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the demand will never outstrip the supply.

PICTORIAL POINTERS-Private office and parlor of the Long Island business College,
Brooklyn, N. Y„ Henry C. Wright, President. The interior finish and furnishings are of
the quiet elegance tlrat is everywhere the hall mark of good taste.

**j i vc fcj vu li to ** £ cUvcctW r ^

Cbc fiiijb School (Commercial




I have read with much interest, in
the December number of The Busi-
ni-ss Educator, the report of the
Committee of Nine in regard to a
high school commercial course, and
the accompanying editorial comment,
together with the criticism by Mr.
C. C. Ramsay. Perhaps more may be
gained from the criticism than from
the report. It is indeed a difficult
thing for nine men to agree on any
extended course of study ; and it
is hardly probable that any one of
the nine would heartily support the
suggested course in its entirety. The
committee, however, has served to
give prominence to the question as
to what should constitute a high
school commercial course, and to
give direction toward a much needed

In no spirit of controversy, but in
the belief that more individual opin-
ions may be of value, and that such
opinions are strengthened by concrete
illustration, I submit some ideas on
commercial work in the high school,
and a high school commercial course.


Most instructors will admit that the
complaint of lack of thoroughness in
school work is not without cause.
There is an abnormal number of high
school pupils who do not read well,
write well, spell accurately; and who
are wholly at a loss when confronted
by common matters of business. A
main purpose of the commercial
course should be to do away with
such defects. Thus far, the remedy
most frequently applied in grade and
high school courses has been an in-
crease of subjects with a resultant
aggravation of the disease. Are not
Banking and Finance, Auditing, and
an excessive amount of descriptive
Commercial Geography, remedies of
this nature ?


We should question ourselves close-
ly as to t'he objects of a commercial
course, and then do what we can to
adapt means to ends. We must ex-
pect a wide variance of opinions, but
opinions are needed.

The commercial course ought to
have five objects in view :

1. General culture. 2. Preparation
for citizenship. 3. Preparation for
office work. 4. Preparation for busi-
ness. 5. Preparation for higher com-
mercial education. Of these, the
last three are distinctive, and for the
greatest good of the greatest number,
the third and fourth require special

The question resolves itself largely
into what should be the features of a
commercial course to make it a fit
preparation for office work, and for a
successful business life. I should
answer in part that decided emphasis
should be put on English, Commer-
cial Arithmetic, Commercial Law,

Penmanship, Bookkeeping, Short-
hand, and Typewriting.

There is a prejudice against com-
mercial education among business
men, and it should be overcome.
The way to do that is to do thorough
work along essential lines. A busi-
ness man does not expect a seventeen
or eighteen-year-old boy or girl to
manage his business, but he has a
right to expect that such a one fresh
from a high school commercial course
will be able to do a certain amount
and kind of work thoroughly.


The question that now arises is :
What should we, who have had ex-
perience in teaching high school
pupils, expect as the result of a four-
year commercial course ? Surely not
professional auditors, bank examin-
ers, or expert accountants. It would
be as reasonable to expect competent
lawyers at eighteen years of age as
the result of four years' general and
legal training. What we should ex-
pect is that our few best pupils will
be able to take charge of ordinary


bookkeeping work, and be fairly ex-
pert typewriters and stenographers,
and that our many second-best will
be competent assistant bookkeepers,
and good office help in other lines.
To accomplish even this will lequire
more Bookkeeping than is provided
for in the report of the Committe of
Nine. There should be at least four
semesters of Bookkeeping, and that
on the laboratory plan, with double
periods. In general, Bookkeeping is
one of the most poorly-taught sub-
jects in high school work. Among
other reasons for this, a very im-
portant one is the fact that the com-
mercial teacher frequently does not
have time to correct the work of his
pupils. Commercial work needs care-
ful correction as much as does work
in English Composition. There is
another reason for thorough super-
vision. Bookkeeping offers peculiar
temptations and opportunities for
dishonest work. It is but little short
of criminal to teach Bookkeeping in
so lax a 'way that even a few pupils
can copy work, or stuff trial balances,

and receive credit for their dishon-
esty. The tendency to such things
should be noted early, and checked
if possible. If persisted in by any
pupil, he should be dropped from the
course before his knowledge is great
enough to be especially dangerous to
himself or to others.


After deciding upon the essentials
of a course, our next duty is to ar-
range them to best advantage. In
doing this, we must take cognizance
of conditions as they are, and are
likely to remain, although we may
not consider them ideal. It goes
without saying that we should be
pleased to have all our good pupils
complete a four-year course, but it is
equally true that we cannot expect
all of them to do so. We should,
then, adapt ourselves to the conditions
by offering a good three-year course
with a certificate at the end, and, at
the same time, should reserve attract-
ive subjects for the fourth year. A
little typewriting in the third year
will be' good for all who take it, and
will furnish an incentive for many to
finish the course.

The work in Shorthand and Type-
writing should be concentrated as
much as possible, and done chiefly
in the fourth year. Thorough prepa-
ration in English is essential to these
subjects, and in addition to that,
pupils should be at their highest effi-
ciency in those lines at the time when
they leave school.

The commercial course is making
a place for itself in high schools, and
should proceed discreetly. If a
course similar to the one given below
is not sufficiently extensive, other
subjects may readily be added when
it becomes evident that they are nec-
essary. First, however, let those of
us who are commercial teachers do
our work in such a manner that our
fellow teachers may profit by our ex-
ample, that our pupils may be pre-
pared for what is ahead of them, and
that business men may have confi-
dence that those whom we recom-
mend to assist them will not have to
learn everything there is in con-
nection with their duties after having
entered upon them.

As a whole, our educational system
is strained. It may be that an uudue
influence of German Universities has
caused too great a tension on our
higher institutions of _ learning; in
any event, our Universities and Col-
leges have put a severe strain on our
high schools, and they, in turn, have
put some of the stress of it on the
grades. The result, in many in-
stances, is an attenuated, unusable
education. While the opportunity is
ours, shall we not prevent similar
conditions in commercial work?


First Half.

English 5

Bookkeeping * 5

Modern Language or Algebra I 5

Penmanship l To count 2 periods) 5

Total 17

^Jke&M*>irW^£d^&U>toF &

Second Half.

English 4

Bookkeeping 5

Modern Language or Algebra II... 5
Commercial Arithmetic 4




First Half.
Business Spelling and Commercial
English '>r Literature 5

Corporation and Voucher Account-
ing •■■■ 5

Modern Language or Geometry I... 5
Commercial Arithmetic 3

Total IS

Second Half.

English Composition and Rhetoric. 5

Business Practice 5

Modern Language orGeometry II.. 5
( General History I Selections) 3




First Half.
Correspondence and Advertising.. 3
Modern Language or Physics or

Chemistry 5

English History 5

Civics 5

Total 18

S,ni nd Half.

Modern Language or Physics or

Chemistry 5

American History 5

Commercial Law 5

Typewriting * 3



Certificate at end of third year; di-
ploma at end of fourth.


First Half.

Commercial Geography 5

Typewriting 5

Shorthand 5

Industrial History 3

Total 18

Second Half.

Shorthand and Typewriting 10

Economics 5

Review ; 3

Total 18

'Bookkeeping and Typewriting two per-
iods a day whenever they occur.

Bylaws of the American Institution of
Commercial Schools

A cop; of tin- by-laws of the American In-
stitution lias been sent to eacli member of
the National Federation of Commercial
Teachers, and also to each member of the
Eastern Commercial Teachers Association,
I >-<l :i1 t he Cincinnati meeting of the
|1 inn.

Any commercral teacher or principal, who
is not a member of either of these organ-
izations, can secure a copy, until the supply
is exhausted, by addressing me at 9 West
(.eruian, St., Baltimore, Md.

Chairman of Committee.

Mr. W. A. Arnold, Union City, Ind., the
bearer of the above refined physiognomy,
is a Centennial product, having been born in
Union City, Ind., and brought up on a farm
in Ohio. He began his professional work as
a country school teacher, and later taking a
commercial course in the Greenville, Ohio,
Business College. In '96 he graduated from
the Zanerian, and taught penmanship,
bookkeeping, and arithmetic in the Rich-
mond, Ind., Business College. In the fall
of '97 he entered and pursued a course of
study in the higher branches in the Ohio
Normal University, and then accepted a
position in the business department of the
Falls City, Nebr , High School. The next
year lie took charge of the business depart-
ment of the LeMars, la., High School, re-
maining three years, teaching algebra and
political economy, and at times supervising
penmanship in the grades.

Mr. Arnold is now engaged with Supt. A.
H. Bigelow, of LeMars, in getting out an
"Arithmetic of Business," incorporating
therein the best methods used by business

Mr. Arnold is a quiet, thorough, unassum-
ing Christian gentleman. Our profession
contains no more conscientious, progressive,
faithful, upright, moral teacher, friend of
progress, and man.

Mr. Arnold is now located at Philadelphia
with Temple College.

Chat Hmcricati Institution of
Commercial Schools Project.

The matter of organization seems to be in
the air. It permeates almost every en-
deavor; almost every calling, trade and
profession. Ours is no exception to the
rule. In Canada they know what it is,
and in Illinois. The fact that The Ameri-
can Institution of Commercial Schools, as
created on paper by Mr. H. M. Rowe, Balti-
more, Md.,is being suggested and discussed
indicates that we are about to adopt or
accomplish something along that line our
selves. Mr. Rowe believes in organization
so thoroughly that he has evolved a plan
which he believed should be discussed,
rejected, adopted, modified, amended and
done with whatever an enlightened, pro-
gressive, dignified profession deems neces-

He is therefore ready and willing to ex-
plain, discuss and modify that which he
has already prepared. It is no one man's
work and no two men's work, as he believes,
but it is the work of the best men in our
profession ; it is a matter of co-operation or

nothing. Which shall it be? Gentlemen
and ladies of the profession, in the language
of the latest slang, " it is up to you ! "

The question is, shall we have an institu-
tion national in scope and character, on a
par with other universities, devoted to the
two distinct but closely related objects ;
that of preparing, examining, and certifi-
cating of teachers for the profession of com-
mercial teaching ; and that of affiliation
and co-operation of commercial schools and
standardizing and uniforming the courses
of study, conductingthe examinations, and
the granting of diplomas therein ? Shall or
shall we not have such an institution? Is
it a good or bad thing? Is it all air, or has
it the germs of endurance and the better-
ment of commercial education and thereby
the schools, teachers, and pupils engaged
therin ?

We are free to confess that we have not as
yet settled its merits in our own minds.
We are free to say, however, that it appears
to us to be a good thing. What do you say?
This much for the present ; some sort of
an organization or institution is needed to
raise the standard of many private and pub-
lic institutions of commercial education,
and courses of study therein. Something
is needed to unify, uniform and dignify
their work. Commercial education is better
than is generally supposed ; collegiate edu-
cation is poorer than is generally supposed.
The difference in true worth between them
is less than is generally supposed. The
one is just as good, if rightly graded,
taught, and practiced, as the other. Liter-
ary courses need to be abridged ; commer-
cial courses need not to be extended.

Commercial education needs to be digni-
fied, popularized and extended. Nothing
will do so much for this, aside from honest
teaching and dealing, as co-operation. Are
you ready for it? Do you want it? Or do
you prefer to go on in the old way? Is it
good enough for you ? Is it up-to-date ?

The Eastern Commercial Teachers' Asso-
ciation Meeting, Easter time, N. Y. City,
will be a good place to air your views.
Come loaded and we guarantee there will
be a Rowe. C. P. Z.

eastern Commercial Ceacbers' associ-
ation announcement

Plans for the Easter meeting of the
Eastern Commercial Teachers Association
are well in hand. The Executive Board
held its final meeting for the arrangement
of the program in New York, January 23.

Dr. Charles Davidson, Inspector of
English under the board of regent's, Albany,
N. Y.,will discuss "English: A Factor in
the Training of the Business Man" in one
of the general meetings, and other gentle-
men of national reputation in business and
educational affairs will address the meet-

The excellence of the program of the
various sections is assured in the fact that
Messrs. Ranisdell and King have prepared
the program for the business section.
Messrs. Piatt and Kennedy for the short-
hand section, and Messrs. Knight and
Laird for the high school department.

Owing to the great interest aroused in
the organization of the American Institu-
tion of Commercial Schools that project
will doubtless be fully explained and dis-
cussed. The keen professional interest
that has lately been manifested in the
interests of commercial education promises
the beginning of a new era in the history of
commercial education.

Let every one plan to be present and take
an active part in the proceedings.

Two features have been made prominent:
The beginning of the various meetings on
time, and an ample allowance of time for
a full discussion by the members of the
various papers presented.

H. M. Rowe, Pres. E. C. T. A.


Cbc election of Capitals is Over and the Successful Candidates Appear Above.

Election The election passed off enthusiastically and quietly. The polls were at times crowded, but no disorder or ballot box stuffing
notes. ensued. Judges were allowed to go out to their meals during the election. The cigars have been conspicuous by their
absence. Tickets were scratched from start to finish ; only one having voted the Straight, unscratched, undemocratic tickets
Cbe H. B. Lehman, Chicago, 111., Kusiness College, guessed the greatest number, naming IB out of the 26. W. L. Weaver, McKin.

Winners ney, Tex., Business College; J. W. Jones, Augusta, Me., Shaw Business College; Pius W. Meinz, College ville, Minn., St.
John's Uninersity; and John W. Hough, Wooster, Ohio, each guessed 20 out of 26. Mr. Lehman has therefore been awarded a
copy of the book, Zanerian Script Alphabets; Mr. Weaver, a cut of the capitals; and Messrs. Jones and Meinz each a copy of Progress of
Peniyanship. As the two latter gentlemen had posted their letters on the same day we concluded to award each'the third prize. Mr.
Hough posted his too late to win. Many guessed from 15 to 19; a goodly number mi9sed more than they guessed.

Analysis The first/ received all of the votes but two. The second / must therefore be a jay. Many of the capitals received small

OftbeUote majorities, the 1st, 2nd and :trd /, 's being nearly a tie. Of the many votes cast, but few voted the same. Opinion differed
wonderfully. The capitals selected are not just such as any one individual would like, but by the law of common average
they received the greatest number of votes, some by very small majorities; few received a majority of all the votes cast.

next So many asked for the privilege of voting on the small letters, that we are now preparing a plate of the same to be presented

month next month for election. The interest manifested is such that we take pleasure in attending to the tabulating, which is no
small task for busy editors, but we want to know these things as well as you do.



To acquire and execute this class of work, use an oblique holder and medium pen. Write freely but not rapidly— deliberately.
Sureness, grace and accuracy is the thing desired. Watch down strokes carefully to keep them straight and uniform in slant. The up
strokes need to be curved but very little, the turns should be short, and the angles open and unretraced. Let the elbows serve as the
center of motion, and the littie finger as the center of control. See clearly, think definitely, and act carefully. Patience, criticism, and
perseverance will win.

Wessons in

VLpto&ak Business £



L/. C3< / c^o^-^ z> ^^2^ ? /'


Ulbat Style ?

The greater portion of the writing of the world is today done in books, the type-writer having relieved us of much of this labor along
the line of correspondence. This, however, does not mean that less writing is being done, for, on the contrary, there is probably more
lone now than ever before. Skillful, up-to-date accounting demands a style that is small, compact and intensely plain. Ledgers and riles
ire ruled narrower than ever before, thus requiring smaller capitals and loop letters. Plainness is dependent upon contrast in form (n's
inlike a's and o'b unlike a's), while this difference in letters requires a distinction between turn and angle, loop and retrace, oval and
iemi-oval. Small writing, wherein these distinctions are pronounced, is quite as legible as a larger hand and far less laborious in execu.
ion. The 'ild style, shaded capitals with their difficult stems and flourished endings, are, as is the bicycle, a thing of the past, and he
.vho would guide his pen in auto fashion must seek the road that is free from obstructions,— the road of simplicity. Adopt then, a style
hat is applicable to present demands, and one that you can utilize under favorable or unfavorableconditions. You are today developing
j hand writing that will probably remain with you through life, at least as concerns style. Mould it carefully, then, and mould it in
lp-to-date, twentieth-century fashion.

Plate So.

Be sure that you see clearly and detinitely the form of the letters before attempting to make them. You should not only learn the
form in general, but you ought to investigate it in detail. Notice where the strokes commence and how they terminate. This style of the
A Ls used by a great majority of our practical writers, and is, in truth, about as simple as the form can be made. The ending stroke is a
■-li^lii compound curve and can be brought a little below the base line. Keep the loop in the center small. Watch closely all the time for
errors, fin self criticism is the most valuable kind. Do your best on the sentence and words, striving all the time for uniformity and
smoothness as concerns size, slant and spacing.

Plate 51.


ercise at the beginning of line 1 will serve to develop a swing that can be employed to advantage in making the S.

ig the letter curve the first stroke well, and twist the down stroke, carrying the final dot well to the left. Make the letter quickly

in order to give the top loop considerable body. Be careful as to how and where you end it, and then it will not resemble any other letter.

-il scan l»- worked on here to advantage, as the ending resembles in form that of the capital. The style given in line B is also a

good one. yel there is more to it and consequently harder to master. However, if you have always used it and can make it successfully,

there i- no reason why yon should \u\ ii aside.

Mhc&Wthtw^&dAAOtAbvr #»

Plate 52.

The G demands muchthe same movement as the .V, only more of it. Keep the crossing low and make a good sharp point on the right
The letter is ended the same as the S. Write the word Gaining in line 2 with a free, light, rolling, movment. That means that you
should write it gracefully and with as little effort as possible. Grace in writing is the result of artistic ideas and nimble, skillful move-
ments. Reserve skill is valuable in this work as in any other, for he who can do his work better than is required is seldom out of employ-

Plate 53.

He who can write freely and without much labor seldom has trouble in writing rapidly when occasion demands it. Freedom is on a
ar with legibility, at least as concerns usefulness. Write and practice them at all times with as little labor as possible. The easier you
do your writing the less muscular energy employed, and consequently the better you will feel when it is completed. Yes, now- isthe time
to gain freedom as well as form, for bye and bye may be too late.

The style of L given in line 1 starts much the same as the ,S' and G only a little above the base line. It does, however, demand the
same graceful movement. Keep the loop on the base line small and flat, and do not make the ending stroke too long. The style in line 2
is simple and plain and makes a good form to master. Select the one you like and develop it carefully.

Plate 55.

Here are two extremes as concerns size, yet both are useful at times. Large writing is demanded often in various lines of work,
serves, too, as a good movement exercise, and reveals errors in form that are seldom noticed in smaller work. The small hand, too,
valuable when much has to be written in limited space. Try both, then, heeding the usual rules regarding uniformity.


Plate 56.
To make a good alphabet one must be able to- make each capital well. Sureness is demanded as well as skill, for here is where we
ha\ e onlj one i rial on each form. The styles presented are those given throughout the past, and are good ones to adopt. It would be a
difficult matter to simplify them without seriously interfering with legibility. Page practice on alphabet work is good to develop confl-
dence, foi the Changing from one form to another demands it. Complete each alphabet you start even though you occasionally make a
poor letter. Keep the spacing uniform between the letters.

tf j& <2> z^ & f

2. J zsjr 6 ' y s> f &
2. J 4s ^r 6 7 <r ft?

* z

To know form thoroughly one must divide each letter into sections and then examine the parts closely to see what lines are neces-
ry for their formation. This is what is meant by studying details closely. The wording in this plate will serve well as material for body
iting. Write small rather than large, and see how easily and lightly you can get from left to right.


I . I , < Specimen tiled. You can do well. While practice work was neat and good throughout, some of your capitals would stand
more arm movement. Don't shade down strokes. Practice more on extremely wide spacing in small letter work. Send again.

( .. \\ R. Specimens received. Your writing reveals many good points. It is Btrong and free, and for commercial purposes it ought

Online LibraryFrank OvertonThe Business Educator (Volume 9) → online text (page 57 of 86)