Frank Penny.

The church in Madras : being the history of the ecclesiastical and missionary action of the East India Company in the Presidency of Madras in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (Volume 2) online

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4. Poetry
Cowper's Poems. Crabbe's Poems.

Burns' Poems. Bloomfield's Poems.

5. Miscellaneous
British Plutarch. Joyce's Dialogues.

British Nepos. Adye's Pocket Gunner.

Life of Colonel Gardiner. Naval Chronicle.

Life of Peter the Great. Military Chronicle.

Hundred Wonders of the Elegant Extracts.

World. Military Library.

Goldsmith's Geography. Military Memoirs.

Gay's Fables. Battles and Stratagems of

Accounts of the Battle of War.

Waterloo. Military Mentor.

Spectator. Military Cabinet.

Class Book.

Letters from a General Officer to his son.

Historical Memoir of the Battle of Maida (1806).

Narrative of Recent Events in Ceylon.

Warner's Thoughts and Anecdotes.

Martial Achievements of Great Britain (1800-14).

Historical Sketch of the Campaign of 1851.

Life of Field-Marshal Blucher,


The Court of Directors intimated their intention to forward
from time to time such other hooks as might appear suitable
to the object in view, and they authorised the addition of some
Hindustani grammars and dictionaries.

The Government of Fort St. George and the Court of
Directors co-operated in a real effort to promote the health,
comfort, and happiness of the Europeans in their service.
Courts for fives and racquets were built at the principal
mihtary stations, and open-air plunge baths were constructed,
wherever a sufficiency of water was available, between the years
1810 and 1816.

Not less important than these efforts was the practical policy
pursued in iho matter of native education. The co-operation
of the authorities began in the southern Presidency in the
year 1785, when Mr. John Sullivan, the Pohtical Resident at
Tanjore, conceived the scheme of teaching English subjects in
English to the higher class of native youths.i This beginning
of imparting Enghsh ideas and principles preceded by some
years anything of the kind attempted in any other part of
India. The Directors sanctioned the scheme and supported it

The venture answered all expectations ; at the beginning of
the nineteenth century the schools at Tanjore and Combaconum
enjoyed a good reputation. One of the Tranquebar mission-
aries. Dr. John, extended the system to other places in the
Carnatic and to Ceylon. The benefit of the teaching given was
recognised in high quarters, and the report of it not only reached
London but Calcutta as well. In 1816 the Hindu natives
of Calcutta subscribed over a lac of rupees, and founded a
college for Hindu youths which was known as the Vidyalaya.
In it were taught the English language, Sanscrit, Hindi, and
some of the sciences of the West. Within the next few years
schools were estabhshed in the Delhi districts by a Bengal
civilian, Mr. Eraser, at his own expense. Officers of the Bengal
Medical Service took an active part in promoting the educa-
tional cause. Dr. Gerard made a proposition to the Govern-
ment respecting the education of the hill people of Sabathu.
Dr. Lumsden acted as secretary of the Calcutta Madrissa for

' See The Church in Madra^f, i. 518.


Mahomedans. The success of the private efforts at Calcutta
and elsewhere, especially in the south of India, brought the
question of education to the front. It showed the real desire
of the natives to profit from Western teaching. Dr. Carey the
missionary was taking as much advantage of this desire in
Bengal as Dr. John in the south. So that by the year 1820 the
Government of Bengal began to stir in the matter. They
began, of course, by collecting information and digesting it.
Then in 1822 they appointed a General Committee of Instruc-
tion, and appropriated a lac of rupees for the promotion of the
cause. 1

The Court of Directors made no comment when they received
the Bengal letter conveying the intimation of this educational
grant. They waited till they received a further report showing
either the success or the failure of the effort. This arrived three
years later,^ and they replied the following year.^

The duty of the General Committee of Instruction was to
ascertain the state of public education at the time, and of the
public institutions designed for its promotion ; to consider and
submit to Government suggestions for the improvement of the
instruction of the people, for the introduction among them of
useful knowledge, and for the improvement of their moral

The Directors reviewed their report almost sentence by
sentence, and said that it gave them great satisfaction. The
General Committee regarded their plan as experimental, and
reserved to themselves power to vary it in any way that ex-
perience might suggest. The teaching was entirely vernacular ;
' hereafter it may be desirable to provide the means of teaching
English and science . . . but at present it seems premature.'
The Directors agreed : ' Keep utility steadily in view,' they said ;
' don't introduce alterations more rapidly than a regard to the
feelings of the natives will prescribe ';...' a little skill and
address remove prejudices.' Towards the end of their despatch
they referred to the daily increasing demand for the employ-
ment of natives in the business of the country, and said ' the

' Letter from Bengal, July 30, 1823, 104-109, Rev.
- Letter from Bengal, Jan. 27, 1826, Public.
=* Despatch to Bengal, Sept. 5, 1827, Public.


first object of improved education should be to prepare a body
of individuals for discharging public duties.' They expressed
a hope that the education would ' contribute to raise the moral
character of those who, Sea. . . . and supply you with servants
to whose probity you may \nth increased confidence commit
oflices of trust. To this the last and highest object of education
we expect that a large share of your attention will be applied.'
They also hoped that discipline would be directed towards
raising ' that rational self-esteem which is the best security
against degrading vices, and creating habits of veracity and
fidelity.' ' We approve of your intention to avail yourselves
for the service of Government of the superior qualifications
which may be expected from a better education, and of making
appointment to office an encouragement to study and good

In one paragraph only did the Directors strike a wrong note.
They said : ' We trust you will be careful in the way of salaries
for teachers ; the more you can save in that way the more you
will have to apply for the wider extension of the benefit of

The colleges referred to in the report under review were
those at Calcutta, Agra, Benares, and Delhi. The pupils were
drawn from the superior and middle classes of the natives,
from which classes Government native agents were generally
drawn. The scheme did not include elementary education, nor
had it any reference to existing missionary schools. The idea
was to supply the need of education themselves, and to make
use of the educated native for their own purposes.

A second report of progress was sent home in 1829,^ and the
Directors replied in 1830.^ They expressed their great satis-
faction at the success of the measures taken, which (they said)
exceeded their most sanguine expectations. They sent expres-
sions of their warmest approbation, and agreed with the Bengal
Government that the higher classes of their Hindu and Maho-
medan suljjects were ripe for a still further extension among
them of English education in English subjects. At the Vidya-
laya College, established by natives themselves, there were 436

' Letter from Bengal, Aug. 21, 1829, Public.
- Despatch to Bengal, Sept, 29, 1830, Public.


students ; at the Madrissa, Calcutta, 78 ; at the Sanscrit College,
estabhshed at Calcutta for Hindu students, there were 176 ;
at Delhi, 199 ; and at Agra, 198. ' We learn with extreme
pleasure the opinion of the General Committee . . . that the
time has arrived when English tuition will be widely acceptable
to the natives in the Upper Provinces ;'...' of the spirit
which prevails in the Lower Provinces the establishment and
success of the Anglo-Indian college is sufficient evidence.'

The suggestion to estabhsh separate English colleges, that
is, for the study of English and the cultivation of European
knowledge through the medium of English, came through the
Committee of Public Instruction from the local Delhi Committee.
Their idea was that the teaching of science would be less likely
to conflict with the teaching of the sacred books of the Hindus
and Mahomedans, if it were taught in English. In order to
avoid any possible conflict they established English colleges
at Delhi and Benares. The Directors approved without even
asking what the expense was ; and added : ' It is of the greatest
importance to the native youth that means should be afforded
of cultivating the English language and literature, of acquiring
a knowledge of European science, and a famiharity with Euro-
pean ideas, in a higher degree than has yet been within their
power.' At the same time they warned the General Committee
not to underrate the importance of vernacular instruction.
They thought that the two courses of study, vernacular and
English, might be carried on in the same establishment, for the
reason that education in English could only be placed within
reach of the few. These few might as teachers or translators
contribute to the general extension of knowledge, and might
communicate ' that improved spirit, which it is to be hoped they
themselves will have imbibed from the influence of European
ideas and sentiments.'

Some of the money to establish these Government colleges
was given by native gentlemen of social position, and some
was given by the Government itself. The Directors cheerfully
sanctioned all that had been done, and promised supplies of
educational books. They pressed their own utilitarian views
of education by repeating them.

' The exertions you are now making are calculated to raise


up a class of persons qualified hj their intelligence and morality
for high employment in the civil administration of India.
As the means of bringing about this most desirable object
we rely chieliy on their becoming, through a familiarity with
European literature and science, imbued with the ideas and
feelings of civilised Europe. . . . We wish you to consider
this as our deliberate view of the scope and end to which all
your endeavours with respect to the education of the natives
should refer.'

The Directors concluded their despatch by ordering the
Government of Bengal to communicate all their educational
proceedings to the Governments of Fort St, George and Bombay,
as ' it is our wish that the establishments for native education
should be conducted on the same principles in all the Presi-

These extracts show that the Government scheme of educat-
ing some of the superior classes in India originated with certain
persons in India itself, and was not pressed upon the Directors
by public opinion at home. They also show the hearty agree-
ment of the Directors with the views of those in Bengal wdio set
the scheme on foot in that Presidency.

The practice of the Government of Fort St. George for nearly
forty years before the Bengal scheme was planned had been to
make substantial grants to the Sulhvan schools at Tanjore and
Combaconum under the superintendence of the Tanjore S.P.C.K.
missionaries, and to give occasional help to the mission schools
at Tricliinopoly and Madras. The Government took advantage
of the good results of the education given by the S.P.C.K.
missionaries, and made use of the well-educated men the schools
sent forth.

The proceedings of the General Committee of Instruction
in Bengal lietween the years 1823 and 1830 were not entirely
unknown in Madras, so that when the correspondence between
the Directors and Bengal was sent to Madras the Governor in
Council was prepared for it. It only remained to adopt the
new policy and to establish some purely Government institu-
tions. When the Government of Fort St. George made a grant
of Rs.5440 for the mission schools at Trichinopoly in 1829, they
informed the S.P.G. Committee in Madras that it was foreign


to the designs of the Government that mission schools should
be maintained at their expense or under their superintendence.^
This was the iirst intimation to the missionaries of a change of

The schools of the missionaries were efficient, and were
answering every purpose the Directors had in view. Under
these circumstances it did not seem necessary to bring the old
policy to a sudden end. It was therefore continued. Grants
were given to the missionaries for the secular teaching in their
schools ; and all superior schools that were efficient participated
in the grants given. The Eoman Catholic missionaries at
Madras obtained their first grant in 1836.'^ The system was
good in itself, and actually continued in force until 1842, when
the Government established a series of superior schools in the
mof ussil, and a central High School and College in the Presidency
town. When the new system was established the old one
with its various advantages was not forgotten. It was looked
back upon with regret, and in course of time it was reintroduced
with a scale of helpful grants-in-aid for all schools whose secular
teaching was sufficiently good to satisfy the requirements of the
Educational Department.

It only remains to mention how large a part in the education
of the young has been taken by the Chaplains and the mission-
aries in the territories ruled over by the Government of Fort St.
George from the time there were permanent Chaplains (1670)
and permanent missionaries (1726) until the present day.
Among the former -^ may be mentioned William Stevenson,
M.A. (afterwards Prebendary of Salisbury), founder of the St.
Mary's Vestry School ; Andrew Bell, D.D. (afterwards Canon
of Westminster), founder of the Military Male Orphan Asylum ;
Richard Hall Kerr, B.A., founder of the Male Asylum Press ;
Morgan Davis, founder of the Civil Orphan Asylums ; James
Hough, M.A. (the historian), founder of the Palamcottah C.M.S.
mission schools. And among the many eminent educational
missionaries may be mentioned the names of Schultz, Fabricius,
Schwartz, Pohle, Eottler, John, Noble, and G. H. Pope. These

1 Despatch to Madras, Sept. 15, 1830, 1, Public.

' Despatch, Aug. 30, 1837.

^ See The Church in Madras, vol. i.


lists only include a few who were in India before 1850. Many
of their successors in the latter half of the nineteenth century
were equally eminent and worthy of the highest praise for the
educational work they were able to acconi})lish.

The change of policy with regard to native education was
one of the causes which rendered it necessary to define the term
' native.' The other cause was the payment of the widows and
children of soldiers from the Olive Fund.^ The benefit of this
fund was for those whose paternal and maternal grandfathers
were of pure European blood. The children of native mothers
were excluded from it. The term ' native ' had been used for a
long time for anyone born in the country, whether of pure
European blood, mixed blood, or pure native blood. The
despatches of the Directors have many references to this use
of the term. In the year 1818 Mr. E. P. Lys was described as
a native, and permitted to return to India. ^ He was the son of
Europeans and was born in the country, his father being a
merchant in Madras. In 1822 Mr. Joseph Freeman Hazle-
wood was similarly described and permitted to return.^ His
parents were Europeans, and his father was an oflicer in the
Company's service. In 1824 and 1825 Mr. William Pollock,^
Mrs. H. Chambers,^ Mr. Charles Buchan ^' and several others are
referred to in the same way. In every succeeding year up to
1833 there are lists of Europeans permitted to return to India
who are described as natives of India.

In apportioning pensions from the Clive Fund the Military
Auditor General found it necessary that exact terms should be
used to denote different kinds of persons.

The matter was considered in Council, and a Government
Order was issued 7 directing that in future all marriage certifi-
cates of soldiers under the rank of commissioned officer should
specify the birth of the female, whether European, Indo-

' The first Lord Clive left a large fund for the payment of pensions to the
widows and children of the Company's European soldiers of all ranks.
- Despatch, March 4, 1818, 138, Public.
■i Despatch, Jan. 9, 1822, Public.
■' Despatch, Nov. 10, 1824, 9, Public.
» Despatch, March 23, 1825, Public.
•5 Despatch, July 13, 1825, 8, Public.
^ G.O., Sept. 11, 1829.


Briton, or native. Archdeacon Robinson communicated the
order to all the Chaplains and mentioned that much incon-
venience had arisen, and the payment of widows' pensions
endangered by incorrect statements in the certificates.

By this order the domiciled Eurasian community obtained
a certain advantage. They were released from the old custom
which described them as natives, and enabled without question
to enjoy the benefit of the Clive bequest. But at the same time
they were precluded from enjoying the benefit of the new native
education grants. The community petitioned in 1847 for a
share in the grant, and the reply given was that such as are
natives of India can already benefit by the use of the seminaries
already founded. For such as did not come strictly under
that denomination the funds were not intended. This was
understood to mean that if they liked to be regarded as natives
the seminaries were open to them, but the Clive fund was not.
But if they repudiated the status of native, the Clive fund was
open to them but the seminaries were not. They could not
have the advantage both ways. In the present day they are
not excluded from the Government schools and colleges, but
they have a very great disinclination to join them.



St. Stephen s, Ootacamund. — History. Building of the Church. Its dedication
and consecration. Plan and cost. First Chaplains. Enlargement.
Ventilation. Chancel. Windows. Furniture. Memorials. Schools.

St. Bartholomew' s, Mysore. — History. Consecration of the site. Building of
the Church. The Wesleyan missionaries and the use of the building. The
French Rocks chapel. The first Chaplains of Mysore. The Mysore Church
handed over to the Government and consecrated. Refurnishing in 1871.
Memorial tablets.

Central Provinces. — History. Christ Church, Mhow. Christ Church, Kamp-
tee. Its foimdations. Bell. Altar vessels. St. Peter's, Sangor. Christ
Church, Jubbulpore. Hoshangabad. All Saints', Nagpore. The early
Madras Chaplains. Origin of Bengal ill-will towards Madras. Protection
of the burial-grounds. Nagpore separated from Kamptee. The early
Nagpore Chaplains.

St. Stephen's, Ootacamund. — It is scarcely necessary to
describe Ootacamund ; so many travellers and visitors and
sportsmen have done so already. Lord Macaulay, Lady
Canning, and even the matter-of-fact official compiler of the
' District Manual ' have expressed their enthusiasm about the
climate, the scenery, and the sport. There is nothing more to
be said, it only remains to enjoy.

The Nilgiris, or Blue Mountains, were in the territory of
the ruler of Mysore. Both Hyder Ali and Tippu Sultan had
posts of observation on various spurs of the hills for their own
offensive and defensive purposes. Some overlooked the plains
on the west, one at least overlooked the Coimbatore valley
southwards. All movements on the plains could be discerned
and anticipated ; there was no getting to the hills till this
hostile power was crushed.

In the year 1818 two young civilians from Coimbatore
climbed the ghaut and had a look round. The nature of the


report they made we can imagine. In the following year Mr.
John SiiHivan, the Collector and Chief Magistrate, went to see
for himself. He reached the site of Ootacamund and built a
small house on what is still known as Stonehouse Hill. During
the next eight years there was much talk on the plains about
the new discovery of a temperate climate 350 miles from
Madras, and there were many expeditions to verify it. At the
end of that time, namely the year 1827, when the Right Hon.
Stephen Rumbold Lushington became Governor of Port St.
George, Ootacamund was formally recognised as the sanatorium
of the Presidency. It is 7000 feet above sea level ; it consists of
square miles of undulating downs of grass, surrounded by four
great hills all under snow range.^ The possibilities of invigorat-
ing air and outdoor exercise in a climate which enables flowers
of a temperate region to grow in profusion all the year round
were beyond calculation. The Governor did the right thing
when he assisted in the opening out of the hills himself.

It was not long before there was a rush to enjoy the newly
discovered boon. Some went just for an ordinary rest and
change ; some went to recover from sickness ; some went who
were sick unto death. It was manifestly a place where both
a Chaplain and a Church were required. The Governor saw
the need in 1829 ; without waiting for the previous permission
of the Directors he laid the foundation-stone of the future
Church, and in consultation with the Members of Council
sanctioned the estimated cost of it.

The foundation-stone records that it was laid on St. George's
Day, 1829 ; that the Church was j&nished and opened for divine
service on Easter Day, 1831, and that Captain J, J. Underwood
of the Madras Engineers was the architect. Shortly before
it was completely finished and furnished Bishop Turner of
Calcutta visited the station, and advantage was taken of his
presence to have the building consecrated. The foundation-
stone records that the Church was solemnly set apart for the
service of Almighty God on December 5, 1830. It was dedi-
cated to God in honour of St. Stephen. It was generally under-
stood locally that this particular choice of a patron saint
involved an inoffensive reference to the founder.

' One of them, Dodabetta, is 8762 feet high.


It is not possible to say that the designs were good. The
ground plan gave a long narrow nave, 63 X 20 x 20 feet, with
a long narrow aisle on each side 68 X 8| X 16-| feet. West of
tlie nave was the tower 14 X 14 X 48 feet, and west of that
was the porch 14 x 16 feet. So that there was a total length
of 91 feet and a total breadth of 37 feet. The congregation
erected the organ loft at the west end of the nave and
purchased the organ. There is no record that they supplied
any of the furniture. The accommodation was for 338 persons,
and the cost was Rs.30,562.^

A year after the opening of the Church the Government
of Madras wrote to the Directors informing them of the building
and consecration of it,2 and the appointment of a Chaplain to
serve it. The Dii-ectors were not pleased. Indeed they began
their reply, ' We much disapprove,' &c.3 They complained that
although the Governor in Council had determined in 1829 to
authorise the erection of the Church, yet no communication
whatever had been made to them on the subject till 1832, long
after the building had been finished. They also complained
that the Governor had stated in his minute of January 22, 1830,
that the building was to be erected at the joint expense of the
Company and the C.M.S., aided by private subscriptions, at an
estimated cost of Es.8000 ; and that they now learned that the
whole expense had been borne by the Company, and that it had
exceeded Es.24,000. They blamed the Engineer for exceeding
his estimates, and they blamed the Government for building
without obtaining their approval.

The first Chaplain was the Rev. William Sawyer. He was
permitted by the Government to act as Chaplain to the Bishop
of Calcutta during his tour, and he accompanied the Bishop
to Ootacamund in December 1830. Having already worked in
the country on the plains for eight years, he needed the kind of
change which the hills afforded, and the Bishop recommended
that he should be appointed Chaplain of Ootacamund. This
was done, and Bishop Turner left him in charge. Sawyer did

' Cmmltations, June 21, 1831, 1-4, Eccl. The 1852 Official Return of
Churches says the cost was Rs.24,864.
-' Letter, April 24, 1832, G-8. Eccl.
=* Despatch, Feb. 20, 1833, 10-16, Eccl.

Online LibraryFrank PennyThe church in Madras : being the history of the ecclesiastical and missionary action of the East India Company in the Presidency of Madras in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (Volume 2) → online text (page 29 of 39)