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The church in Madras : being the history of the ecclesiastical and missionary action of the East India Company in the Presidency of Madras in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (Volume 2) online

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altered in course of time. He spelt his name himself with one ' 1.'
Wooley lost his Ufe in a duel at Pondicherry. See ' Selections from
Calcutta Gazettes,' by Seton Karr, ii. 212, 215.

Page 410, line 15. For ' George ' read ' Christopher.'

Page 469, line 11. Read ' Monsignor de Tabraca, whose assistant
was the titular Bishop of DoUche.' This place with a Greek name
was in north-east Syria. Pierre Brigot, titular Bishop of Tabraca,
Vicar Apostolic of Siam, was appointed Superior of the Roman
Catholic Mission at Pondicherry in 1776. He died in 1791. Nicholas
Champenois, titular Bishop of Doliche, was consecrated coadjutor
to Bishop Brigot in 1787, and succeeded him as Superior of the
Pondicherry Mission in 1791. He died at Pondicherry in 1810. See
' Madras R. C. Directory for 1872,' p. 109.

Page 490, line 14. This son, Captain George Frederick Gericke,
died in 1801, aged thirty.

VOL. II. 2 D


Page 504, note. Beside the three portrait painters mentioned,
Smart, Humphrey, and Wheatley, there were four others in India
at about the same period : namely, Zoft'any, who painted Mrs. Warren
Hastings ; Devis, who painted her illustrious husband ; Home ; and
Thomas Hickey. The portrait given by the Rajah to Bishop Middle-
ton is now in the Board Room of the S.P.C.K. at Northumberland
Avenue. It is somewhat different from the portrait engraved in
Pearson's " Life.' As a work of art it occupies a high place.

Pa(je 50G, line 9. For ' 1774 ' read ' 1778.'

Page 518. In the space in the middle of the page should be this
heading : ' The Sullivan Schools.'

Page 555, line 4. The position of the two houses owned by the
Vestry is uncertain. According to the Vestry Minute Book, under
date 1768, one of the houses was in James Street. The position of
James Street is the subject of doubt. On page 100 there is a diagram
of the Fort and its streets as they were in 1687. James Street was
then on the south side of the Fort. In a map dated 1733, which is
reproduced in Mrs. Penny's " History of Fort St. George,' p. 152,
James Street and James Alley disappeared altogether ; James Street
became Church Street. I suggest that this change of nomenclature
was made for poUtical reasons. In 1768 the name James Street
appears again. Whether it was the original James Street, or another
street, is uncertain. Colonel Love, R.E., thinks that it was another
street in the northern part of the Fort.

Page 562. There is a mistake in the diagram of the ' Church
Lodging.' Instead of being separated from the tower of the Church,
as shown in the diagram, the Chaplain's house abutted the tower on
all three sides ; on the west side, entirely ; on the north and south
sides, about one-third of the tower's length.

Page 575, line 10 from bottom. Bishop Heber died on April 3,
1826. St. Matthias', Vepery, was dedicated to God for worship soon
afterwards. At first the two Presidency Chaplains, Roy and
Moorsom, conducted the Enghsh services, and the missionaries
conducted the Tamil and Portuguese services.^

Page bll, line 10. Besides the sum of Rs.27,813 paid for the
building, the Government paid Rs.6500 for the purchase of a site
for the new mission Church. ^

Page 582, line 13 from bottom. ' Diener ' was intended ; but the
Dutch would probably have used another word.

Page 588, line 4. The second explosion at Trichinopoly took
place on February 14, 1772. See Appeiidix II.

Page 588, line 7 jrom bottom. The old Vestry Minute Book was
found among the mission records by the Rev. J. A. Sharrock in
1905. See Appendix II.

' Taylor's First Hundred Years, p. 336.
- Despatch, July 19, 1848, 5, Eccl.


Page 596, line 10 from bottom. For ' 1807 ' read ' 1811/

Page 598, line 16 from bottom. For ' ordained ' read ' appointed.'
Search has been made for evidence of Fenger's assertion of Schrey-
vogel's ordination, but without success.

Page 599. Delete Note 3.

As to General Matthew Home it is of interest to note that he
served at Manilla under Draper, and at the defence of Fort St. George
in 1758 ; he was the friend and A.D.C. of General Joseph Smith
(' Selections from Calcutta Gazettes,' ii. 505).

Page 602, line 13. For ' 1833 ' read ' 1840.' The rebelhon of
the ruler of Kurnoul took place in 1838.

Page 625, last line. For ' 1826 ' read ' 1828,' and for ' Wessing '
read ' Wissing.'

Page 632, line 7. Jaenicke's headquarters were at Tanjore ;
he itinerated in the Districts of Madura and Tinnevelly ; his diary
is preserved at Tanjore.

Page 634, line 13 from bottom. For ' 1820 ' read ' 1821.'

Page 640, last line. Colonel Martinz was born in 1740 and died in
1810. (See J. J. Cotton's " Inscriptions.') WiHiam Wheatley died
the same year.

Page 642. The chapel built at Ramnad by Colonel Martinz fell
down in 1824, with the exception of the porch. The side walls were
too slender to support the heavy arched roof. (S.P.G. Report, 1826.)
This shows that the pattern was the same as that of Christ Church,
Trichinopoly. It was rebuilt in 1826 at the expense of the Zemiudari
Charity Fund by order of Mr. D. Bannerman, the Sub-Collector,
and was finished by Mr. R. Nelson, his successor. Mr. Rous Peter,
known by the natives as ' the Pandian,' was the Collector of Madura
at the time. The new chapel measured 40 X 20 feet and had a tiled
roof. The porch measured 12 X 15 feet. At the entrance this
inscription was graven on stone :

Repaired from the Charity Fund
of the Zemindari. a.d. 1826.

The cost was Rs.ll50, and the number of Christians in the place
was one hundred.

This was the Church that was pulled down about 1860 to make
room for a better one. The walls of the new Church were raised a
few feet when the missionary, Thomas Henry Suter, died, and the
work was stopped. Nothing was done till 1873, when George Bilhng
went to Ramnad. He raised about 5000 rupees and completed the
building in 1875. A good photograph of it was reproduced in ' The
Steep Ascent,' by Miss Thomas.

Page 663, last line. Robert Tutchin was a Puritan and a ' Trier '
for examining candidates for the Puritan ministry, 1646 (Bayley's
' Civil War in Dorset,' pp. 435, 444).

Page 664, last lines. Patrick Warner's Orders are uncertain.

2 D 2


His being a Scotchman does not necessarily mean that he was a

Page 675, line 3 from bottom. Before the word ' roll ' read
' graduate.' Charles Griffiths matriculated at Hertford College,
Oxford, 1744-45, aged eighteen, being the son of Thomas Griffiths
of Woolaston, Northamptonshire ; but he did not graduate.

Page 680, lines 9 and 10 fro)n bottom. Delete all the words from

■ the chapel ' to ' London ' inclusive. The plate was given to the
episcopal chapel of St. Andrews, N.B., and a duplicate of it was given
to the chapel of the National School, Ely Place, London (see Lawson's

■ Memories of Madras,' p. 214).

Page 681, line 20. For ' George ' read ' Christopher.' From the
' Register of Outgarrisons' preserved at Fort St. George and published
by Mrs. F. Penny (Pollard, Exeter, 1907), it appears that Dr. Wells
was at Vellore in 1789, and at Wallajahbad, Tripassore, Madras,
Vellore, and Caroor in 1790.

Page 681, line 11 from bottom. Delete the words from ' preferred '
to ' fleet ' inclusive. Dr. Wells died at Bangalore at the end of the
year 1791. Urquhart says : ' The Rev. Dr. Wells, a man of the utmost
suavity of manners and genuine piety. He was Chaplain and Pay-
master to the Army in the Field, Chaplain to the Earl of Harecourt,
and to the Hon. Commodore Cornwallis, and Rector of Leigh in the
county of Worcester ' (Urquhart's ' Obituary,' ii. 76).

Page 681. Richard Hall Kerr and Richard Kerr were one and the
same person. By taking the extra name of Hall he made identifica-
tion difficult. He graduated B.A. at Dublin in 1788. Kerr had
a child baptised at Fort St. George in 1800 by name Charles Lewis,
which connects him with the Rev. Lewis Kerr. In the will of the
Rev, John Kerr, R. H. Kerr's cousin, mention is made of Lewis Kerr,
R. H. Kerr's father, and John Kerr's uncle.

Page 682, line 8 from bottom. The date is April 1803.

Page 684, line 7 from bottom. Compare Sullivan's views on
p. 518.

Page 688. James Estcourt Atwood was born in 1758, being the son
of the Rev. Thomas Atwood, Curate and Lecturer of St. Margaret's,
Westminster, and grandson of the Venerable Archdeacon Atwood
of Taunton. His brother George Atwood was a Fellow of Trinity
College, Cambridge (' Encyclop. Brit.').

J. E. Atwood entered Westminster School 1768, and matriculated
at Trinity College, Cambridge, 1775. He is said to have entered the
army in 1780 and served in the 99th Regt. previous to his ordination
in 1783. He became Rector of Saxhngliamin Norfolk, and Chaplain
to the Duke of St. Albans. He died at St. Thomas' Mount in 1810,
and was buried by the Rev. John Kerr. The officers of the Madras
Artillery erected a monument over his grave.

Page 689. Edward Vaughan married secondly Harriette, widow
of Colonel James Colebrooke, C.B., of the Madras Army. On retire-



ment he lived at Loddiswell House, near Kingsbridge, Devon, and
died there in 1849, leaving a family. The Commission of the Arch-
bishop of Canterbury referred to is mentioned in the following
documents :

Letter, February G, 1810, 296, Pubhc.

Despatch, February 22, 1811, 28, Public

Letter, January 10, 1812, 38, Public.

Despatch, January 29, 1813, 7, Public.

Archdeacon's Act Book under date 1819.

Page 690. Nearly all those Lutheran missionaries were ordained
by the Bishop of Zealand.

Page 691. Gericke is mentioned in Benjamin Heyne's Tour.
Schreyvogel ; for ' ordained ' read ' accepted.' Holtzberg was
Chaplain of the Regiment de Meuron after it came into the
Company's Service (see Letter, February 12, 1806, 239, 240,

Pafje 692, line 8. For ' 1802 ' read ' 1803.'

Rosen resigned his S.P.C.K. work in 1830 ; he was re-emploved
by the S.P.G. from 1834 to 1838 at Mudulur.

Index. Add :

Baptism bonus, 107

Catechism bonus, 73

Company :

Discouragement of connection
with mission work, 247,
271, 576, 600, 637

Covenant, 439

Croke, Isabella, 399

Cornwallis, Commodore, after-
wards K.C.B. and Naval
C.-in-C, 377

De Meuron, 290

Gericke, Capt. G. F., 490

Knipe, Charles, Major, 177, 302

Morals, 419

Probate of R. C. Wills, 205

Read, Alexander, Capt., 532

Ringeltaube, 633

Roman Catholics :

St. Andrew's, 236, 238, 331,
335, 457
S.P.G. :

European and Eurasian policy
in India, 247-49, 601
Schwartz :

Portraits, 504
Wissing, P.. 625-26



The first minute book of the proceedings of the Vestry was found by
the Rev. J. A. Sharrock among the mission records at Christ Church
in the Fort in 1905. The Rev. Joseph Wright, who was Chaplain
of Trichinopoly in 1826, had had access to this book. He had to
contend with Schreyvogel as to the separate existence of the Vestry
Fund and the Mission Fund. He made use of the direct proof which
this book affords.


The account given in the former vokime i of the origin of the
Vestry Fund and the Vestry School is now found to be correct.
Schwartz had been given 600 pagodas, as has been rehated, for the
benefit of the orphan Eurasiun children. From time to time collec-
tions were made in the garrison for the same purpose. The whole
of the money was in the charge of the Paymaster. Schwartz
managed the school. In February 1771 both he and the officers
desired a meeting of subscribers ' for the settling of collections made
for the benefit of the Poor children.' A meeting took place on March
2.1771. There were present eight military officers, the Paymaster
(a civilian), and Schwartz the Chaplain. It was not a Vestry meet-
ing, there was no Vestry at the time ; there was desire for one, in
order that the parish funds might be properly held and accounted
for, and the concerns of the Church and school administered. Mr.
James Hay, the Paymaster, presented his accounts, which showed a
credit balance of 1021 pagodas, and the gentlemen present resolved
to meet again ' on Monday the 4th of the month for the nominating
and appointing proper Churchwardens for setthng the number of
cliildren to be educated, maiutained and clothed by the said Church
Fund, and also the amount that may be thought necessary to be
allowed for the same.'

They met accordingly ~ and appointed a Vestry, viz. :

Mr. James Hay ) Churchwardens.

Major Edward James I

Captain Robert Kellvl o- ^

n X ■ T> T -n " bidesmen.

Captam P. 1. Povery j

Lieut. James Lambellais, Secretary.

The newly constituted Vestry resolved to maintain ten children
in the Vestry School and appoint two schoolmasters to teach them.
They calculated the cost would be 214 pagodas per annum, and
they reckoned upon meeting this cost by means of the interest on
their capital and by monthly collections in the Church.

This was the origin of the Vestry, the Vestry Fund, and the Vestry
School. The fund and the school had existed from the time of the
first explosion in 1763; but they were not called Vestry Fund and
Vestry School till the Vestry was formally established in 1771.

The Vestry Fund, Uke that at St. Mary's, Fort St. George, was
not intended for the sole purpose of supporting the school. At this
same meeting Mr. Schwartz was asked to give an account of his
expenditure over the furniture '■'> of the Church, in order that he

• Pp. 585 and 588. - Vestry Meeting, March 4, 1771.

•' ' And he [the Rev. Mr. Schwartz] Mill likewise be so good at the same time
to give in an account of whatever other charges he has been at for the sundrj'
things found by him for the use of the said Church, such as tables, benches,
chairs, &c., that the same may be brought to account accordingly.' Nothing
was said about the cost of the building.


might be repaid. And at the next meeting it was resolved not only
to purchase two houses in the Churchyard for the scliool children,
but to erect a singing gallery at the west end of the Church for the
boys, and to carry out some necessary repairs of the building.

At the same meeting an inventory was made of the furniture of
the Church and recorded in the Minute Book as the property of the
Vestry. It included :

One silver cup. Forty-nine benches.

Two silver plates. Four tables.

Two brass candlesticks. One piece of red silk.

Three couches. Three shades.

Nine chairs. Two side globes.

From this time forward there were regular meetings of the
Vestry whenever they were required. The Vestry Fund was lent
at 12 per cent. ; and the monthly collections were more than sufl&-
cient to defray the cost of the school and to pay the Church

The Church building was damaged by the explosion of February
1772, and was repaired at the cost of the Vestry Fund. Following the
example of the St. Mary's Vestry at Fort St. George, the Trichinopoly
Vestry resolved to make a charge of Ils.20 for opening a grave in
the Churchyard, and placing the money to the credit of the Vestry
Fund. The first persons to pay the fee were the executors of Colonel
James Butler.

In 1773 the Church collections averaged 15 pagodas a month.

In 1774 the Vestry had 2000 pagodas invested at 10 per cent.
This enabled them to increase the number of children. They there-
fore took into their care some orphan Eurasian girls, and placed them
in charge of the schoolmasters' wives. In this same year it is
recorded that Mr. Alexander Davidson presented the Church with
two branch chandeliers, and Mr. William Wynch became Cash

In 1775 the number of girls was increased, and it was resolved to
acquaint parents that they must not interfere in any way whatsoever
with their children while in the Charity School without the permission
of the Vestry.

In 1778 Schwartz went to Tanjore and was succeeded by the Rev.
Christian Pohle. Wynch was succeeded as Paymaster by Thomas
Palk, who became Cash Keeper like his predecessors.

In 1782 the Vestry Fund amounted to 2500 pagodas, and it was
invested in the Company's Cash at 10 per cent.

In the first ten years of the school the majority of the children
had German and Swiss names. The Company had in their service
at the time many soldiers of those nationahties. In 1785 the majority
of the children had British names. Some were paid for by their
fathers ; some had no fathers living.


General Sir Henry Cosby presided at one meeting in 1785, and
General Matthew Home at another.

In 1786 the invested capital amounted to 3300 pagodas. Some
repairs were carried out at the Church and the number of boys was
increased to fourteen. In the follo^ving year the capital was in-
creased to 3600 pagodas ; some more repairs were done at the
Church and the school-house ; the number of the (children was
increased to fifteen, and the domestic staff was added to.

In 1787 the Vestry resolved that in future no children should be
permitted to benefit from the Church Charity unless their relations
consented to let the Vestry have the entire disposal of them, ' as
they are the best judges how to situate them.' And they further
resolved that if any of the parents of the children then in the school
were unwilHng to leave the disposal of the children to the Vestry,
the children should be returned to them.

The disposal of the children has always been a difficulty from the
time Eurasian schools existed. The custom of the Trichinopoly
Vestry was to apprentice them at about the age of fourteen to officers
and their wives. As a rule tlie boys became bandsmen ; some were
apprenticed to the Company's Surgeons, and the girls found
husbands ; but the mothers were not always satisfied with the
arrangements made.

Schwartz and Pohle were missionaries and Chaplains at the
same time. It was certain that without extreme care the property
of the Vestry and the mission would be mixed up. To prevent this
Schwartz went over to Trichinopoly from Tanjore in 1787 and
attended the July Vestry meeting ' in order to clear up some doubts
relative to the disposal of the houses and buildings attached to
the Church,' and laid before the Vestry the following written
explanation :

' The Church was built by the kind subscription of the garrison.
Three different subscriptions were made by which about 2000 pagodas
were collected. Colonel Wood, knowing that that sum would not
suffice to finish the building, particularly if we met with any accident,
contributed privately above 500 pagodas.

' When all was finished I was indebted to Governor Abbeste above
200 pagodas and 40 to Mr. Hay for teak planks and iron, which I paid
from my salary, 19 months.i

' The gentlemen of the Vestry, among whom were Colonel James,
Mr. Hay and Colonel Kelly, proposed to reimburse me from the
Church money ; which offer, though proceeding from kindness, I
did not think proper to accept of. The Vestry thanked me for it in
a minute which accidentally is torn out.3

' Schwartz' salary at that time was £50 a j'ear from the Government as
Chaplain + £50 a year from the S.P.C.K. as missionary. Pagodas 240 = £96.
Possibly 19 is a copyist's error.

- See Vestry, March 4, 1771, p. 400.


' Having paid off all which I owed I began to repair my house,
having previously obtained permission from His Highness the
Nabob by means of Mr. Boswell.

' Colonel Wood made me a present of timber. I went on slowly
in my work, being obliged to make many a stop in it.

' Having 1000 pagodas which I got at Madura, partly from the
Nabob, partly from the army, I used the interest to build the house
for the schoolmaster and some teachers of natives ; I built their
houses, except the last, which the Vestry built for the second school-

' Not knowing the future circumstances which may happen in
the country the Vestry at Tanjore admonished me to have it minuted
down by whom the houses in Tanjore were built ; and so I request
the same favour of the gentlemen of the Vestry at Trichinopoly.

' Totally disclaiming all private property, I intend only by this
true enumeration to have the right of the mission and future
missionaries ascertained, that the public may lay no claim on
those houses as long as the mission continueth.

' Likewise are the ten houses in the Fort and those in Warriore
in two places built by me for the benefit of poor widows.'

' Resolution. — The Vestry having taken the Rev. Mr. Schwartz'
letter into consideration are unanimously of opinion that the house
and buildings alluded to in that address are the sole property of the
Mission at Trichinopoly, and cannot with propriety be taken from
them as long as the Mission continues at that station.' •

This resolution was signed by all ' the gentlemen of the Vestry '
in July 1787. They were General Matthew Home, Mr. Thomas
Palk, the Rev. Christian Pohle, Mr. James Whyte, and Captain
Richard Chase. The resolution and the letter make it quite clear
that the Vestry property was different and apart from the mission

After this there was no meeting for more than two years. Mr.
Samuel Johnson, the Paymaster, remained Treasurer of the Vestry
Fund. But no meeting is recorded in the Minute Book. The
exodus of the bulk of the British troops from the Fort in 1785 prob-
ably had a good deal to do with this absence of meetings. When the
officers of the garrison lived at some distance outside the Fort it was
not so easy for them to attend Vestry meetings as it was before.
There were two meetings in 1790, one in 1791, and no other meeting
till August 1793.

' These could not have been the houses purchased for the school purposes
in 1771, for Schwartz ^\•as privy to their purchase. This is the record of it.
' A vestry being called by the Rev. Mr. Schwartz met this morning and pro-
ceeded to settle with Flora Johnson and Manuel for their houses, which being
built on the Church ground, the Vestry think proper to buj' for the use of the
Charity boys ; and have agreed to pay the former twenty and the latter five
pagodas for their goodwill of them.' — Vestry Meeting, March 28, 1771.


In 1794 Major-General Floyd commanded the Southern Division.
He took a Uvely interest in the affairs of the Church. In that year
tliere were four Vestry meetings ; at one of them it was resolved to
ask the Government to repair the Church, and the request was
ac?eded to. Reguhir meetings were held during his tenure of the
command until 1798. There were two meetings in 1799, and then
a gap of two years, when Major-General Bridges presided at a meeting
in March 1801. Eighteen months passed before another meeting
took place. By that time Major-General Pater had arrived. During
his command there was an annual meeting of the Vestry. His
successors, Major-Generals Gowdie, Fuller, and Wilkinson, continued
the annual meetings till 1812, when St. John's Church in the new
cantonment was opened.

When there were no Vestry meetings Pohle made notes of what
he did on his own authority in the Minute Book, and his actions came
up for sanction at the next meeting.

The principal work of the Vestry was the care of the Church and
school buildings, the administration of the Vestry School itself, and
the investment of the Vestry Fund.

Up to 1782 the fund had been lent out on interest locally. In
that year it was decided to invest it in Government Bonds. From
that time mi til 1790 there was some inconvenience felt in having
the Bond at Trichinopoly, so far away from Madras where the
interest was paid. It was therefore resolved to ask Mr. W. Duflfin
of the Company's Medical Service, at that time stationed at Madras,
to take charge of the Bond and to act as agent of the Vestry. Duffin
was formerly stationed at Trichinopoly and knew the affairs of the
Vestry.i At the end of 1791 he embarked for England, and by
request of the Vestry handed over the Bond to the Rev. C. W.
Gericke, the S.P.C.K. missionary at Madras, who kept possession
of it till his death in 1803. It was then deposited with a firm of
Madras agents. Messieurs Harington & Co. With them it remained
until 1812, when the Bond was paid off. When the money was re-
invested the interest was made payable at Madras ' to my agent,
Frederick Zscherpel, Conductor.' This action of Pohle's was approved
at the Vestry held on December 22, 1812, at which Colonel John
Dighton and Mr, John Read, the Senior Judge, were present.

Between 1771 and 1812 the fund was carefully nursed by the
Vestry, and at the latter date it amounted to a little more than 5000
pagodas. During that time it was used as at the beginning for

Online LibraryFrank PennyThe church in Madras : being the history of the ecclesiastical and missionary action of the East India Company in the Presidency of Madras in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (Volume 2) → online text (page 37 of 39)