him what the
accounts really meant. I do not sup-
pose my experience has been any dif-
ferent from that of the average teach-
er, and when I say that I have seen
many a graduate of good schools
who had no real idea of what a bal-
lance of Merchandise, Bills Receiv-
able, Interest and Discount, Commis-
sion and other like accounts meant
or how a debit or credit of these ac-
counts affected the business I do not
suppose I shall astonish anybody be-
cause every other teacher has had the
same experience.

Give me a boy that knows what
these accounts mean, who knows how
a debit or a credit to any of them af-
fects the business, and let this same
boy have first-class mathematical
ability and he will manage the books
of a big business house or corpora-
tion as soon as they will be ready to
let him, which will not be until he
gets through wearing knee breeches
and can show hair on his upper lip.

There are a great many text books
on Bookkeeping, and they remind me



f^^^BuJ/ned^^if/iu^iX^T^ ^



25



of what a Kentucky colonel said when
somebody mentioned "bad whiskey."



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