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Webster Family Library of Veterinary Medicine

Cummings Schooi of Veterinary Medicine at

Tufts University

200 Westboro Road -^

North Grafton, MA 01536





MANAGEMENT. With 40 Illustrations.

Crown 8vo. 6s. net.

Standard. — "A thoroughly practical treatise,

that tells all that need be known by the owner of

terriers, whether he keeps them for companionship,

sport or show. All the leading kinds of terriers

are portrayed, and the illustrations are lavish."

Graphic. — ** This book ought to rank as one of
the text-books on terriers. "

With 28 Illustrations. Demy 8vo. Ts. 6d.
Pall Mall Gazette. — "The volume can be re-
commended for a place in the library of every man
who has a care for a horse. The illustrations are
informative and have been carefully selected."

Globe. — "'Ponies' is a useful book. It will
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AVIARY. With 4 Coloured Plates from
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trations. Crown 4to. 10s. 6d. net.
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The Taller.—'' Will be a standard work on the
subject for many years. Everything in any way
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pheasants is dealt with exhaustively and with
expert knowledge."

HOUNDS. With 37 Illustrations. Crown 8vo.
5s. net.

GUN DOGS. With 46 Illustrations. Crown
8vo. 5s. net.





Frank Townend Barton, M.R.C.V.S.

Author of

"Terriers: Their Points and Management," "Ponies, and All

About Them," '* Pheasants : in Covert and

Aviary," << Gun Dogs"








John Long, Limited

Norris Street, Haymarket

[A/l Rights Reserved^


First Published in 1913



Preface - - - - - ii

Introduction - - - - - 13


I. Points of a Hound - - - - 21

II. Elementary Anatomy of a Hound - - 25

III. Elementary Anatomy of a Hound {continued) - 35

IV. Conformation of a Hound - - - 61
V. The Foxhound : Essential Features - - 65

VI. A Glance at the Evolution of a Foxhound - 71

VII. The Bloodhound - - - - 129

VIII. The Afghan Greyhound - - - 138

Harriers - - - - - 141

IX. Otter-hounds - - - - - 148

The Borzoi - - - - . - 159

The Deerhound . . . . 164

The Irish Wolfhound - - - 167

The Great Dane ... - 173

Beagles - - - i8i

The Dachshund . . - . 191

The Basset-hound - . . . 200

X. The Whippet - - ^- - - 206

XI. Portable Hound Kennels - - - 211

XII. Diseases Affecting the Eyes - - - 217

XIII. Diseases of the Respiratory Organs - - 238

8 Contents


XIV. Rheumatism, Kennel Lameness or Chest

Founder ..... 249

XV. Poisons, and what to do in Cases of Poisoning 255

XVI. Diseases Affecting the Liver, etc. - - 261

XVII. Diseases and Disorders of the Digestive Tract 269

XVIII. Some Diseases of the Nervous System - 278

XIX. Entozoa (Worms) - - - - - 292

XX. Fractures and Dislocations - - - 297

XXI. Wounds and Various other Injuries - - 302

Index - - - - - - 307


Greyhound, " FuUerton " -



Points of a Foxhound



Skeleton Structure of Hound


- 28

A Full Pack of Foxhounds and Otter-hounds


A Mixed Pack— Otter and Crossed Foxhounds -

- 76

The Young Entry in the Paddock



The Late Mr James Hedley



Greyhound, " Hallow Eve "





Greyhound, " Thoughtless Beauty "


- 114

A Brace of Greyhounds -


- 118

Greyhound, "Texture" -



Greyhound, " Dark-Scent »


- 126



- 130

A Group of Afghan Greyhounds -


- 138

Harrier . . . .


- 142

A Mixed Pack of Otter-hounds -



Members of the Dumfriesshire Pack


- 148

Otter Hunting


- 150

The Dumfriesshire Pack -


- 152

Pure Otter-hounds and Foxhounds Crossed with Otter-

hounds - . .


- 154

A Famous Otter-hound, "Talisman"



- - 156

10 List of Illustrations


Members of an Otter Hunt Comparing Notes - - 158

Borzois -.. - .- 162

A Trio of Deerhounds . - - . - 164

Deerhound .-.. - 166

Irish Wolfhound, Ch.: "Cotswald" - - - 168

A Typical Great Dane - - - - - 174

Beagle ....... 182

Improved Dachshunds . . - . - 192

Smooth-coated Basset-hound - . . . 200

Rough-coated Basset-hound .... 202

Portable Hound Kennel - - - - - 212

Plan of same ...... 213

Range of Hound Kennels - . - . 214

Double Kennel . - -.- 215

Kennels (Part Covered-in Runs) - - - - 216


Very little excuse need be offered for the production
of the present work, as the author believes that
hitherto no other small manual exclusively devoted
to hounds of the various kinds has been published.

That elaborate and costly books upon the Fox-
hound and Greyhound have appeared from time to
time is indisputable, but such have never satisfied
the demand so frequently made for a book of general
utility within the grasp of the sportsman whose means
do not permit him to encompass the more pretentious
works devoted to this subject. Without fear of con-
tradiction, the " Hounds " afford sport not attainable
through any other varieties of the canine tribe, and
such " sport " constitutes indirectly the backbone
of the British Empire, calling, as it does in the
case of fox-hunting, for the exercise of quahfications
essentially manly — for pluck, for endurance, for skill,
and a commensurate respect for the equality, or it
may be superiority, of brother sportsmen.

F. T. Barton.


*' Here's to the hound
With his nose upon the ground."

Whytk Melville.

Before dipping into what may be termed the real
substance of the work, it is expedient to refer, in a
general sense, to the comparative uses of the different
varieties of hounds, together with a sketch of the
analogy of each so far as the hound characteristics
are concerned.

Lord Wilton, in a work entitled Sports and Pursuits
of the English, says that " about the year 1750
hounds began to be entered solely to fox," but there
is plenty of evidence to prove that long before this
date there were numerous fox-hunting establishments
in England. In the year 1713 Sir John Tyrwhitt, Mr
C. Pelham and Mr Robert Vyner came to an arrange-
ment that each lot of Foxhounds kept by them
should be united so as to form one pack, and that
their interests in the same should be divided. In all
there were 32 hounds, or 16 couples, and the gentle-
men named hunted the country (Brocklesby) from
1714, though the hunt was first founded about 1700.

Within three or four seasons Messrs Vyner and

14 Introduction

Tyrwhitt retired, leaving Mr Pelhamin sole command,
the family of which have hunted the Brocklesby ever
since. The hounds of this pack have a written pedi-
gree for about 140 years, and that Father of English
fox-hunting, Mr Hugo Meynell, the first Master of the
Quorn Country, obtained the foundation stone, so
to speak, from this source, for the formation of the
Quorn pack — reputed to be one of the first packs
of Foxhounds in England,* Mr Boothby being the
Master from 1698 to 1753 (55 years), followed by
the Mastership of Mr Hugo Meynell from 1753 to
1800 (47 years).

With the last named the breeding of Foxhounds
upon scientific principles may be said to have begun.
From that time [circa 1755 or 1760) onwards packs of
hounds sprang up in various parts of the country.
Colonel Thornton [circa 1804) is reputed to have had
a fine pack of Foxhounds, which subsequently came
into the hands of the sixth Lord Middleton.

The foregoing is sufficient evidence to prove that
for fully 200 years the Foxhound has been exclu-
sively employed for hunting the fox, and that it
has attained its present high standard of excellence
through being bred upon scientific fines for genera-
tions, in short, since the days of the great Hugo

* The Berkley (Lord Fitzhardinge's) is probably the most ancient
hunt in Great Britain, dating its foundation from 1613.

Introduction 15

Although not endowed with conformation char-
acteristic of animals required for swift progression
like the Thoroughbred, the Greyhound, Deerhound,
etc., the Foxhound nevertheless is built upon lines
that suggest speed combined with endurance. Without
these qualifications it would be utterly useless for the
purpose for which it is required. This brings the
author to make a statement that very few will, on
reflection, feel inclined to dispute the truth of. It
is this: that the Foxhound is built upon lines dis-
playing greater economy of material than that of any
other variety of dog. Every ounce of bone and
muscle is placed where it can be utilized to the
best advantage. The comparatively small size of the
head and its lofty carriage, the obliquity of the neck,
the extreme capacity of the chest passing into a light
flank area, and on to powerful loins and quarters and
strong hocks, so combine by being thus placed in
relation to the body as to give a maximum of speed
combined with a maximum of endurance.

The fore-limbs of the Foxhound, for bone, muscle
and tendon, offer a study in conformation and of
relation in application to purpose. The prolonged
exertion that Foxhounds have usually to perform
necessitates a high degree of staying power, and
this implies a stoutly-developed muscular system
without interference to speed.

Just in the same way that the late Mr Robert Bake-

i6 Introduction

well improved the breed of Leicester sheep, in order
to get the greatest degree of economy of material,
so have Masters of Hounds endeavoured to breed only
from such members of their own packs, or their
union with selected sires of other packs, as would be
likely to afford a measure of improvement, or, at any
rate, equaUty of the hounds then in their kennels.
In other language, " selection " has been the basis
for the attainment of an object, and this is the reason
why the present type of Foxhounds in England
stands unrivalled.

The Harrier stands next to the Foxhound so far
as general conformation is concerned, but the ques-
tion is, What constitutes a Harrier? To say that it is
a hound used exclusively for hunting the hare is
correct, yet this does not dispose of the question so
often raised and referred to by us at the beginning of
this paragraph.

Necessarily all Harriers are mainly composed of
the Foxhound element, but in a modified form, and
many packs of Harriers contain inferior specimens of
Foxhounds simply glorifying under another title.

There is a tendency for Harriers to degenerate
unless the Foxhound sire is occasionally reintro-
duced to maintain the robust build so essential in
the Harrier, one of whose principal qualifications is
" perseverance," as hare-hunting does not call for
the exercise of one continued "forrard on," as with the

Introduction i.y

Foxhound. Most hare hunters like a hound about
20 inches in height, though opinions differ, some
packs being composed of 21 to 22 inch hounds, others
smaller. Twenty inches may be taken as the average.

Otter-hounds are certainly strongly endowed with
the Harrier or Foxhound element, blended with a
jacket specially suitable for riverside work, pools, etc.,
which represent the homes of their quarry.

The Southern hound carriage of stern is typically
portrayed in all the foregoing, likewise in the Blood-
hound, and in a modified form in Dachshunds,
Bassets and Beagles, although the first named must,
doubtfully, be classified as a hound. The shortening
of the Hmbs in these hounds is peculiar, and cannot
be held as anything but a retrograde movement from
the original type, although custom has sanctioned
the short crooked fore limbs as orthodox, which are
said to render the Dachshund specially valuable for
working in a fox earth or badger burrow.

In length of body, carriage of stern, length and con-
formation of fore and hind limbs, shape of skull and
face and carriage of ears, all the hounds last named
exhibit a remarkable conformity of type. The
Dachshunds and Bassets exist in both the smooth
and broken-coated varieties, although the smooth
coat has always taken precedence amongst fanciers
of these hounds.

The Bloodhound in general conformation is allied

i8 Introduction

to that of the Southern hound, but of a very much
heavier type, yet having features so distinctive that
further consideration concerning him must be left
until the breed is discussed.

The three remaining types of British hounds, viz.,
the Greyhound, the Deerhound and the Wolfhound,
or hounds of the Rose, Shamrock and Thistle, to-
gether with those hounds of Continental or of Asiatic
descent, exhibit remarkable likenesses in their struc-
tural conformation, differentiated in accordance with
the special nature of their work.

All these hounds are built upon racing lines, por-
traying swift progression, to which other features
are secondary, unless it be great strength for attack,
as requisite in the Borzoi when employed in his
native country.

Both the Deerhound and the Wolfhound are
stronger in build than the Greyhound, though for
pace over a short distance not equal to the last

One of the hound characteristics is that of hunting
by sense of smell, though the Greyhound chiefly
hunts by sight, the vision of these animals being ad-
justed to cover an extremely long range, the eyes
being large and particularly brilliant.

The presence of feather {i.e., a fringe of hair) upon
the backs of the limbs and upon the tail of the
Eastern hounds, e.g., the Russian Greyhound (Bor-

Introduction 19

zoi), and upon the Elk hound, is singular and can
hardly be accounted for as the remnant of ancestry,
because it is probable that all these hounds have been
derived indirectly from that most ancient of all
canines — at any rate such as have been domesticated
— the Greyhound. Environment may have some-
thing to do with its presence, as its only use, so far
as one can judge, is that of protecting the backs of the
fore limbs and under surface of the tail from be-
coming too much wetted. The skin would be liable
to become erythematous (congested), when the dog
lay down to rest in its natural attitude, through the
heat, moisture and pressure upon these parts. The
climate of Great Britain does not call for such pro-
tection, whereas it does in the land where these
hounds are native.

Although brief, as a general survey of the hounds,
it is hoped that even this small amount of informa-
tion may stimulate the mind to further thought
relating to the comparative external general features
of the various types of hounds.




Introductory Remarks. — Although apparently a very
simple matter to become acquainted with different
regions, recognized for convenience under the title of
" points," it is astonishing to find so few really ac-
quainted with such, and when one refers to some
particular part, such as the arm or the wrist, the
novitiate seems quite at sea as to the part of the
anatomy implied. To tell a man that a dog has really
only two legs (admittedly four limbs) creates amuse-
ment, but such is actually the case.

In the description of hounds the '* points " must
not be taken as those indicative of conformation,
this being discussed elsewhere in the book.
Fig. I is the nostrils, which ought to be large in all
hounds. The nostrils are divided into right
and left passages by a cartilaginous membrane
— the Schneiderian membrane.
Fig. 2, The lips, usually well developed in most

22 Hounds

Fig. 3. The cheeks, particularly large in hounds,
excepting the Greyhound, Deerhound, etc.
The Bloodhound affords a typical representa-
tion of such development. Also spoken of as
the " flews."

Fig. 4 is the nose, extending from the nostrils to a
line drawn across the level of the eyes, and
about an inch and a half on either side, blend-
ing with the face.

Fig. 5 is placed upon the skull, which runs from
the upper boundary of the nose to Fig. 6 at the
back of the skull, and known as the occiput or
occipital peak.

Fig. 6. The face, which is included within the area
formed by the inner angle of the eye, and the
dotted lines.

Fig. 7. The temples.

Fig. 8. The upper maxillar.

Fig. 9. Margin of ear.

Fig. 10. Base of ear.

Fig. II. Posterior angle of jaw.

Fig. 12. The crest of the neck.

Fig. 13. The dewlap.

Fig. 14 is placed upon the brisket, which in hounds
should not be wide.

Fig. 15. The withers; 16, the back; and 17, the

Fig. 18. The coup; and 19, the stern.

Points of a Foxhound

1. Nostril. 2. Lips. 3. Cheek. 4. Nose. 5. Top of Skull. 6. Face. 7. Temples.
8. Upper Maxilla. 9. Margin of Ear. 10. Base of Ear. 11. Posterior Angle of
Jaw. 12. Crest. 13. Dewlap. 14. Brisket. 15 Withers. 16. Back. 17. Loins.
18 Croup. 19. Stern. 20. Flank. 21. Belly. 22. Chest Wall. 23. Shoulder.
24. Arm. 25. Point of Elbow. 26. Forearm. 27. Inner Face of Forearm.
28. Waist. 29. Toes. 30. Buttocks. 31. Stifle. 32. Second Thigh. 33. Point
of Hock. 34. Metatarsus (or Pastern).


[To face page 22.

Points of a Hound 23

Fig. 20 is the flank; and 21, the belly.
Fig. 22. The chest wall, the depth of the chest
being measured immediately behind the
elbows, around the breast, and over the
withers, great depth of chest being a sine
qua non in all hounds.
Fig. 23. The shoulder, divisible into (a) the upper
border; (b) posterior border; and (c) the
point of the shoulder.
Fig. 24 is the arm, joining the lower angle of the
shoulder above and the upper end of the
Fig. 25 represents the point of the elbow.
Fig. 26. The forearm, divisible into (a) upper, (b)
middle, and (c) lower thirds, as indicated by
the lines.
Fig. 27. (d) The inner face of forearm; (e) the
outer; (/) the front; and (g) the posterior faces
of forearm.
Fig. 28. The wrist or knee joint, uniting with the
lower end of the forearm above and bones of
the hand, excluding those representing the
fingers (toes) below.
Fig. 29. The toes.
Fig. 30. The nails. .>tt>e^^ "^
Fig. 31. Front face of the first thigh (represented
in the human subject from the hip to the

24 Hounds

Fig. 32. Buttocks, or posterior face of the first

Fig. 33. The stifle, which represents the lower end

of the first thigh.
Fig. 34. The second thigh, extending from the stifle

joint last named right down to the hock, only

it is usual to speak of the lower third of this

as the gaskin, No. 35 in the illustration.
Fig. 35. Point of the hock or heel, together with

(a) the front face of the hock, and [h) and {c)

its inner and outer faces.
Fig. 36. Is the metatarsus or pastern, ending on to

toes, 38.



" True knowledge comes from study, not by chance,
As those move easiest who have learned to dance." — Popr.

Introductory. — Granting the truth of that oft-re-
peated axiom " that a Uttle knowledge is a dangerous
thing," it nevertheless is essential for all who wish to
acquire a sound knowledge appertaining to hounds
to digest the elements relating to the anatomical
construction of a hound, without the acquirement of
which an imperfect state of knowledge is bound to be
the result. So far as the anatomy of a hound is con-
cerned, this coincides, with certain modifications, to
the anatomy of any other dog, and for convenience
may be studied under three divisions, viz. : {a) The
structure of the skeleton or bony framework of
the animal; [h) its internal organs; and (c) 'the
muscular system.

The terms osteology, i.e., the study of the bones,
and myology, i.e., the study of the muscles, are
generally used by anatomists as expressive of the
studies indicated, whilst a somewhat long term —
splanchnology — is applied to the study of the internal
organs. Dealing with these in the order named, I


26 Hounds

shall first of all give a detailed account of the

The Skeleton of the Hound

This is spoken of as an endoskeleton because the flesh
(muscles) are situated externally to it. The frame-
work encloses the soft internal organs, whilst it serves
to support — at the same time is protected by — the
muscles, thus acting as a framework upon which lever-
age power and movement are executed. If the skeleton
be divided in its mesial plane, i.e., down the backbone,
the right and left halves will be counterparts, so that
it is only necessary to speak of the parts in the singular
number, thus saving much useless verbiage.

The skull is composed of numerous small bones
united together in later life by bony union, but during
foetal existence, and, to some extent, weeks after such,
the union is by means of cartilage or gristle. Hence
there is practically no movement executed between
the individual bones entering into the formation of
the skull.

Most of these cranial bones have their opposing sur-
faces cut out like the teeth of a fine saw, and it is this
interlocking or dovetailing that serves to strengthen
the bond of union.

The right and left sides of the forehead meet at a
prominent ridge known as the sagittal crest.

The " poll " or top part of the skull is formed of

Elementary Anatomy of a Hound 27

the occipital hone, and the part generally referred to as
the occiput. Before birth a small bone — the inter-
parietal — fuses with the bone previously named. On
a level with the ears, and helping to form a consider-
able portion of the skull, are the parietal hones,
whilst between these and the eyes are situated the
frontal bones, and there is a projection from each of
the frontal bones that helps to form the sockets for
the eyes, the eye cavities not being completely bony
like those of the horse. Immediately behind the
parietal hones, though with a bony process projecting
forwards and outwards, are the temporal bones, which,
along with the bones previously named, form what is
known as the temporal fosscB — depressions that are
filled up with muscles (flesh) not observed in the
fleshy state of the skull.

The superior maxillary hone carries the six back
teeth, and at its junction with the premaxilla forms
a socket to accommodate each tusk.

The lachrymal hone is small and situated in the eye
cavity, whilst the molar bone helps to form a portion
of the face. The premaxillary hone (like the rest in
pairs), along with the nasal bones and superior maxil-
lary bones, forms the bony tunnel of the nose, and
each half of the premaxilla carries three of the upper
incisor teeth. In addition to the foregoing there is
a narrow bone known as the vomer ; also turhinated
bones in the nasal passage; whilst the lower jaw or in-

28 Hounds

ferior maxilla, which is very strong, bears seven teeth
along its upper border and four at the front.

At the back and outer side of the jaw there is a
deep depression to lodge the cheek muscle, and above
this a large projecting process — coronoid process.

The neck (cervix) is composed of seven cervical ver-
tehrcB, and the body of each vertebra in such hounds
as the Greyhound, Deerhound, etc., is relatively
long, but the first, atlas, and the second, axis, are quite
different from the succeeding five. In front the atlas
articulates with the back of the skull, and it is at this
joint (occipito-atlantal) that the nodding movement
occurs, whereas the joint formed by the back articu-
lar surface of this bone and the front of the axis con-
fers lateral motion to the head. This is called the
atlanto-axial articulation. Following the bones com-
posing the neck are the dorsal vertehrce, numbering
thirteen, the last of which articulates with the first
bone of the loins or lumbar vertehrce. These bones are
well developed. Strength in this region, especially in
hounds, is absolutely essential; in fact, a weak-loined
hound is no use for work.

Their lateral or transverse processes (projections) are
strong. The sacrum follows the lumbar vertebrae and
is composed of three segments united together.

This completes the bones of the spinal column.
The remaining ones, belonging to the tail, are known
as coccygeal vertehrce.

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