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The church in Madras : being the history of the ecclesiastical and missionary action of the East India Company in the Presidency of Madras in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (Volume 2) online

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all a sick man could, but he died on January 7, 1832, and was
buried in the churchyard.

The Government reported his death,' and the temporary
appointment of the Eev. J. B. Morewood to the post on Es.70 a
month. Morewood was an ordained missionary of the C.M.S.,
and was in charge of that Society's mission on the Nilgn-is.
They also mentioned that Captain Underwood's Ijill for laying
out the churchyard as a burial-ground amounted to Rs.583.
The Directors had no objection to Morewood's appointment,^
but the mention of Underwood's name roused afresh their
resentment, and they passed his bill with renewed censure.

Morewood acted as Chaplain from 1832 to 1836. Then the
Rev. H. W. Stuart in the Company's Service was appointed,
and he retained the post for seven years. In 1843 it was made
a two years' appointment, so that more of the Chaplains might
enjoy the benefit of a change to the hill station. Among the
Chaplains have been Archdeacons Harper, Dealtry, Drury,
Warlow, Elwes, and Williams ; •"» such excellent men as Trevor,*
Lugard, Pettigrew, Gilbert Cooper, and Pigot James were
Chaplains without having risen to the rank and office of Arch-

In the year 1845 the Rev. Edward Whitehead was officiating
at St. Stephen's. One of the Lay Trustees, Captain Moore,
complained to the Bishop of the teaching in one of Whitehead's
sermons. The Bishop investigated the case and sent all the
papers to the Government with his remarks. The Governor in
Council ruled that Captain Moore's criticism was not justified,
and added ' that it was incumbent on him to avoid in future all
similar differences and collisions with the reverend Clergy.'
The Directors were asked to express an opinion on the matter,
and approved of what the Government had done.^ The
incident is only of importance as showing how the local Govern-
ment almost invariably treat the disputes and complaints of
officers in the Service ; they patiently hear and determine them.

' Letter, Oct. 2, 1832, 3, 4, Eccl.
- Despatch, Oct. 9, 1833, 9, 10, Eccl.
3 The Right Rev. A. A. Williams, Bishop of TinneveUy.
* Afterwards Canon of York,

^ Letter, Dec. 23, 1845, 2-6, Eccl. ; Despatch, March 10, 1847, 44, Eccl.

Y 2


St. Stephen's was not a military Church. The Government
pursued the regular policy of keeping it in repair, but if any
addition or improvement or alteration were required they
looked to the congregation to find a considerable portion of the
expense. In 1851 the European pojiulation of the station had
increased so greatly that the Church Committee found it
necessary to enlarge the building. The enlargement cost
Es.3000 : the Government gave Rs.l200 towards the amount.^
At the same time the congregation purchased a clock and bell
for the tower, and the Government remitted the import duty.
They had recently approved of the principle of giving assistance
to the efforts made by private individuals for the erection of
Churches, and they pointed out that the principle was equally
api)licable to the extension of accommodation and the provision
of furniture.

In 1858 the necessity of better ventilation arose. The
Church Committee contended that the need of it was due
entirely to the faultiness of the original design. On this
ground the Government paid the cost of the necessary altera-
tion.- In 1887 the same difficulty arose, and the Government
again tried to solve it without raising the height of the roof
of the nave.2 In 1899 it was clear to everyone that no ven-
tilating plan was of much practical use which did not include
the raising of the roof. To do this and to build two new
vestries would cost nearly Rs.7500. The Government agreed
to pay Es.3500 if the congregation found the rest of the
money.-* In this way the ventilation was finally perfected.

There was no chancel before 1876. In that year Mrs. Mclvor
built a chancel to the memory of her husband, and adorned the
Church with five stained- glass windows. Beside these there
is a window which was presented by Colonel W. Hughes Hallet
in memory of his wife, and two others erected in 1893, one in
memory of William and Ann Higgins by their friends, and one
in memory of Mrs. Wentworth Watson.

There are few Churches in India which have received so

1 Letter, Nov. 11, 1851, Eccl. ; Despatch, July 1, 1852, 2, 3, Eccl.

"- G.O., July 20, 1858, 241, Eccl.

3 G.O., May 11, 1887, No. 1286, Works.

* CO., June 29, 1899, No. 77, Eccl.


many handsome memorial gifts, some from individuals and
some from the congregation as a body. The carved litany
desk and the service books were the gift of Sir Henry Bliss
in memory of his wife. The altar-rail kneeler was given by
Mrs. Mclvor. Colonel and Mrs. Liardet gave the curtains,
Lady Price the frontals, and the Sisters of the Church gave a set
of stoles. The congregation gave the tubular bells and the
chiming apparatus, the rich sanctuary carpet, the reredos, the
standard lights, and the organ. The consequence of all this
goodwill is that there is no Church in the diocese, with the
possible exception of the Cathedral, which is so well appointed.

There are some interesting memorial tablets on the walls
of the building. One is to the memory of Lady Harriet
Eumbold. She was the daughter and co-heiress of Lord
Eainclift'e, and the wife of Sir William Eumbold, Bart., who
was the grandson of Sir Thomas Eumbold, Bart., Governor of
Fort St. George in 1778. Another is in memory of Mrs. Caroline
Elizabeth Havelock, the widow of Lieut. -Colonel Wilham
Havelock, K.H., who commanded the 14th Light Dragoons in
1848, and led the regiment when it made its historic charge on
the Sikh army at Eamnugger, himself being killed. The
tablet was erected by their third son. Sir Arthur Havelock,
G.C.S.I., &c., Governor of Fort St. George from 1895 to 1900.^
Among those whose bodies rest in the churchyard are Major
Eobertson, the friend of Colonel Welsh,- William Sawyer, the
first Chaplain, and many well-known civil and militarj'- officers
who helped in the past to make Madras history. The names of
Oakes, Gough, Wahab, Casamajor, Hay, Harington, Wedder-
burn, Breeks, Oucherlony, and Babington suggest deeds and
events of more or less importance to the Indian historian.

St. Stephen's churchj-ard was closed as a place of burial
when the newer churchyard of St. Thomas was laid out and

Within a short time of the occupation of the station
European soldier pensioners were attracted to it, and it
became necessary for the Chaplain to establish a school for
their children. The opening of the Breeks Memorial High

' J. J. Cotton's Monumental Inscriptions.
- Welsh's Reminiscences, ii. 215.


School in 1876 provided for the education of the boys of the
district, and the St. Stephen's School became one for girls
only. The Breeks school commemorated the Commissionship
of Mr. James Wilkinson Breeks, who was private secretary
and son-in-law of Sir William Denison, Governor of Fort
St. George. The school was vested in four trustees, of whorn
the Chaplain was one. The Bishop of Madras was Patron
and Visitor. The Chajjlain was the responsible Manager and
gave rehgious instruction to the Christian boys of the school.
It was not intended for Europeans and Eurasians only, but
for respectable natives as well.

The Sisters of the Church established a high-class school
for girls at Ootacamund in 1893. The educational oppor-
tunities of the place are therefore good.

St. Bartholomew's, Mysore. — Mysore was the ancient dynastic
capital of the Hindu Maharajahs of Mysore. It was superseded
at the beginning of the seventeenth century by Seringapatam.
Hyder Ali, the Mahomedan soldier of fortune, when he set
aside the reigning family and took their place, retained Seringa-
patam as his capital. His son Tippu demolished the fort of
the old capital and carried away the material to build a fort
elsewhere for his own military purposes. On the fall of Seringa-
patam in 1799 it was decided, partly for sanitary reasons and
partly because of the Mahomedan traditions which had
gathered round the place, to abandon Seringapatam as a royal
residence and to restore the old glory of Mysore. Accordingly
the stones which had been removed by Tippu were brought
back, the fort was rebuilt, and a new palace was erected by
Captain de Havilland in 1805. Among the many public and
private buildings which were erected at the same time was an
imposing house for the Political Resident, Sir John Malcolm.

The British force for the protection of the restored Maha-
rajah and his State was concentrated at Seringapatam. But
there was a small military detachment at ]\Iysore for the protec-
tion of the Resident. The officers of the Detachment and the
civil officials under the orders of the Resident made a small
European community in the Mysore capital. This state of
affairs continued till the year 1830. By that time the European
community began to feel the need of a Church. The necessary


leader was at hand in the person of Mr. Francis Lewis. He
died in 1861. In the Church is a tablet to his memory, which
was erected by his widow and children. It is described as
' a monument of his pious and indefatigable zeal ; feeling the
need of a Christian sanctuary in this place, and impelled by a
desire of promoting the glory of God, he began the good work,
which by the aid and co-operation of Christian friends he was
enabled to bring to a happy termination.' Bishop Turner
of Calcutta included Mysore in his tour of inspection at the
close of the year 1830. The ground for the intended Church
was marked out, and the Bishop consecrated the ground on
November 29.

Owing to his extravagance and bad government the Maha-
rajah was deprived of power in 1831, and a commission of
officers under Colonel Sir Mark Cubbon was appointed to
administer the affairs of the State. This increased the number
of Europeans in the station, so that the building of the Church
was a less difficult matter than it would have been under
previous circumstances. Mysore was not a military station,
nor had it a resident Chaplain ; the Government could not
therefore under their rules give any assistance. The resident
civil and military officers built for themselves at their own
expense. The building was completed in 1832. It measured
57 X 37 X 19 feet, having a nave and two side aisles. The
cost of it was Rs.3500,1 and the accommodation was for 110
persons. Soon after its completion one of the two Chaplains
at Bangalore Avas ordered to pay a quarterly visit to Mysore ;
this arrangement continued till the year 1858.

There was at Mysore at the time of the building of the Church
a flourishing Wesleyan Mission. The work of the missionaries
was the preaching of the Gospel to the natives. They them-
selves were simple God-fearing men, who were much respected
by the European officials. They had no fault to find with the
liturgy of the Church, no marked political views, no difference
of opinion with Church people about religious education. It
was too near to the time of Charles Wesley for them to have
separated in any great degree from the Church of their fathers.
It was quite in accordance with what was esteemed to be the

' Official Return of Churches, 1852.


fitness of things that these Wesley an missionaries should be
asked to conduct the services of the new Church in the absence
of the visiting Chaplain. This arrangement continued for
fifteen years.

Li the 3-ear 1847 they assumed more power than the Euro-
pean community at Mysore had conferred upon them. The
Chaplains at Bangalore were appealed to, and they in turn
inquired of Archdeacon Shortland as to whether the building
was a Church of England building or not. The Archdeacon
replied that it was ; he enclosed a copy of the deed of consecra-
tion of the ground on which it stood, and a memorandum of
the proceedmgs of the consecration dated November 29, 1830.1
The deed was signed by the British Resident in Mysore and
fifteen other Europeans. The Wesleyan missionaries were
not satisfied. They appear to have thought that they had some
proprietary rights in the building. In June 1848 the Lay Trustee
reported to the Chaplains at Bangalore that one of the mission-
aries had ' forcibly altered the position of the pulpit ' ; that he
had therefore fixed it in the position ordered by the Chaplains,
and that the Wesleyan missionaries had consequently declined to
ofiiciate. He asked if it were allowable for a lay member of the
Church to read the service between the Chaplain's periodical visits.

The question was submitted to Archdeacon Shortland, who
praised the Lay Trustee and recommended that the services
should always be conducted at Mysore by a layman of the
Church. He attributed the disorder which had arisen to a
' compromise of the Church's principles by allowing the
Methodist preachers to officiate at all.' On the receipt of this
letter it was decided at Mysore at a meeting of the Church
Committee to ask the Commandant, Major Codrington, to
arrange for the services between the visits of the Chaplains.

Seven miles from Mysore is the cantonment known as
French Rocks. Here a native infantry regiment had been
quartered from the year 1830, when Seringapatam was given
up, by reason of its unhealthiness, as a military station. In
the year 1840 the officers of the 2nd M.N.I, built a chapel,
where they could have divine service. It cost Es.515. As they
did not want it on any day except Sunday they allowed the

' The \\hole correspondence is in the File Book of St. Mark's, Bangalore.


Wesleyan missionary to use it for his school purposes on the
other days of the week, and they placed it in his charge. When
the 2nd M.N.I, had left the station the missionary appears
to have persuaded himself that the building was handed over
to him in fee simple, and he gave it in trust to six Wesleyan
missionaries, one of whom was John Garrett, to be held by
them for the Wesleyan Missionary Society.

^Vhen the Chaplains from Bangalore visited French Kocks
they had to borrow this building for the services of the Church.
The intention of the officers of the 2nd M.N.I, was that they
should use it as of right, but there is no doubt that they ex-
pressed their intention badly. In 1849 the Archdeacon was
appealed to. He knew nothing about it.i An attempt was
made to purchase the building, and the Archdeacon offered on
the part of the S.P.C.K. (London) £50 towards the expense, and
a set of service books. The attempt failed, and the Bangalore
Chaplains began to collect money to build a chapel of their
own. The Archdeacon wrote ^ expressing sympathy with their
intention, and promised £50 from S.P.C.K. funds as soon as
the property was transferred to the Bishop and Archdeacon in
trust. In September 1851 the Bangalore Chaplains applied to
the acting Archdeacon for the promised grant, but the promise
was subject to the condition that the building was finished
and placed in trust ownership. While these negotiations were
going on John Garrett had begun to make inquiries, and he
came to the right conclusion that the building had never been
handed over to the Wesleyan Missionary Society by the officers
who built it. However he had possession, and was evidently
anxious to do what was right. He therefore executed a deed
conveying the school chapel in trust to the Bishop and Arch-
deacon on condition ' that evangelical protestant missionaries,
who are willing to use the Church liturg}^ shall not be excluded
from performing divine worship in it, when not being used
by the Chaplain, and when required to do so by the commandant
of the station.' •"

' Archdeacon's letter, Dec. 17, 1849, at St. Mark's, Bangalore.

- Archdeacon's letter, March 10, 1851, at St. Mark's, Bangalore.

^ The building was transferred to the Government in 1863. G.O., March 4
and 27, 1863, Eccl. In this Order it is stated that it was originally built by
the Wesleyan Mission ; but this statement is not correct.


There were several small communities of Europeans in
the State of Mysore beside that at French Rocks. The}^ were
visited and ministered to by the Bangalore Chaplains until
1858, when a separate Chaplain was assigned to Mysore and
its out-stations. The Rev. W. W. Gilbert Cooper was the first
Chaplain. In 1861 he was succeeded by the Rev. S. A. Godfrey,
a Eurasian clergj-man who had been educated at Bishop's
College, Calcutta, and ordained by Bishop Spencer of Madras.
He officiated at Mysore from 1861 to 1866.

During his tenure of office there was a local desire that the
Mysore Church should be transferred to the Government.
The officers of the Mysore Commission considered that they
had a right to the ministrations of one of the Service Chaplains,
and they thought that their chance of getting one would be
improved if their Church were the trust property of the Govern-
ment. Accordingly in 1864 a special meeting of the Vestry was
held, and it was resolved to carry the transfer into effect. No
difficulty was apprehended. The resolution noted that the
building was unquestionably the property of the Church of
England ; that it was built by members of the Church of England
for themselves on ground given to them for the purpose by
H.H. the Maharajah ; that the ground was solemnly set apart
and consecrated by Bishop Turner of Calcutta ; and that the
repairs and expenses had been borne from the beginning by the
Church of England community.^ The Government of Madras
and the Government of India approved of the transfer, and the
Church was placed on the list of those to be kept in repair by
the Department of Public Works.^ From that time a Chaplain
has been stationed at Mysore. In 1865 Bishop Gell of Madras
consecrated the Church and dedicated it to the service of God
in honour of St. Bartholomew.

One of the duties of the Mysore Chaplain was to visit French
Rocks once a month. The Rev. J. W. Wynch was appointed
to Mysore in 1869. He found that the French Rocks chapel
was unfurnished. It had been the custom up to that time to
get chairs, &c., from the regimental mess when services were

' Mysore Vestry Minute Book, 18G4.

2 CO., Nov. 15, 1864, No. .5480, Home Dept. ; CO., Aug. 10, 18G5,
No. 205, Home Dept. ; CO., Nov. 21, 1868, No. 243, Eccl.


held. With the co-ojuTatioii of the Government and the
officers of the 30th M.N. I., he furnished the building. He made
a raised sanctuary with a step for the use of communicants ;
he put in an altar, vested it worthily and adorned it in the usual
way ; he purchased an old ship's bell in Madras, a bell that had
been recovered from a wreck on the coast, and attached it to
the building ; and he made the interior more like a place of
worship than it had ever been before. The Government paid
a portion of the total expense.^

At Mysore also Mr. Wynch was instrumental in improving
the appearance of St. Bartholomew's in the same kind of way ;
the altar, the font, the lectern, the carved teakwood screens,
and the altar ornaments were all due to him and a small band
of like-minded workers, chief among whom was Colonel Malle-
son, the young Maharajah's guardian.

The rendition of the Mysore State to the Maharajah took
place in 1881. The Commission came to an end, the native
regiment was withdrawn from French Kocks, but the Maharajah
wisely kept some British officers of experience in his service.
There was not quite the same need for a Chaplain as there was
before, nor was there at Mercara, eighty miles away in the
Coorg District. An arrangement was therefore made by which
Mysore, Mercara, and several small stations shared a Chaplain
between them.

Besides the tablet in the Church already mentioned there
is one to the memory of Lieut.-Colonel T. M. McHutchin (1873),
one to the memory of Lieut.-Colonel A. H. Macintire (1897), both
erected by their brother officers and friends ; and one to the
memory of a gracious lady, Mrs. Mary Eden Benson (1895),
who endeared herself to a large circle of friends of all classes in
Mysore by ' her loving, unselhsh and sympathetic life.' By
them the tablet was erected.

The Central Provinces. — The territories which have been
known by this designation since 1860 were part of the Moghul
empire up to 1743. Then the Mahrattas took possession of
them and divided them among themselves. In 1803 Scindiah
of Gwalior and the Eajah of Berar combined against the East
India Company. Nagpore was then the capital of Berar.

' CO., July 12, 1871, No. 117, Eccl.


The confederacy was defeated by General Wellesley and the
troops under his command ; these belonged to the Madras
army. This was the original connection between the Madras
Government and the Central Provinces.

In 1 SI 6 the reigning Rajah of Nagpore appointed a regent
named Moodajee, generally known as Appa Sahib. Moodajee
entered into a treaty with the Governor-General, by w^hich
the Eajah agreed to receive a permanent Subsidiary Force for
his protection in return for a fixed payment. He then changed
his mind. He caused the Rajah to be strangled, combined with
other Mahratta chiefs against the British, and attacked the
Subsidiary Force on the hills of Seetabuldee between the town
of Nagpore and the Residency. After two defeats Moodajee
Hed, and order was re-established. The fighting was severe,
for Moodajee had with him a large number of trained Mahratta
and Arab troops.^

After the second Mahratta war, brigades were stationed at
Jaulnah, just outside Berar ; at Kamptee, ten miles from Nag-
pore ; and at Mhow, near Holkar's capital of Indore. Later on
the headquarters of the two brigades at Mhow and Kamptee
were established at Saugor, and later on at Jubbulpore. In
1822 the Madras troops at Kamptee were relieved by Bengal
troops. The Resident at Nagpore wrote to Colonel Hopeton
Scott eulogising the force under his command.^ Two years
later Kamptee was again made a station for Madras troops,
and it became a first-class command.

Christ Church, Mhow. — According to the Official Return of
Churches in the Presidency of Madras dated 1852 the Church
at Mhow was built by the Government of Fort St. George in
1826 and enlarged in 1840. It measured 66 x 45 X 21 feet,
had sittings for 280 persons, and cost Rs. 24,669. It is quite
certain, however, that no Chaplain on the Madras establish-
ment was ever permanently stationed there. The last time
repairs were carried out at the expense of the Government of
Madras was in ISSS."^

Christ Church, Karnj)tee. — The next Church to be built

' Wilson's Hialory of the Madras Army, iv. 35-55.
- Wilson's History oj the Madras Army, iv. 215.
•* Consvltations, April 1, 1853, No. IG, Public.


was at Kamptee. The Directors sanctioned its erection in
1828, but it was not taken in hand until 1831. There was a
difficulty about the foundations, for the soil at Kamptee is
black cotton soil. The dimensions of the Church are 120 X 60
X 24 feet ; the accommodation is for 800 persons ; Lieutenant
Douglas of the Madras Engineers was the architect ; the cost
was Es.43,679 ; and it was completed in 1832.1 Before the
Church was completed services must have been held in some
barrack building set apart for the purpose ; for in 1880
Archdeacon Robinson applied to Government for the allow-
ances of a first-class Church, which means that the usual four
or five native servants were necessary to keep the building clean
and safe. According to rule, however, the grant could not be
sanctioned till the real Church building was completed and in

The completion report did not arrive in Madras until too
late for the homeward ships of 1832. It was sent in 1833, and
the Directors received it at the end of that year.^ It was five
years after they had sanctioned it, and they had forgotten all
about it. They were not pleased that the Church had been
erected without having the style, dimensions, and plan sub-
mitted to them, but they trusted that ' there were grounds to
justify the expenditure,' and said no more about it.'^

The burial-grounds at all the out-garrisons were left un-
provided with enclosing walls until the middle of the nineteenth
century. Kamptee was no exception. Its burial-ground
was surrounded by a hedge in 1834, and the Government
thought this quite sufficient as a protection.'"^

Online LibraryFrank PennyThe church in Madras : being the history of the ecclesiastical and missionary action of the East India Company in the Presidency of Madras in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (Volume 2) → online text (page 30 of 39)