378 THE CHURCH IN MADRAS
zeal, and built chapels for his converts at all three stations.
He also ministered to the British soldiers and their families
at Poonamallee and Tripassore during the absence of the
Chaplain. His zeal attracted the notice of Archdeacon Robin-
son, who recommended the Directors to take him into their
service. He Avent home in the spring of 1829, and after an
interview with the Directors and the Bishop of London he
was appointed to a Chaplaincy. He arrived at Madras in
July 1830. In the following November Bishop Turner visited
the southern Presidency, and appointed Sawyer as his domestic
Chaplain during his visitation of the mission stations. This
was due to Sawyer's knowledge of Tamil. The Bishop arrived
at Ootacamunci in December 1830, and recommended the
Government to appoint Sawyer Chaplain of that station. He
became the fn-st Chaplain of Ootacamund. He was the second
missionary taken into the service of the Company.i He died
at Ootacamund in January 1832. He married twice and left
a widow and a daughter. In his will he directed that his
house, garden, land, and Church built thereon at Perambore
should be sold for the benefit of his widow and child. There
is no record to show how the chapel erected in the name of the
C.M.S. at Perambore became his private property.
William John Aislahie was born in London in 1805, being
the son of Benjamin Aislabie. He was educated at Eton ;
matriculated at Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1826 ; graduated
in honours B.A. 1830 ; and won the Tyrwhitt Hebrew scholar-
ship the same year. He was appointed Chaplain 1830. He
served at Secunderabad from 1831 to 1834, when he obtained
an appointment in Van Diemen's Land and left India.^ He was
appointed Rector of Alpheton in Suffolk in 1848, andjretained
the appointment till his death in 1876.
Hennj William Stuart was born at Lincoln. He matricu-
lated at Queen's College, Cambridge, in 1824 ; graduated B.A.
in 1830 ; and was appointed a Chaplain in 1831. He served at
Vepery 1832-34 ; Bangalore 1834-37 ; Ootacamund 1837-43 ;
Trichinopoly 1843-46 ; Senior Presidency Chaplain at St.
George's Cathedral 1846-47, when he retired. He lived for
1 A. T. Clarke was the first ; The Church in Madras, i. 686.
- Despatch, March 19, 1839, Eccl.
THE CHAPLAINS, 1805 TO 1S35 379
the next six years in Bath, and then became Vicar of Northaw
in Hertfordshire. He died in 1857.
John Cliallice Street belonged to the county of Devon. He
matriculated at Queen's College, Cambridge, in 1827, and gradu-
ated B.A. in 1831. He obtained a Chaplaincy the same year,
and went out to India with his college friend, H. W. Stuart.
He served at Cannanore four years, at Vizagapatam six years,
and at six other stations for short periods. He retired in 1854.
In the following year he became Vicar of St. Andrew's,
Plymouth ; this charge he resigned in 1868 ; he died in 1871.
George James Cubitt was born in 1804, being the son of the
Eev. John Cubitt, Eector of South Kepps, co. Norfolk. He
was educated at Norwich under Dr. Valpy ; matriculated at
Caius College, Cambridge, 1823 ; graduated B.A. 1827, and M.A.
1832. He was ordained priest at Norwich in 1829, and was
appointed Chaplain in 1832. He served for short periods at
Bellary, Vepery, and Bangalore until 1839, when he returned to
England and retired from the Company's Service. When at
Bellary, in 1834, he pubhshed a pastoral letter to his parishioners,
which was affectionate and earnest in tone. In 1838 he and
the Eev. George Trevor were the joint authors of a similar
pastoral letter to their parishioners at Bangalore. In this
letter they strongly recommended lay baptism to European and
Eurasian parents in isolated stations ; they urged that in cases
of necessity parents should baptise their children themselves,
and report the act to the nearest Chaplain, rather than leave
the children unbaptised, or take them to strange ministers of
doubtful faith. He married at Madras in 1834 a daughter of
Colonel Garrard. In 1844 he became Eector of St. Thomas',
Winchester. He published a volume of sermons preached at
Winchester in 1849. He was greatly interested in mission
work, and was a valuable and valued member of the C.M.S.
Committee till his death in 1855. In his younger days he was
a vigorous and popular preacher.
At Winchester he found that St. Thomas' Church was too
small for the needs of the parish, and he was instrumental in
building the present handsome structure. When he died the
Church was complete with the exception of the tower and spire.
The feeling roused in Winchester by his sudden death was so
380 THE CHURCH IN MADRAS
strong that the parishioners and others decided to finish what
they considered to be his work as a memorial of him. They also
erected a tablet in the Church recording their appreciation
of him. Cubitt was Chaplain of the troops at Winchester as
well as Rector of St. Thomas'.
Vinceni Sliortland was born in Oxfordshire. He entered
as a Fellow Commoner at St. Catherine's College, Cambridge,
in 1830, but left the University without taking a degree. This
he afterwards regretted, and in 1842, during his first furlough
from India, he passed the necessary theological examination
and took the degree of B.D. He obtained a Chaplaincy in 1832,
and arrived at Madras in 1833. During the next seven years
he served for short periods at Trichinopoly, Bellary, Bangalore,
Quilon, and Yizagapatam. At Trichinopoly and Bangalore
he left voluminous con-espondence in the Letter Books, for at
both stations he had to contend. He was not by choice a
contentious man, but he found at those two stations certain
conditions which he was convinced ought to be contended
against. He was gifted with the art of expressing himself with
elegance, ease, and moderation, so that his letters are models
of contention. On returning from furlough in 1843 he was
posted to St. Thomas' Mount, and came under the special
notice of Bishop Spencer. By him he was appointed Arch-
deacon in 1847, and he retained this office till his retirement
in 1859. On his return to England he did not undertake any
regular cure of souls. He lived in Guernsey and died there
William CI tester was born in 1787. He was a descendant
of Sir Robert Chester, owner of the manor of Cockerhatch in the
county of Herts. His father, William Chester, who died in
1812, married a daughter of Henry Seymor, who owned property
in the county of Dorset. William Chester married Marj^
Anne Harcourt, and had eleven children before he entered the
service of the East India Company in 1833. He was instituted
to the Rectory of Walpole in the county of Norfolk in 1824, but
there is no local evidence that he ever resided there. He was
permitted apparently to appoint a curate to carry on the
parochial work. On arrival at Madras he was sent to Yizaga-
patam, and there he died in 1836. He was accompanied to
THE CHAPLAINS, 1805 TO 1835 381
India by his wife and seven of his children. Some of these
were afterwards well known in the Presidency. One son was
in the Madras Civil Service ; another was in the Madras army ;
four of the daughters married officers in the Company's Service,
one of them being the wife of the Kev. W. T. Blenkinsop. It
must be presumed that it was for the benefit of his family that
he took the serious risk of commencing life in the tropics at the
age of forty-six.
George Willia7n MaJion was born in 1808, being the only son
of William Mahon of Swansea. He matriculated at Pembroke
College, Oxford, in 1824, and was elected a scholar the same
year. He graduated B.A. m honours 1828 and was elected to a
Fellowship, which he held till 1837, and proceeded M.A. 1831.
He was appointed a Chaplain in 1834. Htiving served at St.
Thomas' Mount, Bangalore, and Black Town for short periods,
he became Garrison Chaplain of Fort St. George in 1839. He
retained this position till he was removed from it in 1849 over
a case of suicide, so deliberate that there was in his opinion
no question of insanity, and therefore no obligation to conduct
the solemn burial office of the Church. Vincent Shortland's
case at Bangalore was a precisely similar one. In both cases
the Chaplains suffered, but their suffering bore fruit ; for it was
soon afterwards ruled that the insanity of a suicide must be
tested by evidence before a properly constituted court of
inquiry. Mahon took furlough on his removal from the Fort
and went home. He retired from the Service in 1852. He
translated ' Beschi's Tamil Grammar ' in 1848, and published
a ' Guide to the Sculptures at Mamallaipur ' (seven Pagodas),
with a learned introduction, in 1869. Mahon was an Irishman
by descent, and had the special affection of an Irish Churchman
for the word Protestant. He altered the name of the St. Mary's
Vestry School to that of the Protestant Orphanage, but the
name did not last longer than his term of office. After his
retirement he lived at x\spley, Woburn, Bedfordshire, where
he died in 1866.
John McEvoij was born in 1789, being the son of Andrew
McEvoy, a merchant of King's County. He matriculated at
Trinity College, Dublin, in 1806, and graduated B.A. in 1813.
He was admitted a member of St. John's College, Cambridge,
382 THE CHURCH IN MADRAS
in 1825, and was granted the ad eundem degree of M.A. in the
University in 1826. He was appointed a Chaplain in 1834 at
the age of forty-five. His first station was Secimderabad, with
the duty of visiting Jauhiah occasionally. Here he stayed seven
years, and was uistrnniental in carrying out some necessary
alterations and hnprovenients in the Church. In 1841 he was
transferred to the Nagpore cantonment, known to soldiers
then and smce as Kamptee. There he remained till 1851, when
his health broke down. He died at sea in July of that year
on his way home. He married a daughter of William Tucker
of Westminster, and left three sons and a daughter.
Henri) Deane was born 1807, being the son of WilHam Deane
of Stretton, Suffolk. He matriculated at Exeter College, Oxford,
1825 ; graduated B.A. 1829, M.A. 1834 ; and in the same year
was appointed a Chaplain. He had only three stations during
his service, Trichinopoly, Cannanore, and Ootacamund. This
enabled him to do some really effective work in the cause of
Eurasian education, in which he greatly interested himself.
At Trichuiopoly he brought the Vestry School to a high state
of efficiency. In 1855 he became Rector of Hintlesham in
Suffolk, and remamed there till 1870. He married at Trichin-
opoly, in 1840, Am-ora Cavendish Lewis, and had a family ; one
of the sons afterwards obtamed a commission in the Madras
Cavalry. He died ui 1891, aged eighty-four.
William Tomes was born 1786, being the son of John Tomes
of Dublin. He matriculated at Trinity College, Dublin, in 1805 ;
was elected to a scholarship 1809 ; graduated B.A. 1811 ; and
appointed a Chaplain in 1835 at the age of forty-nine. On
arrival at Madras he was sent to Arcot ; he had to visit the out-
stations of Arnee and Wallajahbad. Here he remained from
1836 to 1839, when he was transferred to Secmiderabad. He
did not live through the year. Like some others at this period
he began life in the tropics at too advanced an age ; he suc-
cumbed to the climate in October 1839, leaving a widow.
Henry Cotterill was born in 1811, being the son of the Rev.
Joseph Cotterill, Rector of Blakeney, Norfolk. He matricu-
lated at St. John's College, Cambridge, 1829. His name was
taken off the books shortly afterwards, but he was re-admitted
in February 1881. In the following year he obtained the Bell
THE CHAPLAINS, 1805 TO 1835 383
scholarship. In 1835 he graduated B.A., being senior wrangler,
first Smith prizeman, and ninth classic, and was elected to a
Fellowship. He graduated M.A. 1836, and was appointed a
Chaplain the same year. From the time of his arrival at Madras
till 1845, that is for nine years, he was Chaplain of Vepery.
He then returned to England and retired from the Company's
Service. In 1846 he was appointed Vice-Principal of Brighton
College ; in 1851 Principal. He was consecrated Bishop of
Grahamstown in 1856, and translated to Edinburgh in 1872.
His life out of India has been recorded in the ' Dictionary of
National Biography.' It is sufficient to mention here that his
ministrations at Vepery were very acceptable to the parish.
The services of the Church were frequent and crowded. The
building was intended for native Christians as well as Euro-
peans. Cotterill's popularity had the effect of ousting the
former from their fair share in the use of the Church. The
missionary of course complained, and the final result was that
a separate building for the native Christians was erected. ^
This was largely due to Cotterill's initiative. He married
before going to India.
George Trevor was born in 1809, being the sixth son of Charles
Trevor of Bridgwater. From 1825 to 1835 he was in the service
of the East India Company at the India House, London. In
1832, while still holding this appointment, he matriculated at
Magdalen Hall, Oxford, and was allowed by the Directors to
keep his terms. At Oxford he was a prominent speaker at the
Union, and succeeded Mr. Gladstone as leader of the House.
His literary work began in 1833 with contributions to Black-
wood's Magazine, which were highly esteemed by the editor.
In 1835 he resigned his post at the India House, and was
ordained. In the following year the Directors appointed him
a Chaplain on their Madras estabhshment. He served with
Cotterill as joint Chaplain of Vepery for two years. No
wonder the services of the Church were crowded. Then he
was posted to Bangalore and remained there seven years. He
returned to England in 1845, and retired from the Company's
Service, which he had adorned for twenty years. In 1839 he
published a volume of sermons preached at Vepery. In 1844
^ The Church in Madras, i. 577.
384 THE CHURCH IN MADRAS
he published a sermon preached at St. Mark's, Bangalore, at the
parade service of the 2nd European Jjight Infantr}-. The
same year he preached the Ordination sermon at Ootacamund,
and this was published at the request of Bishop Spencer. The
last sermon he preached in India was at St. George's Cathedral,
Madras, before the Governor, when he ventured to deprecate
strongly, though in restrained language, the exclusion of the
Bible from the system of public education, which was at the
time in its infanc}'. Ho would have made the study of it
optional ; he would not have excluded it.
When at Bangalore he revived and refounded the Tamil
^Mission, which had been originated by the Eev. William
Thomas twenty years before. Trevor was under the impres-
sion that he founded the mission, and said so in the pamphlet
called ' The Company's Eaj.' This statement has been
embodied in the * Dictionary of National Biography.' What
happened was this. The mission consisted of a Catechist and
a schoolmaster, who worked under the Chaplain's supervision.
The native congregation worshipped at St. Mark's ; the
Catechist conducted the service. The baptisms, &c., of converts
were entered in the St. Mark's register books. Notwithstanding
his heavy civil and military duties, Trevor took an active part
in the missionary work, and baptised a good many converts
himself. This use of the Government register books and the
Church was objected to, as seeming to involve the Government
in the work of missionary endeavour. Trevor thereupon ob-
tained a site for a separate Church and school buildings for the
native congregation from Sir Mark Cubbon, the Chief Com-
missioner in Mysore, and raised the money to build them.
The Church was consecrated in 1844 by Bishop Spencer and
named in honour of St. Paul. The service was attended by
Sir Mark Cubbon ; Lord Gough, who commanded the Bangalore
Division ; and the chief civil and military officers of the station.
The new Church was provided with register books of its own.
On his return to England he graduated B.A. at Oxford in 1846
and M.A. in 1847. He took many opportunities in later
years of defending and explaining the missionary policy of the
Company. In his last sermon at Madras Cathedral he referred
to the Queen's declaration of non-interference with the religions
THE CHAPLAINS, 1805 TO 1835 385
of the people of India, and said that it was likely to prove more
injurious than a declaration of neutrality would have been.
In 1847 he became Vicar of All Saints, York, and in 1848 was
made Canon of York Cathedral. From that time till his death
in 1888 he had a distinguished career, which is related in the
' Dictionary of National Biography.'
His principal works connected with India are ' The Com-
pany's Kaj ' (1858) ; ' India, its Natives and Missions ' (1859).
At the time the government of India was transferred to the
Crown, a number of articles, pamphlets, and booklets appeared
containing harsh and unjust judgments of the policy, the
procedure, and even the probity of the East India Company.
Canon Trevor defended the Company warmly and with per-
Of the fifty-seven Chaplains appointed between 1805 and
1835 twenty-two died in India. This number would have been
less if it had not been for the appointment of some men in the
third decade, too old to commence life in the tropics. Six
were Fellows of colleges at Oxford or Cambridge ; several others
graduated in honours. Of the rest one distinguished himself
as an historian. Hough ; and another, Trevor, as a controversia-
Hst and Christian apologist. The latter was a Canon of York.
Eight of the Chaplains appointed left their University without
taking a degree ; three were not members of any University.
On the whole the Directors selected their Chaplains with care
and consideration. They were probably influenced by the
knowledge that their nominees had to be approved by the
Archbishop of Canterbury or by the Bishop of London or both.
In the seventeenth century the Directors were their own
' triers ' ; they submitted all tests themselves. In the nine-
teenth century they contented themselves with finding men of
good education and manners, and left all theological tests to
the episcopal authorities. In consequence they were able to
obtain excellent men for their different estabhshments in
Up to 1790 all the Chaplains were on the civil estabhshment.
From that date until 1817, when a separate ecclesiastical
VOL. n. 2 c
386 THE CHURCH IN MADRAS
establishment was formed, some of the Chaplains were on the
civil establishment and some on the military, according to
their emplo3'ment. After 1817 they were included in one list
for purposes of leave, pay, promotion, &c., and formed the
ecclesiastical establishment of the Presidency. They were
known as the Company's Chaplains, and wrote H.E.I.C.S.
after their names like others in the Company's Service.
There were no clergymen in the Archdeaconry before 1835,
except the Chaplains and the missionaries. There were no
railwa3's, mines, nor plantations, and no extra clergymen were
required, such as are now imported to minister to the Europeans
and Eurasians engaged in these industries.
The S.P.C.K. 1805 to 1835
In the year 1805 the following S.P.C.K. missionaries were
carrying on the work of the Society : Pohle at Trichinopoly ;
Kohlhoff at Tanjore ; Holtzberg at Cuddalore ; Horst at
Tanjore ; and Paezold at Madras. These have been already
mentioned.! Subsequently the following appointments were
William Tobias Bingeltauhe was born m Silesia 1770 ;
educated at Halle ; ordained according to the Lutheran rite
at Wernigerode 1796 ; recommended to and accepted by the
S.P.C.K. in 1797, in which year he and Holtzberg were charged
by the Eev. John Owen at the S.P.C.K. office before their
departure for India. Ringeltaube went to Calcutta and was
welcomed by David Brown the Chaplain. There he remained
less than two years, and returned to Europe in 1799 to the great
disappointment of the S.P.C.K.^ He then associated himself
with the Moravians, and in 1803 offered his services to the
L.M.S. and was accepted. He arrived at Tranquebar in
July 1804 and remained there till January 1806. His stay
was not a happy one, for he had as great a difficulty in
living at peace with the Tranquebar missionaries as he had
had at Calcutta with David Brown. He was then per-
suaded by Kohlhoff, the head of the S.P.C.K. Mission at
Tanjore, to take charge of the Palamcottah Mission in Tinne-
velly, where a European missionary was urgently required.
This move placed him again on the staff of the S.P.C.K. He
* The Church in Madras, vol. i.
2 Hyde's Parochial Annals of Bengal, p. 253.
2 c 2
388 THE CHURCH IN MADRAS
tried to fulfil his duties,^ but his position was difficult if not
impossible. He was a Moravian, subject nominally to the
L.M.S., at that thne an interdenominational society, and
actual^ subject to Kohlhoff of Tanjore, a Lutheran in the
service of the S.P.C.K. At the same time Eingeltaube was a
man of great mdependence of mind and character. At Palam-
cottah he did his work well, and made no attempt to puzzle
the native Christians by foundmg a new society. In 1807
he left Palamcottah and went to Travancore, where he was free
of the S.P.C.K. and its limitations. There he laid the founda-
tion of a strong L.M.S. Mission, with the assistance of one of his
Palamcottah converts named Vedamanickam. He remained
in Travancore, prmcipally at Maziladi, till 1815, when he
returned to Madras with liver complaint in an advanced stage.
There he met William Taylor and Marmaduke Thompson the
Chaplain, who were impressed with his wild unconventionality
and eccentricity as well as by his missionary zeal and Christian
conversation. He then sailed to Colombo with a view to
embark on a sea voyage to the Cape. As there was no ship
going in that direction, he sailed for Malacca and was not again
heard of. Probably he died and was buried at sea. His
monument was in the hearts of his Travancore converts, who
looked kindly on his peculiarities, and understood him next best
to his own family. (Fenger, Hough, Taylor, Hyde, and articles
in the Madras Mail, March 1905.)
Christian Augustin Jacobi was born in Saxony, 1791 ; he
was educated at Leipzig and Halle ; ordained by the Bishop of
Zealand at Copenhagen in 1812 ; accepted by the S.P.C.K.
in 1813 ; arrived at Tanjore in that year ; and died there in
John Peter Bottler was born at Strasburg in 1749 ; he was
educated at his native place ; he arrived at Tranquebar in 1776
and remained there till 1806. He then went to Madras as
trustee of the Gericke Fund to manage the financial concerns
of the mission. Though unconnected with the S.P.C.K. until
1817, he found mission work m the Presidency town, and was
placed in charge of the Black Town congregation. His work
and counsel were so valuable that the District Committee of the
' The Church in Madras, i. 633.
THE MISSIONARIES 389
S.P.C.K. recommended that he should be permanently employed
by the Society. He worked in the Vepery Mission for nineteen
years and died in 1836, aged eighty-seven. A tablet in Vepery
Church records his work and his many virtues. This was put
up by public subscription in Madras ; the S.P.G. added ¬£25
at the request of Mr. E. Clarke. He was an eminent botanist
as well as a linguist, grammarian, and translator. His principal
works were a translation of the English Book of Common
Prayer, and a Tamil dictionary. By will he left his valuable
herbarium to the Madras Diocesan Committee of the S.P.G.
J. G. P. Sjperschneider was born at Blankenburg in 1794 ;
educated at Leipzig and Jena ; ordained according to the
Lutheran rite at Halle in 1818 ; accepted by the S.P.C.K. in
1819, in which year he arrived at Tanjore. Although nominally
under Kohlhoff he seems to have had the power of spending the
mission money. This he did lavishly in building a mission
house. No one has heard of the old Tanjore Vestry Fund since
his time. The Madras District Committee were vexed at his
extravagance, and recommended his dismissal. His connection
with the Society was dissolved in 1828. He appealed to be
reinstated, but was refused.
Lawrence Peter Hauhroe was born at Copenhagen in 1791,
where he was also educated. He was ordained by the Bishop of
Zealand in 1818 ; was accepted by the S.P.C.K. in 1819, and
arrived at Madras the same year. There he worked till 1827,
when he was moved to Tanjore in consequence of congregational
disputes in which he took a prominent part.^ He was a zealous
missionary but irritable, and his irritability was probably