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The church in Madras : being the history of the ecclesiastical and missionary action of the East India Company in the Presidency of Madras in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (Volume 2) online

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West Coast stations 1808-12 ; Bangalore 1812-20 ; the Presi-
dency Church (St. George's) 1820-24, when he retired. At
Bellary and Bangalore he originated local missions, which
were carried on by means of monthly subscriptions among the
civil and military officers of the garrisons, and were unconnected
with either of the missionarj^ societies of the Church. Fifty
years after, when they had grown beyond the management of
the Chaplain, they were taken over by the S.P.G. Thomas
served the whole of his time without taking leave to Europe.
He probably suffered in health in consequence, for on his return
home he was unable to do any regular work.

Marmaduke Thoni'pson. — Fifth son of Thomas Thompson of
London, merchant. Born 1776. Matriculated at Pembroke
College, Cambridge, 1796. Graduated B.A. 1800, M.A. 1803 ;
appointed 1806. He was one of the first five Chaplains nomin-
ated by the Rev. Charles Simeon at the request of the Directors.
On his arrival he was sent to Cuddalore to minister to the cadets
at that station. The cadets were removed in 1809, and Thomp-
son was selected by the Governor of Fort St. George to be
Junior Presidency Chaplain. The Senior Presidency Chaplain
was Edward Vaughan. These two, with the Chaplain of Black-
town, shared the whole work of the Fort, the town of Madras,



THE CHAPLAINS, 1805 TO 1835 357

and the suburbs west and south. He assisted the Black Town
Committee to found the Civil Male Orphan Asylum in the
absence of the Black Town Chaplain. When the old St. Mary's
Poor Fund came to an end he was instrumental in founding the
Friend in Need Society, and became its first President in 1813.
He was the first secretary of the C.M.S. Corresponding Com-
mittee at Madras, and as such he helped the Society to obtain
the goodwill of many of the Company's civil and military
officers. When St. George's Church was ready for use in 1815,
Vaughan and Thompson were transferred to it and became the
first Chaplains of St. George's. Hough says that there was a
party in Madras who tried to prevent Thompson's appointment
to the new Church, but there is nothing in the records to show
this. At the time of the appointment he had been Junior
Presidency Chaplain for nearly six years. His wife died at
Madras in 1819, and he went on leave to England soon after-
wards. During his furlough he was selected by the C.M.S. to
preach the annual sermon to members of that Society at St.
Bride's, Fleet Street. He returned to India in 1823 as Senior
Presidency Chaplain, and retired in 1825. In many respects
he was a notable Chaplain. As C.M.S. secretary he w^as instru-
mental in obtaining for the Society a site for their first
Church in Madras, and he was a diligent and sympathetic
worker among the members of the Eurasian i community.
In 1831 he became Eector of Brightwell in Berkshire.

CJiarles Baihurst was appointed by the Directors in 1806.
He was probably an undergraduate at Cambridge at the time
of his nomination, for at that time Simeon selected the candi-
dates. On arrival at Madras he was sent to Masulipatam ;
after six years he fell a victim to the climate in common with
many other Europeans, and died in 1813. The officers of the
garrison erected a monument to his memory in the Church
within the Fort.- On this he is styled M.A. ; as a matter of fact
he was not a graduate.

John Kerr. — Son of Hugh Kerr, merchant, of the county of
Longford in Ireland. Born 1782. Matriculated at Trinity
College, Dublin, in 1796, but did not graduate. Accompanied

^ Called in his time Indo-Briton.

2 Archdeacon's Records, June 22, 1820.



358 THE CHURCH IN MADRAS

his cousin, the Eev. R. H. Kerr, to India in 1803, and assisted
him as schoohnaster and superintendent of the Male Asylum
Press until 1806. He then returned to Ireland and was
ordained Deacon and Priest in October of that year. Being
approved by the Archbishop of Canterbury ^ he "was appointed
Chaplain b}^ the Directors and arrived at Madras in August
1807. He was appointed at once to the charge of the Black Town
Church, and superintendent of the Male Asylum Press. In the
following October his health broke down and he had to go on
sick leave to the Cape of Good Hope. There he remained for
nearly two years. At the end of 1809 he was back in Madras.
He struggled on with his work during 1810, but at the beginning
of the following year he had to take sick leave to Bangalore.
There he died on April 2, 1811. There is a monument over his
grave in the old cemetery. He was unmarried. In his will
he mentioned his sister, Jane Ellis Kerr of Madras, and Mrs.
Lewis Kerr of Dublin, presumably the mother of the Rev. E. H.
Kerr and his aunt.

William Avihoor Keating was born in 1779 at Amboor in
the North Arcot District, being the son of Lieut. -Colonel
William Cooper Keating, an officer belonging to the Madras
Military Establishment of the Hon. Company's Service. He
matriculated at Merton College, Oxford, in 1798, but did not
proceed to a degree. He was appointed a Chaplain in 1808.
His first station was Trichinopoly. The heat there was more
than he could bear and he had to take furlough in 1810. On
his return to India he officiated for a short time at Poonamallee,
and in 1813 he was appointed Chaplain of St. Mary's, Fort St.
George, in succession to Vaughan and Thompson, who were
transferred to St. George's. These two retained the titles
and the emoluments of their office as Senior and Junior Presi-
dency Chaplains, and Keating was the first Chaplain of the Fort
after the appointment had been shorn of half its honour and
glory. In 1820 he was attacked by cholera whilst conducting
the morning parade service, and he died the same evening,
aged forty-one. Colonel Welsh says he was the best preacher
he ever heard in the East.-

' I was not long personally acquainted with him, l)ut all

' Lambeth Acl Book, Jan. 3, 1807. - Reminiscences, ii. 170.



THE CHAPLAINS, 1805 TO 1835 359

that I had an opportunity of seeing in his behaviour, both
pubHcly and privately, made me lament his untimely fate. In
society he was mild, modest and gentlemanly ; in the pulpit
pious, zealous and energetic ; with the clearest and most
melodious voice I ever heard. His reading of the Communion
Service in particular was the most affecting and eloquent that
the mind of man could conceive,' &c.

Keating's remains rest in St. Mary's burial-ground. He left
a widow, Margaret Wray Keating, and a son, William.

Joh7i Dunsterville was the son of Bartholomew Dunsterville
of Plymouth. Born 1776. Matriculated at Exeter College,
Oxford, in 1794, and graduated B.A. in 1798. He was appointed
a Chaplain in the Company's Service in 1808. He spent twenty
years at Cannanore and four years at Bangalore, dying at the
former place in 1831, aged 55. He buried the Kev. John Kerr
at Bangalore in 1811. He is mentioned with respect by Colonel
E. G. Wallace in his book ' Fifteen Years in India.' He left
descendants, some of whom were well known in the Presidency
during the nineteenth century.

Bicfiard Smyth was born in 1774, being the son of Eichard
Smith of Eeading in Berkshire. He matriculated at Hertford
College, Oxford, in 1792 ; graduated B.A. 1798, and M.A. 1800 ;
and appointed Chaplain in 1808. The first five years of his
service were spent at Trichinopoly, and the last fifteen in the
North Arcot District, where a strong brigade was divided
between Arcot, Arnee, Vellore, and Wallajahbad. At the end
of 1829 he went on sick leave to Bangalore and died there on
the last day of the year in the fifty-seventh year of his age.
He was buried in the old cemetery. The inscription on the
monument shows that his widow Maria was buried in the
same grave in 1841.

John Mousleij was the son of John Mousley of Boswell in
the county of Warwick. Born 1771. Matriculated at Trinity
College, Oxford, 1793 ; graduated B.A. 1800, M.A. 1802 ; he
was elected Fellow of Balliol in 1802 and retained his fellow-
ship until 1816. In 1818 he was granted the B.D. and D.D.
degrees by decree. He was appointed Chaplain in 1810 ;
served with the Arcot brigade in 1811 ; was recalled to Madras
in 1812, and officiated as Junior Presidency Chaplain at St.



360 THE CHURCH IN MADRAS

Marj^'s, Fort St. George. In the following year he was nomin-
ated first Archdeacon of Madras by the Board of Directors.
He had only three years' service to his credit, but he was a
recognised classical and Oriental scholar. Before going to
India he had translated some of the Persian manuscripts in
the Bodleian Library into Latin, and made them accessible to
English scholars. His desire to study Persian further and to
master the language for literary purposes was the probable
cause of his seeking and obtaining a Chaplaincy. He died at
Madras in 1819, aged 48, and was buried in the church-
yard of St. George's Cathedral. On his tomb is a sculptured
figure of Faith by Flaxman. The Latin epitaph praises his piety,
his scholarship, his large-hearted toleration, and his Christian
faith. It is said to have been written by Bishop Middleton of
Calcutta. He left no ofiice records and he died intestate.

Morgan Davis was born in 1774, according to the inscription
on his monument. He was appointed in 1810, and on his
arrival in Madras was placed at St. Mark's, Black Town, to carry
on the work commenced by the Eev. E. H. Kerr and his cousin
the Eev. John Kerr. Like them he had charge of the Male
Asj'lum and the Press in connection with it. In 1808 a com-
mittee of domiciled Europeans and Indo-Britons (as the
Eurasians were then called) estabhshed, with the assistance
and advice of Marmaduke Thompson, one of the Fort Chaplains,
the Civil Male Orphan Asylum, and placed it close to St. Mark's
Church, in order that the St. Mark's Chaplain might be able to
supervise the management, discipline, and religious teaching.
When Davis arrived he found that a similar committee was
estabhshing a Civil Female Orphan Asylum, and were about
to place it near the Male Asylum. He threw himself into
the scheme and assisted to bring it to a successful issue,
and for nearly twelve years he watched over the institu-
tions and helped to place them on a sound financial footing.
This was his principal work at Black Town. In 1817 the
spiritual charge of the Hospital and the Jail was added to his
duties. In 1822 he had to take sick leave to the Cape of Good
Hope, and died there on November 28, aged 48. There
is a tablet to his memory at St. Mark's, which was erected by
his parisliioners.



THE CHAPLAINS, 1805 TO 1835 361

Charles Henry Samjpson was the eldest son of James Sampson
of Hanover Square, London. Born 1768. Matriculated at
Magdalen Hall, Oxford, in 1802 ; graduated B.A. 1805, M.A.
1810. In that year he was appointed a Chaplain. On arrival
at Madras he was posted to Cannanore, where he served for two
years. He returned home in 1813, took the degrees of B.D. and
D.D. at Oxford the same year, and resigned the service in 1815.

Thomas Wetherherd was the son of Theophilus Wetherherd
of Leeds. He matriculated at Trinity College, Cambridge, in
1793 ; migrated to St. Peter's College, where he was elected a
scholar in 1797 ; graduated B.A. in 1798 in mathematical
honours, and M.A, in 1804. He was appointed a Chaplain in
1810. He served at Bellary from 1811 to 1823, and at St.
Thomas' Mount from 1823 to 1829, when he retired. He died
in 1839.

James Hutchison was the son of Kev. Alexander Hutchison
of Hamilton, co. Lanark, Clerk in Holy Orders. Born 1782.
Matriculated at Balhol College, Oxford, in 1800 ; graduated
B.A. in 1804 and M.A. in 1806. He was appointed a Chaplain
in 1813. He served at Quilon till 1821, and then at Palam-
cottah till his return to England in 1829. He retired from the
service in 1831, and died in 1858.

Jose'ph Brackenbunj was the son of Joseph Brackenbury of
Spilsby, CO. Lincoln. Born 1788. Matriculated at Corpus
Christi College, Cambridge, in 1806, and was soon afterwards
elected to a foundation scholarship. A year later he obtained
scholarships on the foundations of Bishop Mawson and Dean
Spencer. He graduated B.A. in 1811. While an under-
graduate he published a volume of poems by subscription.
The list of subscribers shows that he had many relations in his
county. He was appointed Chaplain in 1813. He served at
Secunderabad and Jaulnah from 1814 to 1818, when he returned
home and resigned. He took his M.A. degree in 1819. In
1841 he became Chaplain and Secretary of the Magdalen
Asylum, London, and retained this post till 1863, when he
became Vicar of Quendon, Essex. He died in 1864.

Samuel Jones was appointed in 1813, but resigned before
leaving England. He was an Irishman of Trinity College,
Dubhn, and graduated B.A. in 1796. He was appointed



362 THE CHURCH IN MADRAS

Canon of Limerick in 1817, and took his M.A. degree at
Dublin in 1832.

Henry Cartwright Bankes was the son of William Bankes of
Boraston, Shropshire. Born 1787. Matriculated at All Souls
College, Oxford, in 1806. He migrated to St. Alban's Hall
before graduating B.A. in 1812. He was appointed a Chaplain
in 1814 ; served at Trichinopoly from 1815 till 1823, and then
for a short time at Secunderabad. He died in India in 1824.

Charles Norman matriculated at Pembroke College, Cam-
bridge, in 1811, and migrated to St. Catherine's College a
month ;later. While still an undergraduate he was nomi-
nated to a Chaplaincy in 1814 ; he accepted the nomination
but resigned almost immediately afterwards. He graduated
B.A. in 1815.

William Rojj was the eldest son of Kobert Roy, the Principal
of a private school in Kensington ; his mother was Mary
Forsyth. Both parents belonged to the county of Elgin in
Scotland. Educated by his father, William Eoy matriculated
at Magdalen Hall, Oxford, in 1811, but left the University
without taking a degree. He was appointed a Chaplain in
1814. After serving at Masulipatam for four years, where he
attracted the notice of Edward Vaughan, the Senior Presidency
Chaplain, he was posted to St. Thomas' Mount and thus
brought nearer to the seat of Government. Here he remained
three years, and was then brought nearer still, namely to
Black Town, through the influence of Vaughan, who became
Archdeacon in 1819. At Black Town he had spiritual charge
of the Hospital, the Jail, the Civil Orphan Asylums, as well as
the ordinary parochial work, and he acquitted himself so well
that in 1824 he was made Junior Presidency Chaplain and
transferred to St. George's, Choultry Plain. In the following
year he succeeded Marmaduke Thompson as Senior Presidency
Chaplain, and he retained this position till he returned to
England in 1831. On the death of Vaughan he acted as
Archdeacon till the arrival of his successor. Roy was a
prominent and valuable member of the S.P.C.K. and S.P.G.
District Committees, and took a leading part in the preservation
of the mission property when it was in jeopardy. He married
Anne Catherine Gascoigne in Madras, and had a family of nine



THE CHAPLAINS, 1805 TO 18.35 363

children. In 1833 he was presented to the Eectory of Skirbeck
in the county of Lincoln, of which he purchased the advowson a
few years later. At Skirbeck he found plenty of scope for his
abilities and his natural energy. He was elected Chairman of
the newly constituted Board of Guardians for Boston, which
office he retained till his death. He was Chairman of the local
Bench of Magistrates. He built the Church and schools of
Holy Trinity, Skirbeck, in 1848, and in the same year he rebuilt
the Eectory house, which had been burnt down in the previous
year. He died in 1852, and was buried beneath the altar of
Holy Trinity Church. He was a learned and able man, who
showed in all the various positions he occupied an excellent
judgment and a calm, dispassionate temper. He was known
both in India and in England as Dr. Roy. Whether the title
was assumed or given him by admiring friends is unknow^n, but
it is certain that it was not conferred upon him by any Univer-
sity in Great Britain or Ireland.

Henry Harper was a native of Devon and was born in 1791.
He matriculated at St. John's College, Cambridge, in 1809 ;
migrated to Queen's College in 1811 ; and graduated B.A. from
that college in 1813. On the nomination of the Rev. Charles
Simeon he was appointed a Chaplain in 1814. After service at
Chittoor, Secunderabad, and St. Thomas' Mount, he went home
in 1824, and took his M.A. degree at Cambridge. On his return
to India he served at Bellary, Vizagapatam, and Black Town,
and in 1831 was nominated by Archdeacon Robinson as Junior
Presidency Chaplain at St. George's. In 1832 he acted as
Archdeacon for six months during the absence of the Ven.
T. Robinson. In 1886 he was appointed Archdeacon by Bishop
Corrie of Madras. This appointment he held till 1846, when he
returned home. From 1847 to 1856 he lived in retirement at
Cambridge. He then accepted the Rectory of Elvedon in
Suffolk, and there he died in 1865. Archdeacon Harper had
to succeed an Archdeacon of great administrative ability,
of recognised scholarship, of courtly address, and of grave
judgment. His position was difficult, but he had the abihty
to rise to the occasion, and not to suffer by contrast with his
predecessor. Both men were nominees of Charles Simeon.
Both outlived the narrowness of their early views and were



364 THE CHURCH IN MADRAS

able to do work of lasting excellence in the Hon. East India
Company's Service.

James Traill was nominated by Simeon and appointed
in 1815. He was not a graduate, but was probably a Cambridge
man who came under the notice and influence of his patron
while still a student. He served at Vizagapatam from 1817
to 1819, when his health gave way and he had to return to
England. He resigned the Service in 1822.

Thomas Lewis was born in 1789 ; he was a son of Thomas
Lewis, M.D., of London. Matriculated at Queen's College,
Oxford, 1806; graduated B.A. 1810, and M.A. 1815. He
became a student of Lincoln's Inn 1809, but gave up the study
of the law for theology before he was called to the bar. He
was appointed a Chaplain in 1815, and on arrival at Madras
was posted to Fort St. George. He retained this much coveted
position for fourteen years, and in 1830 was appointed Chaplain
to the North Arcot Brigade. On February 20, 1833, he died at
Vellore. No monument was raised to his memory at that
station nor at Arcot. In his will he mentioned his brother,
Edward Page Lewis, Chaplain of Bunder (Masulipatam), and
his sister, Margaret Wray Lewis, presumably the wife of his
brother and the widow of William Amboor Keating.

James Hough was a native of Cumberland and w^as born in
1789. He was nominated by Charles Simeon and was appointed
to a Chaplaincy in 1S15. The fact of his nomination by Simeon
leads one to suppose that he was a student at Cambridge at
the time. He arrived at Madras in 1816, and was welcomed
and entertained by Marmaduke Thompson till he was sent to
Palamcottah. Here he remained five years, devoting his chief
attention to the mission work of the district. His proper
work as a Chaplain was among the European officers, soldiers,
and civilians of the station ; but he was much more interested
in mission work than in the pastoral care of his countrymen.
He nursed the old S.P.C.K. Mission established by Schwartz,
superintended the native catechists and schoolmasters, and
repaired the mission schoolrooms and chapels in Palamcottah
and the surrounding villages. As the S.P.C.K. could not send
a European missionary to shepherd the many Christians of the
district, he paved the way for the C.M.S. by purchasing some



THE CHAPLAINS, 1805 TO 1835 365

land for them.^ In 1821 he was transferred to Poonamallee.
Here his health broke down, so that after a year's work he was
obliged to go to England. On his return in 1824 he was, at the
instance of Marmaduke Thompson, made Junior Presidency-
Chaplain at St. George's. But he was unable to bear the heat
of the climate. In 1826 he travelled through the Nilgiris to
the west coast, and went home in that year not to return. In
1828 he entered as a Fellow Commoner at Queen's College,
Cambridge, and graduated B.A. in 1832 and M.A. in 1835.

Hough wrote and published many books during his furlough
to England and after his retirement from the Company's
Service. His first book was a reply to the Abbe Dubois (1824),
who took a gloomy view of the prospect of any missionary
success in Lidia. His second book (1829) was a collection of
letters on the climate, scenery, and productions of the Nilgiris.
Then came some volumes of sermons, ' The Missionary's Vade
Mecum ' (1832), and an informing booklet on the immolation
of Hindu widows (1833). In 1837 the missionary work of the
Church in India was violently attacked by Dr. (afterwards
Cardinal) Wiseman. Hough replied to the attack and vindi-
cated the methods employed. But his greatest work was the
' History of Christianity in India ' in five volumes, which he
compiled between 1839 and 1847 with the assistance of his
son. In 1834 he became vicar of Ham in Surrey, and in the
same year the C.M.S. wisely invited him to join their committee,
and to give them the benefit of his local knowledge of Madras
missionary affairs. He died at Hastings and was buried at
Ham in 1847, being succeeded in the vicarage by his son, the
Eev, T. G. P. Hough, who assisted him in the compilation of
his history and saw the work through the press.

Edward Martin John Jackson matriculated at St. John's
College, Cambridge, in 1812 as Edward Jackson, and graduated
B.A. in 1816 under his full name. He married in 1814, while
still an undergraduate, Fanny, the daughter of James Lardner
of Teignmouth, Devon. At Cambridge he came under the
influence of Charles Simeon, and was recommended by him for
a Chaplaincy in the Company's Service. He was appointed in
1816 as Edward Martin Jackson ; arrived in 1817 and was sent

' The Church in Madras, i. 634.



366 THE CHURCH IN MADRAS

to Vellore. There he died in 1821. He left a widow and two
children ; the son was named Edward Marriott Jackson. He
signed his will with his full name.

William Malkin was born in 1791, being the son of Samuel
Malkin of London. He was educated at a private school at
Islington, which was then ' a village near London ' ; matriculated
at Magdalen College, Cambridge, 1811, and graduated B.A.
1816. Nominated by Simeon he was appointed a Chaplain,
and arrived at Madras at the end of that year. He served at
Poonamallee till 1820 ; then he succeeded William Thomas at
Bangalore, and remained there till his retirement in 1832. In
1817 he married at Madras the eldest daughter of Sir Samuel
Toller, the Advocate-General. In 1825 he published a volume
of sermons by subscription, which he dedicated to the officers of
H.M.'s and the Hon. East India Company's Service ' who have
either permanently or occasionally attended the ministry of the
author.' The preface is dated Bangalore, 1824. The appen-
dix contains a list of the subscribers ; it includes a large number
of civil and military officers on the Madras establishment. In
1833 he became Vicar of St. Ives, Cornwall. He resigned in
1850, and lived in Jersey till 1866, when he became vicar of
Hunningham, Leamington. This work he resigned in 1867.
He died at Leamington in 1874.

Charles Church was one of the sons of the Rev. Charles Cobb
Church, J.P., Rector of Gosforth and Incumbent of Trinity
Church, Whitehaven. His mother was the daughter of Anthony
BennofHensingham House, Cumberland. Born 1785. Educated
at St. Bees Grammar School ; matriculated at Trinity College,
Cambridge, 1804 ; migrated to Jesus College and graduated
in honours B.A. 1807, M.A. 1811. He was ordained to the
curacy of Beckermont and afterwards became vicar of Hensing-
ham. He was nominated for a Chaplaincy by Simeon and
appointed in 1816. He arrived at Madras with his wife and child
in 1817, and was hospitably entertained by Marmaduke Thomp-
son. His first station was Cuddalore, one of the oldest mission
stations of the S.P.C.K. This was unfortunate for both the mis-
sion and the Society. Kerr, Thompson, and Church belonged
to'the new ' evangelical ' party which had been to some extent
frowned upon by the S.P.C.K. and those in authority. Other



THE CHAPLAINS, 1805 TO 1835 367

nominees of Charles Simeon belonged to the same party, but
only these three carried their antagonism to the Society to
India with them. Church ignored the old S.P.C.K. Mission at
Cuddalore and its historic chapel. He held services for Euro-
peans in the Magistrate's office in New Town, and hired a
house in Old Town for similar purposes. He opened two mission



Online LibraryFrank PennyThe church in Madras : being the history of the ecclesiastical and missionary action of the East India Company in the Presidency of Madras in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (Volume 2) → online text (page 33 of 39)