Frank Penny.

The church in Madras : being the history of the ecclesiastical and missionary action of the East India Company in the Presidency of Madras in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (Volume 2) online

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Vestry purposes, namely the expenses and repairs of the Church and
furniture and the upkeep of the Vestry School.

After 1812 it would appear in the absence of evidence to have
been administered by Christian Pohle alone until his death in 1818.

' He was a friend of Schwartz, and is frequently mentioned in Dean Pearson's
Life of Schwartz,


Being sucli a man as he was there is no reason to doubt that he used
it for the purposes for which it was raised. His death made a differ-
ence, for he was succeeded by men who did not know what those
purposes were, and who had no Vestry to remind them. They used
it for their mission purposes as well until 1826, and then contended
that the fund was a mission fund. The Rev, Joseph Wright, the
Chaplain, did well to open an inquiry about it, and the authorities
did the right thing when they transferred the administration of the
fund to the new Vestr}'- of St. John's, and the Vestry School to the

The following Civil Servants of the Company were Paymasters
of the Trichinopoly garrison, and Treasurers of the Vestry Fund from
1771 to 1805 :



James Hay .

. 1771

Thomas Palk

. 1780

Samuel Johnson

. 1772

Samuel Johnson

. 1787

Alexander Davidson

. 1772

Edward Garrow

. 1790

William Wynch

. 1774

WiUiam Hawkins .

. 1793

Henry Morris

. 1779

Then succeeded Christian Pohle in 1805.

There is no doubt that this valuable old record book should be
in the charge of the Chaplain of Trichinopoly.



The discovery of the Trichinopoly Vestry Minute Book throws some
light also upon the existence of a similar Vestry and Vestry Fund at
Tan j ore. References were made to both in the former volume, but
it was not possible to give much information about either. In the
old Trichinopoly Minute Book there are two references to the Tanjore

1. Before the meeting of October 25, 1786, is inserted a copy
of a portion of the ' Proceedings of the Tanjore Vestry ' dated
October 10, 1786. Thus :

' Vestry

Fort Tanjore,
October 10, 1786.

' The Rev. Mr. Schwartz represents that his school at present
consists of thirty children of European officers, privates, &c., and
children of natives who desire to learn the English language ; that of
the above number ten children of Europeans are maintained by their
parents or from the funds of their deceased parents ; the remainder
are subsisted from his own income besides the schoolmasters who
receive a' salary.


' He represents that His Excellency the Rajah had promised yearly
an aid of 500 pagodas ; but from the exigency of liis situation it had
not yet been fiilfilled. He submits whether it would be improper
to state to the Honourable Government of Madras the condition of
the school, and so pray their aid in support of it ; and he conceives
from the experience of many years that many children who are
instructed in writing might be made useful i to the Honourable
Company in their various offices at the Presidency and the out-

' The Vestry are of opinion that it would be by no means improper
to submit the foregoing statement to the Honourable the Governor,
and to humbly solicit his influence with Government to patronise so
laudable an Institution.

' The Commandant of the garrison, the Resident, and the Pay-
master have severally agreed to contribute 10 pagodas per month
to the Institution, and enter a minute of Vestry recommending a
similar contribution to their successors in office ; and the Rev, Mr.
Schwartz is requested to address the Hon. the Governor on the

(Signed) J. S. which stands for John Sullivan.

I. C. H. „ „ J. C. Hudleston.

C. F. S. „ „ C. F. Schwartz.

W. H.' „ „ W. Harington.

Then follows Schwartz' letter :

' Hon'ble Sir,

■ It has been my sincere wish to promote the education of the
neglected children of officers and soldiers in this country. As far
as I could I have tried to make them useful members of society.
With some I have succeeded. But as my endeavours were not
equal to my wishes, I have more than once addressed the Hon.
Government to help me, that I might be able to keep proper school-
masters, not only to teach English but Malabar and Moorish likewise ;
and I had the satisfaction of their full approbation and promise
of aid, but the frequent confusion of war engaged the first attention
of Government to the quelling of those disturbances. Peace being
now restored, I set about building a proper house in the Fort for the
purpose of the education of children. I have about 30. ... If I
were somewliat assisted '^ . . . The gentlemen of the Vestry observing
my intention have declared themselves -willing to assist my under-
taking by their intercession and purse. This their willingness to
coincide with my intention has occasioned this address which I
humbly offer to your kind consideration.'

The Tanjore Vestry Minute Book, from which the foregoing is
manifestly an extract, is not known to be in existence now.

The Madras Government recommended the Directors to sanction

' The Church in Madras, i. 518. '^ Copy imperfect.


help ill 1786. The Directors did so in the following year, granting
250 pagodas per annum. The Tanjore English school was for
Eurasian and higher class native boys.

2. The Trichinopoly Vestry Minute Book contains a statement
which Schwartz made in writing to the Trichinopoly Vestry, which
is inserted in the record of the meeting of July 1787. In this written
statement there is this reference to the Tanjore Vestry : ' Not knowing
the future circumstances which may happen in the country the
Vestry at Tanjore admonished me to have it minuted down by whom
the houses in Tanjore were built ; and so I request the same favour
of the gentlemen of the Vestry at Trichinopoly.'

The existence of the Vestry, the fund, and the school is mentioned
in the former volume on the pages indicated in the index. The
above references are additional testimonies to its existence and its
work. The first reference is specially interesting on account of the
initials of the members in 1786, which are easily identified.



The letter from Bengal to the Directors and the replies are of great
length. They are only epitomised here. They may be seen at the
India Office on inquiry at the Library. Some of them are printed
as an appendix in Buchanan's ' Apology,' which may be found at
the Library and also at the British Museum. In the originals
the paragraphs are numbered. The figures below refer to the

The Government of Bengal wrote to the Directors on
November 2, 1807, in the Secret Department,^ detaihng what the
Serampore missionaries had recently done to stir up fanatical
strife in the Calcutta Bazaars, and what the Government had done
to prevent a repetition of such indiscretions.

The reply of the Directors was dated September 7, 1808,

Para. 2. They approved of what the Government of Bengal
had done. They enclosed a copy of a Despatch to Fort St. George
dated May 29, 1807 ; and they added : ' We still wish to aflirm as a
principle the desirableness of imparting the knowledge of Christianity
to the natives of British India ; but we must also contend that the
means to be used shall be free from any political danger or alarm.'

Para. 3. ' With our position your 39th para, corresponds :
" Our duty as guardians of the public welfare, and even a consen-
taneous solicitude for the diffusion of the blessings of Christianity

' It was their custom to write in the Secret Department about matters
which Avere more or less private and confidential ; and which did not come
under the ordinary headings of trade, politics, military or civil administration _



merely require us to restrain the efforts of that commendable zeal
within those Hmits, the transgression of which would in our decided
judgement expose to hazard the public safety and tranquilUty." '

Para. 4. We note the temperate and respectful conduct of the
missionaries . . . ; we approve of your permission to let them
remain at Serampore . • . ; the progress of the missionaries . . .
for a long series of years has not been attended with serious conse-
quences . . . ; their numbers are small, their conduct prudent and
conciUatory . . . ; we have no reason to suppose that the circulation
of the Scriptures is likely to be attended with dangerous consequences.

Para. 5. Caution is demanded from us . . . and the protection
of the natives and their religious usages . . . and a care that they
are not harassed by overzealous attempts to convert them.

Para. 6. We approve of the control you have determined to
exercise. The missionaries must know that their zeal may sometimes
require a check. The responsibility of the Government for public
tranquiUity will force it to direct its views to those political con-
siderations which the zeal of the missionaries might overlook.

Para. 7. If you could have foreseen their submissiveness, you
need not have held a public proceeding on their acts. In future we
suggest that if the interference of Government is necessary it may
be desirable to see if a private communication from the Governor-
General might Jiot effect all that is desired.

Para. 8. In objecting to pubUc preaching we do not understand
you to object to preaching in chapels or rooms, to which admission
is given to converts or other Christians.

Para. 10. ' We rely on your discretion that you will abstain
from all unnecessary or ostentatious interference with their pro-
ceedings. On the other hand it will be your bounden duty vigilantly
to guard the public tranquillity from interruption, and to impress
upon the minds of all the inhabitants of India that the British faith,
on which they rely for the free exercise of their religion, will be in-
violably maintained.'

In the ordinary way the above two letters, one reporting an
incident and the measures taken in consequence, and the other
approving what was done and suggesting a principle of action in the
future, would have closed the subject.

Unfortunately the Rev. C. Buchanan wrote a letter to the
Government of Bengal within a month of the despatch of their
letter home, i.e. in November 1807, which caused the Government
to write again to the Directors, to report this unlooked-for

Para. 1. They sent to the Directors Buchanan's letter and
memorial on the measures adopted by the Government.

' The memorial contains animadversions on our measures '—

' Letter, Dec. 7, 1807, Secret Dcpt.


' personally disrespectful to the Government '— ' ascribing motives
and principles injurious to the character of the British administration
in India.'

Para. 2. ' The principal acts complained of are those of which
we acquainted you in our letter of November 2, 1807. Mr.
Buchanan has ascribed to the late and present Government the
adoption of measures to prevent the progress of Christianity in
India.' ^ Mr. Buchanan's comments on the late measures ' are
founded on the disrespectful presumption that the Governor-General
has blindly submitted to the guidance of the subordinate officers
of Government, and has adopted measures without a knowledge of
the nature of them.'

Para. 4. It suffices to notice those points on which is founded
the imputation of a design and an attempt on the part of the Govern-
ment to support the interests of the religions of this country by
preventing the diffusion of Christianity in British India.

Para. 5. They notice that Mr. Buchanan contrasts the supposed
opposition to Christianity under the present Government with the
former ^ encouragement under previous Governments.

Para. 7. They explain that the particular means adopted by the
missionaries threatened consequences prejudicial to the public

Para. 8. Considerations of public safety must guide Government

Para. 12. Our action was guided by considerations of prudence
and precaution, the neglect of which would hazard the stability of
the British dominion in India.

Para. 14. The expediency and necessity of protecting our
native subjects in the enjoyment of their religious usages and
opinions have been recognised by the Court of Directors.''

Para. 15. Mr. Buchanan in ascribing to us a disposition hostile
to Christianity ' has assumed a latitude of censure equally disre-
spectful in its nature and unwarranted by facts.'

Paras. 22, 23, 26. For the preservation of public tranquiUity
it is necessary to exercise control over the pubUcation of printed
matter, and over pubHc religious discussions.

^ This assertion of Buchanan's is the origin of the well-known and not yet
worn-out charges against the Bengal Government. The charges have s^^ ollen
and grown in course of time. They were not true in their original form ; they
are far from true in the form in which one comes across them in the speeches,
sermons, and books of some missionaries.

2 The charge of the present time has grown to this, that the East India
Company and its officials were always hostile to mission work. See E. Stock's
History of the C.M.S. But even Buchanan admits that there had been a
former encouragement.

'•'• Despatch to Fort St. George, May 29, 1807, regarding the Vellore Mutiny.


Para. 33. No innovation has taken place, no new form of
imprimatur ; but the old restrictions have been extended to theological
tracts, as they seemed to expose the public peace to hazard.

Para. 35. Our solicitude for the pubhc safety is combined with
a regard for the successful propagation of the truths of Christianity
in a manner " unconnected with the language of irritation, with
revilings of the religions of the country, and with prophetic denun-
ciations of their immediate subversion.'

Para. 3G. It has never been in the contemplation either of the
present or the preceding administration ' to control or impede the
pious labours of the Missionaries, wliile conducted in the manner
which prudence dictates, and which the orders of the Hon. Court have
distinctly prescribed. IBut when the mistaken zeal of the mission-
aries exceeded those limits which considerations of public safety
. . . have wisely imposed,— when publications and public preachings
calculated not to conciliate and convince, but to irritate the minds
of the people, were brought to the notice of the Government, the
interposition of the ruling power became necessary.

(Signed) Minto.

G. Hewitt.
G. H. Barlow.
J. Lumsden.

This letter, explaining the pohcy of the Government of Bengal,
which all fair-minded men will admit to be right and judicious,
arrived in London just as the Directors had finished their Despatch
of September 7, 1808. To this Despatch they added a postscript.

Para. 12. Since writing the above we have received your letter
of December 7, 1807, with copies of the letter and the memorial of
the Rev. C. Buchanan to the Governor- General.

Para. 13. We entirely approve your proceedings.

Para. 14. They notice the improper style of Dr. Buchanan's
address, and remark that they who preach Christianity in India
should adopt the conduct of Schwartz as their model.

It only remains to add that this unfortunate contention had
nothing to do with Madras or Bombay. It was purely a Bengal
matter. The Serampore missionaries acknowledged their mistake,
and submitted to the ruhng of Government regarding their pubHca-
tions and their bazaar preaching. The matter would have rested
there if Dr. Claudius Buchanan had not brought accusations against
the Bengal Government, which rendered it necessary for them to
assert their proper authority.

It is much to the credit of Buchanan that he published the letters
of the Bengal Government refuting his own charges in his ' Apology/
&c. Li spite of this, writers on mission work in India have for more
than one hundred years repeated the charges without noticing the


Abbott, W. H., 139
Abraham, Mrs., 83
Adye, Col., 288
Agricultural settlements, 242
Aislabie, Rev. W. J., 378
Alexander, R., M.C.S., 203
AUen, Rev. H., 164, 374
Allowances to Chaplains, 144
Altar plate, 57, 334
Amusements, 113
Anderson, Dr. J., 94

R., 135
Andrews, J., M.C.S., 129
Archbishop of Canterbury, 3, 16, 338
Archdeacon of Madras : —

Made Joint Chaplain of Cathedral,

Head of Ecclesiastical Department,
Archidiaconal functions, 132, 145
Architecture of Churches, 343
Arcot : —

History, 123

Early Chaplains, 125

St. Mary's, 127

Consecration, 127

Furniture, 128

Memorials, 129
Arbuthnot, G., 135
Aston, Col. H. H., 129
Atwood, Rev. J. E., 101, 125, 249,

281, 282, 283
Aurangabad : —

History, 286

First Church, 287

Second Church, 287

Consecrated, 288

Transferred to C.M.S., 288

Babingtov, C. D., 84
Bacon, Mr., M.P., 43
Bailey, Rev. B., 211, 391

Baker, Rev. H., 211, 392

BaU. Rev. C, 101, 125, 138, 249, 282,

BaUard, G. A., M.C.S., 265
Banbury, G., M.C.S., 92
Bangalore, St. Mark's : —

History, 68

Consecration, 70

Enlargement, 73, 74

Furniture, 75

Allotment of seats, 75
Bankes, Rev. H. C, 138, 214, 362
Baptism by laymen, 302
Baptist Mission, 5, 6, 12, 15, 38, 41

Demands, 19
Barenbruck, Rev. G. T., 392
Barlow, Sir G., 340
Barrack improvements, 307, 312
Barrow, Rev. Dr., 9, 12, 17, 23
Bateman, Rev. J., 147
Bathurst, Rev. C, 177, 183, 357
Bebb, Mr. J., 24
Beddy, Rev. J. F., 392
Bell, Major-General, 282
Bellary : —

History, 78

Church and school, 79

Enlargement of Church, 80

Consecration, 81

Dr. Powell's Chapel, 81

Garrison Church, 82

Furniture and memorials, 83 - 4
BeUs, 57, 157, 334
Bengal ill-feehng, 35, note
Bentinck, Lord William C, 101, 300
Bequests to the Mission, 219
Bibles, supply of, 307
Billing, Rev. G., 246
Bishop of London, 3, 385
Blacker, Captain, 177
Blackman, Rev. C, 147, 148, 172,

Blake, Rev. W. H., 246
Blakiston, Lieut. J., 69
Blenkinsop, Rev. W. T., 148, 152, 153,
283, 376




Bliss, Sir H., M.C.S., 325
BoMness, Col., 181
Boys, Rev. J., 121, 214, 374
Brackenbury, Rev. J., 117, 138,

Brain. J., 200

Brandon, Rev. Dr. R. J., 123
Brandt, F., M.C.S.. 180
Bieeks, J. W., M.C.S., 325
Brennen, E., 204. 266
Briggs, Rev. F. W., 121
British reputation. 97
Brittain, Rev. A. H. B., 123
Broadfoot. Major G., 94
Bro\\'n, Rev. D., 5, 8, 9
Bro\\Ti. F. C, M.C.S., 265
Buchanan, Rev. C, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11,

12. 14. 16, 17, 18, 30, 35, 40, 50,

204. 298
Buckinghamshire, Earl of, 19, 47
Burton, Captain, 181

C.M.S., 17, 18, 209

C.M.S. Chapel. Black Town, 256-61

Cadell, G., M.C.S., 146

Caemmerer, Rev. A. F., 225, 230,

CaldweU, Bishop, 94, 246

Col. J. L., 87, 88
Calthrop, Rev. C. 148, 149, 397
Campbell, Lady, 107
Cannanore : —

History, 184

The Church, 185

Proposed rebuilding, 187

Enlargement, 188

Cost, 188

The R.C. Church, 189
Canning, Lady, 328
Carey, WiUiam, 199
Carnatic scandal, 99
Carnworth, Earl of, 166
Carter, Rev. W. D.. 377
Caste, 149, 234, 345
Castlereagh, Lord, 19, 35, 39
Cemetery walls, 336
Central Provinces, 331
Chadwick, Mr., 128
Chaplains : —

Character, 99

For troops. 291

Rules for, 136, 139, 300

Biographies, 385

The CUve Fund, 344
Character of Europeans, 13

Charnock, Job, 96
Charter of 1698.. 1,2

Proposed alterations, 1793. .3

Contentions, 24
Chatfield. Rev. R., 16, 31
Chester, Rev. W., 380
Chiistians in India, 298
Church, Rev. C, 366
Church building policy, 51, 54, 56
Church furniture, 57

Building rules, 59

Trust ownership, 59

Trustees, 61

Designs, 343

Wardens, 154
Churches built 1805-35. .57
City of London Resolutions, 21
Civil Christian marriages, 109
Clapham Set, 35
Clarke, Rev. A. T., 70, 206

Richard, M.C.S., 89, 135, 226

Col. Sydenham, 94

Col. Tred^ay, 94
Clauses as passed 1813. .48
Clive Fund, 344

Cochin, Church and school, 161-2
Cockburn, M., M.C.S., 212
Codrington, Major, 328
Coffin, Captain, 165
Cole, Major Temple, 83

Hon. A. H., M.C.S., 212
Commissions to consecrate, 54, 339
Committee of Inquiry, 27
Commons', House of. Inquiry, 34
Company's attempt to provide ynvea,

Confirmation addresses, 137, 147

Candidates, 138, 141, 144, 147, 148
Consecrations, 63, 65, 140, 141, 147,

149, 339-42
Consistorial Court, 267, 269
Coombes, Rev. D. V., 148, 397
Cooper, W., 28, 32, 33

Sir G., 94
Cornish, Surgeon-General, 92
Cornwallis, Lord, 106
Corrie, Bishop, 94, 118, 174, 353, 355
Cotgrave, Major, 182
Cotterill, Bishop, 382
Cotton, Sir A., 177

J., M.C.S., 211

Captain J. S., 129
Court of Proprietors, 36, 41
Cox, A. F., M.C.S., 128
Cran, G., 5, 200
Cubitt. Rev. G. J.. 148, 379
Cuddalore. 159, 242
CunlifEe, Brooke, 165




Dacre, J., M.C.S.. 212
DaUas, Major A. R., 84
Dalrymple. Col., 94
Danish Episcopal Orders, 275

Mission, 4, 5
Darrah, Rev. F. J., 147, 375
Davis, Rev. M., 89, 93, 138, IGO
Dawson, Rev. T.. 391
Dealtry, Bishop, 94, 118, 251
Deane, Rev. B. O'M., 83

Rev. C. H., 265

Rev. H., 195, 382
De Havilland, Major, 226, 230, 253
De Meuron Regiment. 70
Dent, Rev. E., 147, 172. 394
Denton, Rev. R. A., 147, 148, 172,

244, 372
Des Granges, A., 5, 200
Devasagaivam, Rev. J., 147
Dick, Sir R., 94
Dickson, Major J., 69
Disabilities of Native Christians, 345,

Discipline, 267, 269, 275, 277
Distance of Churches from barracks,

District Councils, 246
Domestic drawbacks, 109
Doran, Rev. J. W., 143, 152, 393
Douglas, Lieutenant, 333
Dring, J. A., 286
Drury, Col. A., 94
Dundas, Mr., M.P., 4
Dunlop, A. J.. 121

Dunsterville, Rev. J., 70, 138, 189.

Ecclesiastical Court, 133, 267

Returns, 155

Codes, 168
Education, 71, 75, 76, 312. 313
Educational Chaplains, 317

Missionaries, 317
Elder, Sir G., 94
Elers, Captain G., 196
English, Rev. J., 183
Errors in Vol. I, 400
Eurasians and Schools, 111
Evans, Rev. G. H., 93, 119

Fabricius, Rev. J. P., 220
Falke, Rev. E. A. G., 390
Fees for monuments, 167

Fenn, Rev. J., 211, 392

Fenning, Col., 84

Floyer, Sir A., 121

Fonts, 57

Forbes, Mr., 41, 46

Fort St. George, St. Mary's, 154

Foulkes, Rev. T., 92, 192

Fraser. Col. C, 177

French Rocks Chapel, 328


Garrett, Dr., 91

Garrow, G., M.C.S., 89

Garstin, J. H., M.C.S., 265

Gell, Bishop, 94, 246, 330

Gericke, Rev. C. W.. 5, 32, 107, 2 ID,

Gibson, Rev. C. D., 93
Gilbert Cooper, Rev. W. W., 330
Godfrey, Rev. S. A., 330
Good influence of English women, 114
Gordon, J., 200
Gorton, Ven. J., 74, 119
Government good-will to missions,

214, 296
Graeme, H. S.. M.C.S., 146

Rev. C. K., 376
Graham, T., M.P., 28
Grant, Sir Charles, 8, 17, 19, 43

Charles, junior, 351, 353

Robert, 43
Green, Lieutenant. 293
Gwatkin, J., M.C.S., 146, 226


Hadow, G., M.C.S., 146

HaU, Rev. R., 25

Hallewell, Rev. J., 152, 154, 159,

283, 374
Hamilton, Alexander, 96, 97
Hamilton-Hall, General, 195
Hands, J., 200
Hanvngton, C, M.C.S., 265
Harington, W., M.C.S., 135
Harkness, Captain H., 351
Harper, Ven. H., 84, 89, 93, 117, 118,

147, 149, 166, 170, 172. 363
Hastings, Warren, 28, 29, 30, 31
Haubroe, Rev. L. P., 143, 160, 273,

278, 389
Haughton, Rev. G. D., 396
Havelock, Sir Arthur, 284

Mrs. C. E., 325
Heavyside, Rev. J., 147, 396





Heber. Bishop. 143. 144. 151, 191,

195. 245. 269. 271, 347
Higsinson. C. H., M.C.S., 94
Hill D.. M.C.S.. 88
Hodiison. Rev. C, 339

J.,"M.C.S.. 226
Holtzbers. Rev. I. C... 70. 200. 203
Hoole, Elijah. 211, 213
Horsford. Rev. J. P.. 147
Horslev, Ralph. M.C.S.. 84
Horst.'Rev. C. H.. 110, 200. 203
Houah. Rev. J.. 4, 95, 102, 103. 205.

250. 263. 350. 304
Howard, Rev. G. B., 294
Howarth, Mr., 43
Hudleston, A. F., M.C.S., 135
Hughes Hallett, Col. W., 324
Hume. Joseph. 36. 41
Hutchison. Rev. J.. 138, 291, 294, 3G1
Huxtable, Bishop, 246
Hyde, Ven. H. B., 101

Increase of Chaplains, 305
Bishops. 349, 351

Indo-Britons, 111

Influence of missionaries, 106

Inspection tours : —

Archdeacon Mousley, 141
Archdeacon Vaughan, 144
Archdeacon Robinson, 154, 158

Irion, Rev. J. L., 148, 149, 398

Irvine, G. Duncan, M.C.S., 195

Jackson, Rev. E. M. J., 365

RancUe, 36
Jacobi, Rev. C. A., 200, 208, 388
Jaenicke. Rev. J. D., 5
James, Bishop, 146, 152, 153, 272

Rev. H. P., 337
Jeaffreson, Rev. C, 294, 371
.John, Rev. Dr. C. S., 5, 210, 313
John Pcreiras Chapel, 295-6
Jones, Rev. E. J., 148, 172, 398

Rev. S., 361
Jubbulpore Church, 336


Kamptee Church, 332-5

Online LibraryFrank PennyThe church in Madras : being the history of the ecclesiastical and missionary action of the East India Company in the Presidency of Madras in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (Volume 2) → online text (page 38 of 39)