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The church in Madras : being the history of the ecclesiastical and missionary action of the East India Company in the Presidency of Madras in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (Volume 2) online

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increased by the climate of Madras. He died at Tanjore in

David Bosen was born at Ebeltoft in Denmark in 1791, and
was educated at Copenhagen. He was ordained by the Bishop
of Zealand in 1818 ; was accepted by the S.P.C.K. in 1819, and
arrived at Madras the same year. He began his missionary
work at Trichinopoly, where he remained till 1824. He was
then placed in charge of the mission at Cuddalore, and remained
there till 1829. He was then sent to Palamcottah, and remained

' Taylor's Memoir, pp. 307-1-i. Archdeacon Robinson approved of his
line of action ; but it was considered w ise to move him to another station.


there till he was appointed head of a Danish colonisation scheme
in the Nicobar Islands. He was accepted by the S.P.G. on the
recommendation of Bishop Wilson of Calcutta, and was sent
to Mudulur in 1834 ; he retm-ned to Europe sick in 1838, and
was gi-anted an allowance of £100 by the S.P.G. during his
sickness. He was appointed Pastor of a parish in Zealand, and
died m 1862. Rosen was a man of intellectual power and of
rationalistic views in his early days. He found it difficult to
live with other men less gifted and less informed than himself,
and he frequently gave offence to his more simple brethren.

Ernest Auguste George Falke was born in Hanover in 1784 ;
he studied at Hehnstadt ; was ordained deacon and priest b}^ the
Bishop of London in 1821 ; arrived in Madras in 1822. He
frequently visited Vellore as an out-station of the Vepery
Mission, and took up his abode there as resident missionary
m 1824. At the end of that year he died of cholera at Vepery,
greatly regretted by all with whom he had come in contact. ^
He left his personal property to the S.P.C.K. Mission.

The C.M.S. 1814 to 1835

In the year 1814, when the first C.M.S. missionary arrived,
the number of S.P.C.K. missionaries in the Carnatic had been
reduced to four by the death of Horst. Paezold was at Madras,
Pohle at Trichinopoly, Kohlhoff at Tanjore, and Holtzberg at
Cuddalore. Dr. Bottler was working at Madras, but he was
unconnected with any society at this time. There had been
two additions to the S.P.C.K. staff since 1805 ; one died and the
other left the Society. Pohle was sixty -nine years of age and
Eottler sixty-five ; the three others were men in the prime of

John Christian Schnarre.^ — Educated at the Berlin
Seminary ; Lutheran orders ; one and a half years under
the Rev. T. Scott in England; 1814 to Madras; 1816 to
Tranquebar; 1820 to Palamcottah ; died there 1820.

Charles Theophilus Ewald Bhenius. — Born 1790 ; Berlin
Seminary ; Lutheran orders ; one and a half years under the
Rev. T. Scott ; 1814 to Madras ; 1820 to Palamcottah, invited

' Taylor's Memoir, p. 290.


by the Eev. J. Hough ; died at Palamcottah 1838. He was the
author of a Tamil grammar, and various Tamil translations.
His life was written by his son, the Eev. C. J, Ehenius, Chaplain
H.E.I.C.S. Ehenius came into collision with the Society's
Church principles by ordaining pastors in the Lutheran manner,
as the S.P.C.K. missionaries had done in the eighteenth century.
Their necessity was the absence of a Bishop in India ; there was
no such necessity in 1835. He followed his own will, left the
service of the C.M.S., and formed a separate Christian com-
munity in Palamcottah and in the District of Tinnevelly. The
schism was not healed till after the death of Ehenius in 1838.
(See Pettitt's ' Tinnevelly Mission.') He married a Miss Van
Someren. His son became a C.M.S. missionary, and his daughter
married another C.M.S. missionary, J. J. Muller.

Thomas Norto7i. — Born 1780 ; was trained under the Eev.
T, Scott from 1809 to 1813 ; ordained to curacy of St. Saviour's,
York, 1813 ; to Alleppee in Travancore 1815, where he died in
1840. Ke was the first English clergyman in the service of the
C.M.S. in Southern India. He helped to revise the Malayalim
scriptures. He married four times ; one of his sons was a
C.M.S. missionary.

Benjaynin Bailey. — Born 1791 at Dewsbury, Yorks ; was
trained under the Eev. T. Scott from 1812 to 1815 ; ordained
to curacy of Harewood, Yorks, 1815 ; to Cottayam, Travancore,
1816 ; retired 1850. Elected Hon. Life Governor of the C.M.S. ;
Eector of Sheinton, Salop, and Eural Dean 1862 to 1871, when
he died. He was the founder of the Cottayam Mission. He
established the Cottayam Printing Press ; built the Church
which is now the Cathedral ; translated the Bible, the Prayer-
book, and many other books into Malayalim for his missionary
pm-poses. Mrs. Bailey was the first to assist native Syrian
Christian girls to an English education.

Thomas Dawson. — Born 1793 at Wakefield, Yorks ; trained
under the Eev. T. Scott from 1812 to 1815 ; ordained to
curacy of Wetherby, Yorks, 1815 ; to Cochin 1816 ; his health
failed and he had to return 1818 ; he married Bailey's sister ;
died 1828.

The first three English missionaries in southern India in the
service of the C.M.S. were Yorkshiremen.


Bernard E.Sclimidi. — Born 1787 ; educated at the University
of Jena ; Lutheran orders ; 1817 to Mayaveram ; 1820 to
Palamcottah, where he co-operated with Rhenius. His sym-
pathies were with Rhenius in the schism of 1835; he left the
coimtry in 1837 before the schism was healed.

Henry Baker. — Born 1793 at Walton on the Naze, Essex ;
trained imder the Rev. T. Scott at Dewsbury ; ordained at
Gloucester ; went to Travancore 1817 ; died at Cottayam
1866 ; married the niece of the Rev. J. C. Kohlhoff of Tanjore
(S.P.C.K.) Mission, and became the father of missionaries —
one son and three daughters. He translated various books
and pamphlets and tracts into Malayalim.

George Theopliilus Barcnbruck. — Educated at the Berlin
Seminary ; Lutheran orders ; underwent several months'
trahiing in England under the Rev. T. Scott ; 1817 to Madras ;
1823 to Tranquebar ; 1824 to Mayaveram ; 1831 returned home
and retired.

Joseph Fenn. — Born 1790 in the county of Norfolk ; ordained
at Norwich 1816 to the ciu-acy of Pakefield ; 1817 to Cottayam,
where he was first Principal of the College ; 1826 retired ;
became Vicar of Blackheath, and was elected in 1837 an Hon.
Life Governor of the C.M.S. ; died in 1878 ; David Fenn, the
devoted missionary of the C.M.S. in the south of India, was his

James Bidsdalc. — Born 1794 at Hull ; was trained under the
Vicar of Dewsbury ; ordained deacon and priest 1819 ; arrived
at Madras 1820. He had a difficulty in learning Tamil, and
therefore mhiistered to a Eurasian congregation in the John
Pereiras district of Madras. He was instrumental in building
the Church and the school at that place ; he fell a victim to
cholera in 1831.

Isaac Wilso7i. — Born at Hull; trained at Dewsbury and
ordained at York 1820 and 1821 ; arrived at Madras 1821. His
health gave way and he was sent to Tranquebar, and thence to
Bengal for the sea voyage ; died at sea on his way home 1828.

William Sawyer. — Born 1797 at Holme, Yorks. See list
of Chaplains, p. 377.

Joseph Fawcett Beddy. — Born 1795 in Ireland ; educated at
Trinity College, Dublin ; ordained deacon and priest and


arrived at Madras 1824 ; ministered at Nellore to Europeans,
Eurasians, and native Christians from 1824 to 1826, when his
health gave way and he went home. His wife died on the
voyage. He graduated B.A. 1826, M.A. 1829, and became
Vicar of St. Thomas', Monmouth, in 1832.

Samuel Bidsdale. — Born 1799 at Hull ; trained at Dewsbury
1820 to 1823 ; ordained at York ; arrived at Madras 1824, and
was sent to Cochin, where he ministered to Europeans, Eurasians,
and natives till 1839 ; died at Stoke Newington, near London,
in 1840. He married Juliana Marshall, sister of the Vicar of
St. Bride's, Fleet Street ; she died at Stoke Newington in 1874.

John William Dor an. — Born 1800 in Ireland ; educated at
Trinity College, Dublin ; B.A. 1824 ; ordained and arrived at
Madras 1825 ; succeeded Joseph Femi as Principal of Cottayam
College 1826 ; retired 1830. He took the degree of LL.D.
soon after his return home. From 1834 to 1846 he was Asso-
ciation Secretary of the C.M.S. ; he became Kector of Beeston
St. Lawrence, Norfolk, in 1854 ; and died in 1862. He was the
first graduate missionary of the C.M.S. in the south of India, for
Beddy did not graduate till he had given up mission work.

John Kindlinger. — Born in Austria 1792 ; educated at Basle
Seminary ; joined the Netherlands Missionary Society 1820 ;
transferred to the C.M.S. and stationed at Pulicat 1827. There
he ministered to the Dutch Em-asians and native Christians
till 1829, when he died. He married a Miss Van Someren.

John Christian Wincklcr. — Born at Stuttgart 1800 ; educated
at Basle Seminary ; joined the Netherlands Missionary Society
1823 ; transferred to the C.M.S. 1827, and retired in 1834.

Paul Pacifique Shafjter. — Born in Switzerland 1801 ; edu-
cated at Basle Seminary and the C.M.S. College, Islington ;
arrived at Madras 1827, and stationed at Mayaveram ; Palam-
cottah, 1831 ; left the C.M.S. with Ehenius 1835 ; re-entertained
on the death of Ehenius 1838 ; died at Suviseshapuram in
N. Tinnevelly in 1861. He married a Miss Van Someren.

James Baker Morewood. — Born at Beading 1804 ; educated
at the Beading Grammar School, and the C.M.S. College,
Islington ; ordained at London ; arrived at Madras 1828 ;
took charge of the school at Ootacamund for the children of
missionaries, and commenced the Nilgiri Mission ; resigned 1835.


He acted as Chaplain of Ootacamimd on the death of Sawyer
in 1832. On his return home he became Chaplain of St.
George's Hospital, London.

Charles Blackman. — Born at Chatham 1801 ; educated at
the C.M.S. College, Islington ; ordained at London ; arrived
at Madras 1830, and appointed headmaster of the school for the
sons of missionaries ; in 1831 he succeeded Sawyer as head of
the Peramboro Mission ; in 1835 he was sent to Palamcottah
to assist Pettitt to restore order in that mission ; returned
home and resigned 1842. He became Vicar of Chesham Bois,
Bucks, and died in 1868.

Joseph Marsh. — Born at Bonsall, Derbyshire, in 1802 ;
educated at the C.M.S. College, Islington ; ordained at London ;
arrived at Madras 1830, and died in 1831. He was head of the
C.M.S. Institution for the Training of Catechists.

Edward Dent. — Eurasian member of a well-known Madras
family ; educated at the Madras Institution for Catechists ;
ordained by Bishop Turner of Calcutta 1830. Before ordination
he worked as a Catechist in Tinnevelly. His connection with
the Society ceased in 1849.

John James Muller. — Born in Wurtemburg 1808 ; educated
at the Basle Seminary and the C.M.S. College, Islington;
ordained deacon at London 1831 ; and arrived at Madras the
same year ; he was sent to Palamcottah to assist Rhenius ;
he left the C.M.S. Mission with Rhenius (whose daughter he
married) in 1835 ; was re-entertained in 1840 ; died at Madras

Joseph Peet. — Born near London 1802 ; educated at the
C.M.S. College, Islington ; ordained at London ; arrived
at Madras 1833, and was at once appointed Principal of the
Cottayam College in Travancore ; there he remained for over
thirty years, and died in 1865. He translated several works
into Malayalim.

George Pettitt. — Born at Birmingham 1808 ; educated at the
C.M.S. College, Islington ; ordained at London ; arrived at
Madras 1833 ; was sent specially to Palamcottah, and remained
there till he returned home in 1847. His patience and wisdom
were instrumental in healing the schism of Rhenius, He built
the Church. He was the author of ' The Tinnevelly Mission,'


* Sowing and Reaping,' * Tamil Hymns and Sermons.' In
1856 he became Vicar of St. Jude's, Birmingham ; he died in

John Tucker was a member of Corpus Christi College,
Oxford, and graduated in honours (double second class) B.A.
1813. He proceeded M.A. in 1817, and was elected Fellow of
his College. After his ordination he was appointed to the
charge of the parish of Southborough in Kent. There he
remained till 1833, when he went to Madras as secretary of the
C.M.S. Corresponding Committee, and Incumbent of the C.M.S.
chapel in Black Town ; he was an attractive preacher.

Jolin Michael Lechler. — Born in Wurtemburg 1807 ; edu-
cated at Basle Seminary, and the C.M.S. College, Islington ;
ordained deacon at London ; arrived at Madras 1833, and sent
to Palamcottah. He sided with Rhenius in 1835, and resigned
his employment under the C.M.S. On the death of Rhenius he
applied to the C.M.S. to be reinstated, but his application was
refused after much consideration. He then joined the L.M.S.

William John Woodcock. — Born in London 1809 ; educated
at the C.M.S. College, Islington ; ordained at London ; arrived
at Madras 1834, and sent at once to Cottayam ; there he
remained till 1837, when he was transferred to Jamaica ; he
afterwards went to Australia and became Archdeacon of

The S.P.G. 1826 to 1835

When the S.P.G. consented to take over the property and
reinforce the mission work of the S.P.C.K. in 1826, there were
only five S.P.C.K. missionaries in the south of Lidia : namely,
Rottler and Haubroe at Madras ; Kohlhofi: and Sperschneider
at Tanjore ; and Rosen at Cuddalore. Since 1814 three of their
agents had died : Pohle, Paezold, and Holtzberg. They obtained
the services of four other men, Rottler, Haubroe, Sperschneider,
and Falke ; but Falke died in 1824. Of the agents at work in
1826 Rottler was seventy-seven years of age and Kohlhoff
sixty-four ; the others were young men. At the same time
the C.M.S. had eleven agents working in the Archdeaconry.
Six were in the Carnatic : namely, Rhenius and Schmidt at


Palaincottah ; Wilson and Barenbruck in the Tranquebar
portion of the Tanjore District ; Sawj^er and J. Ridsdale in
and around Madras. Their other five missionaries, Norton,
Bailey, Baker, Doran, and S. Eidsdale, were on the west coast.
The S.P.G. appointed the following men :

Daniel Schreyvogel. — ^Born in Bavaria 1777 ; worked in the
Royal Danish ]\Iission at Tranquebar from 1803 to 1826, when
he was accepted by Bishop Heber for work under the S.P.G.
at Trichinopoly. The Society gave him two years' leave on
full pay in 1833. He died in 1840 and was buried at Cuddalore.
There are tablets to his memory both at that place and at

Peter M. D. Wissing was ordained by the Bishop of Zea-
land, and accepted for mission work by the S.P.G. in 1827 ;
arrived at Madras 1828. He declined to be licensed by the
Archdeacon, and was moved from Madras to Vellore in 1830 ;
his health gave way in 1831 and he returned home.

John Heavy side was the fii'st English-born missionary of
the S.P.G. in India ; educated at St. Bees ; when accepted
by the Society in 1829 he was described as of Wakefield in the
county of York. He was ordained deacon at London 1829, and
priest at St. George's Church, Madras, in 1830 ; his appointment
was that of Headmaster of the Vepery Seminary for Catechists.
In 1831 his health failed and he returned to England. He
applied for leave to go back to his work, but the Society refused
on the ground that the climate was too much for him ; but they
recommended him to the Colonial Office for an appointment as
a colonial Chaplain in South Africa. He was sent to Grahams-
town in 1833, and remained there for over a quarter of a
century. During that time he built the Church at Fort
Beaufort ; the S.P.G. contributed £100 towards the cost.

George Bunhar Haugldon. — Born 1808 ; second son of the Eev.
John Haughton of St. Giles', Reading, Berks ; matriculated
at Worcester College, Oxford, 1826 ; B.A. 1829 ; accepted by
the Society 1830 ; ordained at London. He was the first
graduate in the service of the S.P.G. in South India. He arrived
in Madras in 1830, but he was forced by ill health to return to
England in 1831. He was not beneficed on his return home.
He was living at Basingstoke in 1842.


Adam Compton TJiomjpson ^ was accepted by the S.P.G. in
1830. He was then master of a grammar school at Wooler in
the county of Northumberland ; he submitted testhnonials
from the authorities of the University of Edinburgh, but he
did not graduate there ; he was ordained priest at Tanjore in
January 1835. On arrival he was stationed at Tanjore 1830 ;
Negapatam 1833 ; Headmaster of the Vepery Seminary for
Catechists 1836. He was reheved of this charge by the Madras
Diocesan Committee in 1837 without the sanction of the
Bishop, and the S.P.G. drew their attention to this infringement
of rule. In 1839 he was made secretary of the M.D.C., but
owing to the illness of his wife he returned to England in that
year. The M.D.C. wrote (Secretary, the Eev. G. Knox,
Chaplain) in 1840 to the Society that they did not wish him
to return and resume office. The Standing Committee
acquiesced without impugning his character 3 as a missionary.
They recommended him for a colonial chaplaincy in Australia,
and he did good work at Melbourne from 1840 to 1847.

Charles Calthwp was educated at St. John's College, Cam-
bridge ; graduated B.A. in 1833 ; ordained deacon at London
the same year. On arrival he was stationed at Madras 1833 ;
ordained priest at Madras 1835 ; Tanjore 1836 ; and was
brought back to Madras in 1840 to be Head of the Vepery
Seminary. He died in 1841.

Valentine Daniel Coomhes. — Born in Lidia and educated
at Bishop's College, Calcutta ; accepted by the Society in
1835 on the recommendation of the Bishop of Calcutta ;
ordained deacon at Calcutta 1833 and priest 1835 at Tanjore.
He was stationed at Tanjore 1834 ; Combaconum 1837, where
he died in 1844.

Thomas Carter Simpson. — Educated at the Clergy Orphan
School, which was then near London, and at Bishop's College,
Calcutta, where he was from 1825 to 1828. He was ordained
deacon at Calcutta and priest at Tanjore in January 1835.
He was stationed at Tanjore 1833 ; Trichinopoly 1834 ;
Negapatam 1836-37. He then went to Australia on sick leave.

^ In the records his name is sometimes spelled Thomson.
- The action of the M.D.C. was due to their suspicion that A. C. Thompson's
views were Tractarian.


On his return to Lidia he was stationed at Calcutta till 1849,
when he returned home owing to ill health.

Edward Jarrett Jones. — Born 1810 ; arrived at Calcutta in
1832 with Bishop Wilson of Calcutta ; was a student at Bishop's
College, Calcutta ; ordained deacon at Calcutta 1833 and
priest at Tanjore 1835. Stationed at Tanjore 1833-34, and
at Cuddalore 1834-42, when he died. It is recorded on the
monument over his grave that he was at the time of his death
domestic missionary Chaplain to the Bishop of Madras. He
ministered at Cuddalore to Europeans and Eurasians whilst
carrymg on his mission work. All joined together in placmg
a tablet in the old Church to his memory and recording ' the
exemplary performance of his pastoral duties,' and his affec-
tionate disposition which ' gained for him the most fihal
love and confidence of his people.'

Dauid Rosen.— Bee the S.P.C.K. list, p. 389.

John Ludovick Irion was a Lutheran minister employed
by the C.M.S. In 1828 the C.M.S. were reducing expenditure,
and consented that Won should be transferred to the S.P.G.,
if required. The transfer was recommended by Archdeacon
Robinson, and the Society consented ' if he has been episco-
pally ordained, or willing to be.' Meanwhile he remained in
Madras as assistant to Dr. Eottler. He was ordained deacon
by Bishop Wilson at Tanjore in January 1835, and priest at
St. George's Church, Madras, on February 18 following. He
was stationed at Nazareth from that date until 1839, when he
went to England on sick leave. Being unable to return through
continued ill health he was pensioned by the Society.

Of the forty-nine missionaries working in the Archdeaconry
of Madras between 1805 and 1835 twenty-seven died in the
country, five were invalided home, and seventeen retired after
various periods of work.

The S.P.C.K. missionaries were mostly trained in German
or Danish Universities.

Of the C.M.S. missionaries one was educated at the Jena
University, three at the Berlin Seminary ; five at the Basle
Seminary ; two came fi'om Trinity College, Dublin ; one from



Oxford, who was also a Fellow of his college ; and the rest were
either at the C.M.S. College, Islington, or privately trained in

Of the S.P.G. missionaries one was at the Copenhagen
University ; one at St. Bees ; one at Edinburgh ; one was a
graduate of Oxford and one of Cambridge ; and the rest were
either at Bishop's College, Calcutta, or were privately trained in

All alike were men of fair literary standing and of educational




Page 8. Henry Golding died at Surat in 1620. It was another
clergyman of the same name who became Vicar of Marks Tey in

Page 9, line 14. Delete the ' not.' Sec ' Notes and Queries/ 9th
S. iii. 285.

Page 182, line 14. For ' Chaplains ' read ' Chaplain.'

Page 218, lines 3-9. In ' The Founding of Fort St. George,' by
W. Foster, there is a letter on p. 16 dated 1661, in which it is stated
that the two French Capucliins were found at Madraspatam when the
English first went there. The story of Hough is different, and is
borne out by Pere Norbert, the Capuchin historian, who says :

' On June 8, 1642, the Portuguese inhabitants of Fort St. George
petitioned the President that F. Ephraim de Nevers, French mission-
ary Capuchin, be appointed as Cure. Andrew Cogan, Thomas
Vinter, and Henry Greenhill thereupon called upon Padre Ephraim
to state his wishes. Padre Ephraim replied that his wish was to be
sent on to Pegu, but that he would submit himself to the Governor's
orders. On the same date the above Council ordered Ephraim to
stay. The Governor added : "Je veux et ordonne que Ton batisse
une Eglise dans un Ueu convenable." ' — ' Memoirs, &c.,' by Pere
Norbert, pp. 93-95, ed. 1742.

Page 219, line 18. See the ' Storia do Mogor,' by Manuchi-Irvine,
iv. 456.

Page 230, note 2. See also ' India Office Records,' Home Series,
Miscellaneous, vol. 59, in which there is a copy of the Decree of the
Congreg. Gen. de Prop. Fide. ' The missionaries Apostoliques,
principally the regular clergy called Theatins, in every part of the
world are subject only to us.'

Page 231, note 7. For ' Cranganore ' read ' Goa.'

Page 246, line 1. Substitute ' which continued until Mr. Duncan
became deranged, and was removed from his office by Archdeacon
Robinson at his Visitation in 1830 ' (Archdeacon's Records).


Page 255, line 6 from bottom. The inscription is more correctly
this— 'Zion's Kirkes Alter Beqeri Tranquebar Forfoerdiset Anno
1689 Af H. C. Winther i Kiobenhavn.' Alter beqeri is the Altar
cup (beaker).

Page 2bQ, lines 2 to 10. Read ' Blauenhan, Dotter, Pauch.'

Page 256, line 12. Substitute for ' Denmark ' ' the Diocesan
Registry Madras.' When the Venerable H. B. Hyde was Arch-
deacon, the records of the Registrar were overhauled, and many
interesting Dutch, Danish, and English records and documents were

Page 286, line 10 from bottom. Read ' Geister.'

Page 288, line 6. The property consists of about 114 acres of
wet land.

Page 295, line 2 from bottom. For ' Joseph ' write ' George ' ; also
in Index.

Page 296, line U. For ' 1891 ' read ' 1894.'

Page 368, line 10. The burial of Sir Eyre Coote took place
under the gallery. The gallery stood out further in the Church in
those days ; the grave was in a hne with the north and south doors.
See De Rozario's ' Complete Monumental Register,' 1815, p. 194.
Also ' Selections from Calcutta Gazettes,' by Seton Karr, ii. 322.

Page 380, line 7 from bottom. ' Archdeacon ' Leslie. See p. 678.

Page 385, lines 10 and 11 from bottom. For ' southern ' read
' northern ' and for ' north ' read ' south.'

Page 398, line 3. The burial of Colonel Moorhouse took place
under the gallery, close to the spot where Sir Eyre Coote was buried.
See ■ Selections from Calcutta Gazettes,' by Seton Karr, ii. 321,
where the Madras Courier of December 22, 1791, is quoted.

Page 398, line 24. The wife of Governor ElHot was buried by
Bishop Middleton, who had just arrived on his second Visitation
tour. See W. Taylor's ' First Hundred Years,' &c., p. 182.

Page 400. James Wooley. The spelhng of this name has been

Online LibraryFrank PennyThe church in Madras : being the history of the ecclesiastical and missionary action of the East India Company in the Presidency of Madras in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (Volume 2) → online text (page 36 of 39)