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How do you manage to keep so far in

the lead of all others ? Mr.

has charge of our penmanship and
will club The Business Educator."
This came from a school proprietor
in Minnesota.

A penman and commercial teacher
of New Jersey, in one of the largest
and most progressive schools in
America, says : " Those new depart-
ments you are conducting just ' Fill
the bill with me.' "

These are but a few of the many
congratulatory letters recently re-
ceived. Space forbids more. . They
spur us on, that's all. We have an
ideal not vet realized. Will you help
to realize "it ? Ideals of today become
realities tomorrow.



iUSINESS fDUCATOR
i E S T L V E R

i e a t s everything
'etters Everybody



Cessons in Simple, Practical Pen
Lettering.

Beginning in this number we pre-
sent the first of a number of lessons
in simple, practical pen lettering,
which we hope to make of interest
and profit to students generally, as
accountants, shipping clerks, etc.,
find that good lettering is sometimes
as indispensable as good writing.



^/Ivc towiJUtcjj£clu,cciior &




Cbc Report of On another page we
of nin J" present the last report

of the Chairman of
the Committee of Nine, appointed in
1901 to draw up a model course of
study for commercial work in our
public schools. It should be under-
stood that this outline is merely a
tentative one, submitted as much,
perhaps, to draw criticism as to offer
suggestions. It is distinctly stated
that the resultant course of study now
presented does not meet the ideas of
any single member of the Committee.
We may therefore be pardoned for
suggesting some possible changes
and the reasons therefor.

English is fundamental to any
course of study in the high school-
indeed, in what kind of school is it
not a foundational subject ? It
should have not less than four per-
iods each week during the four years,
beginning with at least a half year of
thorough review on grammar, and fol-
lowing with extended work in compo-
sition and the critical study of Eng-
lish Literature, not the History of
English Literature. There is alto-
gether too much study about good
literature as it is, instead of the study
of the literature itself. It is not clear
why the subject should be allowed
but three periods in the second year
and the first half of the third, and
permitted to drop out entirely in the
second half of the third year, unless
it be to give the pupil a chance to

father strength for the full task of
ve periods each week in the fifth
year.

Bookkeeping is applied mathemat-
ics, and, since practically all of the
work in this subject is given before
Advanced Commercial Arithmetic is
taken up, in the last half of the fourth
year, there is, according to the Out-
line, but a half year of commercial
arithmetic on which to base the
practical mathematics of what is at
least a long course in the study of
accounts and business papers. We
should have arithmetic to extend
throughout the second year, though
four periods would probably be
sufficient.

The arrangement of history is
admirable.

The modern languages and the
natural sciences might well have been
made elective, in order to provide a
somewhat more elastic course, where,
if desired, more attention might be
given to such subjects as penman-
ship, spelling, and typewriting.
Every practical teacher of the com-
mercial branches in the high school
knows that it is impossible to give a
business appearance to the writing of
the average school boy in one year of
two or three periods weekly. There
should be at least two periods for
each of the first two years, and one
period for each of the last two years.



The writer fancies he has been able
to teach business penmanship with
some small degree of success, vet his
pupils are given two periods each
week for two years and one period for
three years. It is not too much, even
though Mr. C. E. Doner, an expert,
is now in charge of the classes.

The arrangement for bookkeeping
and business practice seems inexpli-
cable, but the Committee, or those
responsible for this plan, thought it
well to place bookkeeping early in
the course in order to induce pupils
to enter the high school, and so as to
provide those who might be compelled
to drop out in the first or second
year, with something that they might
be able to use. We believe the plana
faulty one. To offer a little book-
keeping and typewritingin the earlier
years, as laid down in this Outline, is
to offer a strong inducement to pupils
to drop out of the high school at the
end of the second year, and go to a
private commercial school to com-
plete their course.

Now, the private schools are doing
a splendid work, and we are too thor-
oughly in sympathy with their mis -
sion to cavil at anything that will
strengthen and popularize their voca-
tion among the people, either profes-
sionally or financially, but it is the
business of public school officials so
to arrange their courses that the
training obtained shall be effective
and that ; so far as possible, pupils
shall be induced to remain to com-
plete the courses as outlined. The
high school commercial course that
does not fit its competent pupils for
office work, without an intermediate
finishing course at a private commer-
cial school, might better re-arrange
its course or drop it.

It is an excellent plan to place
shorthand and typewriting in the last
two years of the course— these strict-
ly technical subjects should all be
reserved, so far as possible, for the
last two years of the course — but any
practical teacher knows that it is not
possible to give a thorough prepara-
tion, to high school pupils, in both
shorthand and typewriting (if any
Pitmanic system of shorthand be
used] in two school years, using five
periods each week. Think of it!
Not making any allowance for the
loss occasioned by holidays, exami-
nations, visiting days, conventions or
institutes, preparations for com-
mencement week, and the other inter-
ruptions that seem inevitable to pub-
lic school work, the Committee's Out-
line allows eighty weeks, four
hundred periods (never more than
forty-five minutes long), about three
hundred actual hours ( fully ten per
cent, should be deducted for the
hindrances already noted), from
seventy-five to one hundred school
days of the kind that private com-
mercial schools give to their students,
not taking into consideration the
great amount of extra work done by
private school students out of regular
hours. What would our friends of
the public schools and colleges say
of the private commercial school pro-
prietor that advertised to give a com-
plete course — a broad course — in
shorthand and typewriting in from
four to five months ? It is absurd.



Each of these subjects should have
as much time as the Committee has
granted to both of them.

Space fails us to take up in detail
all of the things that we should like
to criticise, but why should a commer-
cial pupil be compelled to take
mechanical drawing ? Why should
he be compelled to take Geometry,
either plane or solid ? We have today
among the brightest pupils in our
senior class, those who would have
been dropped from the course if their
staying in it had depended on their
passing in geometry. As William
Hawley Smith puts* it, " They were
born short " on that subject.

And when will the carpenters of
courses in "commerce," for chil-
dren, quit inserting such pompous
titles as Finance, Accounting, Organ-
ization, and Auditing; Study of Trade
Journals, etc. ? There is not one in a
hundred of those who frame such
courses that ever taught or practiced
these subjects or that has even a
glimmer of a clear-cut, definite idea
how to go about the preparation of
material for such instruction. It is
worse than foolish. It is a waste of
time that is more precious than
rubies.

We trust that teachers everywhere
will take so earnest an interest in this
matter that they will comply with the
request of Chairman Springer, and
write to him their comments on the
course as outlined ; for, when this
report is finally submitted in finished
form, it will bob up to confront many
a dismayed teacher, whose superin-
tendent or principal, though knowing
little or nothing about the matter,
will calmly point to the authority with
which the Outline is backed up.' The
Committee wants your advice and
criticism. Send it now.
Cbe The programs already

mcctTiTa issued for the holiday
convention of the National
Commercial Teachers' Federation
indicate one of the best conventions
ever held by this large and influential
organization. The host, Mr. C. M.
Bartlett, will so far surpass all former
records of hospitality that the next
candidate for the privilege of enter-
taining the Federation may well think
twice before framing his invitation
speech. Complimentary entertain-
ments, with music, dancing, and
refreshments, thrown in ; and com-
plimentary theatre parties, with the
whole first floor reserved, are features
that come in a convention-goer's ex-
perience only about once in a life-
time, that is one feature which every
one who goes to Cincinnati may
enjoy.

Loo.j at the views of the spacious
and beautiful new rooms in which
the convention is to meet, read the
attractive program that has been
prepared; think of the incomparable
arrangements that have been made
for social pleasure ; reflect on the
professional advantage to be derived
from contact with the leaders in the
profession, who will be there; con-
sider the financial advantages that
may accrue to you through acquain-
tances formed and impressions made
while attending this meeting; bear in
mind the advantage of travel, and —
plan to be there ! !



^>he©u£irwkb£cU*&ctWr $>




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DEPARTMENT OF



(£ommerctal £n$lts(?.



KAV I.( Ik'll, BEVERLY.



32. King Saul's was so great

that he stood head and shoulders
above the other people.

33. When common law is embodied
in an act of a legislative body, it be-
comes... law, and is spoken of as



glass Exercises in the Discriminative
Use of Words

For this work students ought to
consult a good unabridged diction-
ary or a reliable handbook of
synonyms. We know of none better
than "Crabbe's English Synonyms,"
published bv the American Book
Company. The copy we use, was
bought for one dollar, nearly fifteen
years ago. Perhaps it can be had for
less now. At any rate, a copy of it
should be in every school where
English is taught, and, if much writ-
ing is done, it should be given a
companion in "Roget's Thesaudrus
of English Words and Phrases," pub-
lished by T. V. Crowell & Co., New
York, and sold, we believe, at $1.50.
It is a veritable gold mine for every
one who has to write.

Ask your students to" fill the blanks

in the following sentences with the

i form of one of the indicated

To save time, let them write

only the number of the sentence and

the word they would insert. In class

they may read the sentences from

The Educator, if they are readers

of it, and insert orally the words that

they have written on their paper.

Afterward, the teacher may take up

student's papers and, if he desires,

tin- written with the printed

numbers, observing how faithfully

tlie student has done his work.

Resource, Recourse

1. In trouble some men have

to drink: some, to prayer.
-'■ I be pupil in trouble finds his
his natural

3. His grit was his only

4. He turned to his faithful pen

as his last , and his skill

brought him bread.

Stimulant, Stimulus.
.5. Whiskey is a ; ambition, a



6. Poverty is a to many who

would be otherwise indolent.

7. A nin, a cold plunge, and a rub-
down 0]

ept, Except .

S. I cannot vour present.

•'■ " these abide in the ship,

unit be saved."

All may remain John.

Bound, Determined, Certain.

11. When an honorable man gives

his word, he feels to keep his

promise.

12. 1 have followed the right prin-
ciple, and I am to get I

rect result.



13. You said I might go, and I am
to do so.

14. I signed the contract, and so
I am to carry out its provisions.

15. I am to reach the top of

the ladder of success.

Captivate, Capture.

16. It is expected that Mary Ander-
son will everybody with her

readings this season.

17. Aguinaldo was by a ruse.

18. Many a Union soldier was

bv Southern women and then

by Southern men.

19. Madame De Stael every-
one with her inimitable intellectual
graces.

Requisites, Requirements.

20. While the politicians of Phila-
delphia make fealty to the party one

of the to be met by a candidate

for the position of city auditor, the
position is such that a thorough
knowledge of accounts is an indis-
pensable

21. One of the of the Navy

Department and one of the for

the commander of a battleship is
some familiarity with international
law.

22. Ability to read Spanish was

one of the employer's but the

young man found that it was not a
in order to hold the position.

23. What is demanded by the em-
ployer is a ; what is required

because of the nature of the work, in
a position is a

24 are indispensable;

may or may not be necessary.

25. A may be unrelated to the

subject of it; a is always inti-
mately connected with its subject
matter.

Solicitude, Solicitation.

26. Few of us realize how often
President Roosevelt has to refuse the
of impudent beggars.

27. At the earnest of his

mother, the boy began to lay care-
fully sound foundation stones on
which to build his character.

28. God's for His children

ought to arouse their love and de-
votion .

29. A nation yearned with tender

over the death-bed of President

McKinley.

Statue, Stature, Statute.

30. A written law is a ; a

marble figure, a ; a man's height,

his

31. We saw the of General

Sherman in Washington.



34. If the of Benjamin Frank-
lin in Park Row, New York, is of life
size, "Poor Richard" must have
been a man of unusual

Capacity, Ability.

35. Not every man who has great
has great!

36 is the power to take in;

the power to do.

37. Some men would never become
scholarly, even though sent to school
for a lifetime, because they have no

; others, with whom Nature has

been prodigal, never acquire ,

notwithstanding their evident ,

because they are too lazy to apply
themselves.

38. President Roosevelt's for

various kinds of knowledge is equaled

only by his to use it at the right

time.

Convince, Convict.

39. We a man when we make

him understand; we him

when we prove him guilty of an
offence.

40. The evidence the jury, and

the jury the prisoner.

41 implies guilt; does

not.

Convoked, Convened.

42. Congress was by the Pres-
ident November 9th, and it on

that day.

43. Since their Chairman the

meeting, it might have been called a

; but since the members ,

it might also have been called a

44 means to call together;

, to come together. Properly

used, convoke is transitive; convene,
intransitive.

Discover, Disclose.

45. We that which existed be-
fore, but which was unknown. We
that which was concealed.

46. The thief the name of his

confederate to the officers.

47. Gold was in the Trans-
vaal, and the news was soon to

the world.

Infer, Imply.

48. The reader or the hearer ;

the writer or the speaker

49. Your assertion dishonesty

on my part.

50. Be careful not to draw unfair

from the sayings or doings of

others.

The following sentences can be
justified, no matter with which word
they may be used. Ask your pupils
to invent conditions to justify the
correctness of the sentences, using
first one word, then the other :

1. They looked at the ballot-ballet.

2. He lost the ballot-ballad.

3. They foundthe sunken boy-buoy.

4. Did you find the bra?i-brand on
the horse?

5. We brought her a carol-rot-al
for a present.

ti. It was plain to see that there
was great dtfference-defererce among
them.



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iS^Scsat



DEPARTMENT OF

Commercial (Seograpfyy

Frank O. Carpenter.

The Editor of this Dvpttrtmeiit mar/ l>r adtlrt-Hsrd directly at tlie
Enuii.-h lliall Sr),...l. B,..l»», 1)m.«.. I.»i ,:oiiiiiiini,;itinus requiring a






maps, Charts, €le. -~

The first need in the teaching of
the science of Commerce and Indus-
try is a collection of specimens as
described in the November number
of The Business Educator. Next,
however, comes the need of maps
and charts of various kinds, because
just as soon as the pupil has studied
some commercial staple, its produc-
tion, manufacture and distribution—
or rather at the same time, he should
see upon the map where the staple
is produced, where it is manufac-
tured, and by what routes by sea and
land it is carried to the distant con-
sumer.

In this way he gets the picture in
his mind of the subject, from begin-
ning to end, and when he takes up,
later in the year, the subject of Com-
mercial Geography, he is able to
understand the great struggle which
the nations of the world make for
the control of the world's markets,
or for the carrying trade on the seas.

The aids properly classified under
the title " maps " are of five kinds :

1. Maps, as usually understood,
of large size, as wall maps, or in
sheets for class use.

2. Outline maps for recitation and
examination.

3. Atlases and geography books
with their small maps for individual
use.

4. Charts and diagrams to show
productions, movements of trade,
transportation, routes, etc.

5. Globes and relief maps.

1. MAPS

For pupils in the United States
two wall maps are absolutely neces-
sary and they should be as large as
can be obtained.

First — A map of the world on one
sheet. This should be preferably a
map on the Mercator projection.
There is a new map published by the
J. L. Hammett, Co., made on what is
called the "equivalent" projection,
which is superior to the Mercator in
many respects.

The second map necessary is one
of the United States, also as large as
possible. This want can be easily
supplied, because the United States
government issues a map of the
country and its colonial possessions,
which for size, accuracy of informa-
tion, and completeness surpasses
any other general map of the United
States issued by any map publisher.
It is about six feet high by eight feet
wide, mounted on cloth with wooden



rollers. It shows the various details
of the states and territories, the
national parks, reservations, etc. It
is worth many dollars, but only costs
eighty cents by mail. It can be ob-
tained for any school or individual
by sending the eightv cents by money
order or in cash (no stamps) to the
Secretary of the Interior, Washing-
ton, D. C, and asking for the wall
map of the United States, drawn by
Harry King, Engineer, dated 1895.
Ask for the last edition.

The editor cannot emphasize too
strongly his opinion that schools
should at once obtain this map, be-
fore the edition shall become entirely
exhausted.

After these two maps, which must
be used for satisfactory work, the
schools should get wall maps of the
continental divisions, as, North
America, South America, Europe,
Asia, Africa, etc.

The wall maps at present on the
market are: The Excelsior Maps
issued by J. L. Hammett Supply Co.,
which are very good; Johnston's
ordinary wall maps and the imperial
size,— these maps are also issued in
outline form ; Stanford's wall maps ;
Rand-McNally series. Prices of
these maps range from $2.50 to $5.00.

The Navy and War Department
maps and charts are next in value
and importance, and, like all other
scientific work of the United States
government, are splendidly done.
They give . the harbors and coasts,
not only of the United States, but of
the world. They can be bought for
small sums from the Hydrographic
Office of the Navy Department". They
are printed on stout paper, which
could be mounted on cloth, and many
are large enough for wall maps.

Note— As wall maps unmounted
are easily injured, it is advised that
they be first backed with cloth and
then mounted on ordinary window
shade rollers which can be fastened
at the top of the blackboards, one
above another, and rolled up when
not in use and so kept free from dust
and injury.

2. OUTLINE MAPS

Outline wall maps of the world and
of the United States are of great
value. They should be outlined in
white on a black surface, and this
surface should be such that it can
be drawn on with chalk and easily
erased.

There is no way of testing the
pupil's knowledge of areas and local-
ities of production and manufacture



so quickly or surely as to send him
to the board to draw upon the out-
line map the great wheat fields, the
cotton states, the great trade routes,
etc.

D. C. Heath & Co. issues a large
wall map of the United States drawn
on manila paper, which is of excep-
tional value, and most of the map
publishers issue outline maps, wall
size, and in smaller size for individ-
ual use. There are three kinds of
small outline or development maps :
The McKinley maps, the Morse Co.
maps and the D. C. Heath & Co.
maps, all quite good.

If a blackboard can be spared the
outline of the United States or the
world could be drawn on it with
white paint, and is then ready for
use at any time.

The outline maps should be used
as follows : Each pupil should be
given an outline map of the world
and of the United States.

As he studies the production of the
great commercial staples, as wheat,
he should shade upon the map of the
world the countries where wheat is
produced and used, indicate the great
wheat shipping ports, inland and on
the sea coast, and the trade routes
by land and water by which wheat is
transported.

On the map of the United States
the boy should shade the regions or
states which produce the largest
quantity of wheat, in both the spring
and winter varieties. In the same
way the other cereals should be
shown.

As a guide and copy the teacher
should have wall maps colored to
show areas of wheat production, etc.
These must be colored by the teacher
himself, for there are no satisfactory
wall maps on the market which show
areas of production, etc., from which
the pupil can copy on his own
smaller outline blanks.

If a boy can go to the board and
draw the areas of wheat or corn or
cotton he knows his lesson, and later
when he takes up commercial geogra-
phy in its comparative view of the
nations and their productions, these
staples are to him real things with
which he is familiar.

3. ATLASES, ETC.

Each school should have, if possi-
ble, a good atlas. These are rather
expensive, and the grammar school
geographies can be used in place of
them in many cases. There are few
commercial atlases of any value.
Bartholomew's Commercial Atlas,
published by MacMillan & Co., is the
best issued in English. Scobel's-
Handel's atlas, 1902, is complete, and
of great value to all who can read
German. Every teacher of commer-
cial geography should get the book
($2.00), because there is a large
amount of information shown in a
most vivid way, which can easily be
copied upon the pupils' outline map.

There is a method of making com-
mercial maps when the outline maps
can not be conveniently obtained.
The editor used it last year with good
results. It is as follows :

In large cities, it is possible to
obtain at the railroad offices or at the
hotels enough railroad folders to



dhe©ubirv^£eUfc&cfctor &



supply a class. These folders will

give a map of the United States of

considerable size, sometimes 18x34

which is correct usually in its

detail except for the great black line

indicating the route of the particular

hat issues the folder.

When these folders can be obtained

the pupil should be directed to draw

upon the map in pencil or ink the

main trunk lines of railroads crossing

the United States from East to West,

and from Xorth to South, and to

shade the areas of wheat or cotton or

t( . Each live teacher will find

other profitable ways of using these

So far as possible a complete series
of these railroad folders should be
kept on tile.

As has been said a series of wall
of large size which were suita-
bly colored to show areas of cereals,
cotton, etc., would be of great value,
but i here are none to be had so far as
the editor has been able to find.

The teacher may, however, get some
of considerable size of the
United States, such as those sent by-
Mr. Eustis, General Agent of the
Burlington R. R., for ten or fifteen
and can color the maps for



Online LibraryFrank OvertonThe Business Educator (Volume 9) → online text (page 30 of 86)