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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY

OF CALIFORNIA

LOS ANGELES



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A HINDOO PRINCESS.



THROUGH AND THROUGH



THE TROPICS



30,000 MILES OF TRAVEL

IN

POLYNESIA, AUSTRALASIA, AND INDIA



By FRANK VINCENT, Jr.

AUTHOR OF
'THE LAND OF THE WHITE ELEPHANT" "NORSK, LAPP, AND FINN " ETC.



SECOND EDITION



NEW YORK
HARPER & BROTHERS, FRANKLIN SQUARE






Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1875, by

HARPER & BROTHERS,

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington.






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TO

BARON DE HUBNER,

EMBASSADOR, MINISTER, HISTORIAN,

AN HONORED COMPANION IN SEVERAL ASIATIC JOURNEYS,

THIS VOLUME

is Hespectfulln Eefcfcatefc.



UBSETS



PREFACE.



The great and unexpected favor with which
my first work was received, both at home and
abroad, has emboldened me to write a second,
and to offer it in the presumption that it will
not be less fortunate. I am the more hopeful
that this may be the case, since all I profess to
do is to narrate, in the simplest manner and
without exaggeration, what I have myself seen,
heard, and experienced. A few of the follow-
ing chapters originally appeared in various maga-
zines, and are here condensed and revised. In
presenting them and their companions, I repeat
the aspiration with which Hindoo writers some-
times crown their literary labors, and exclaim,
" Khwaninda khoosh-bashud !" — May the reader
be pleased !

F. V., Jr.

New York, October, 1875.



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER I.

SOUTHERLY AROUND THE CONTINENT.

Cargo of the Golden Fleece.— Flying-fish.— Phosphoric Phenom-
ena. — Sea-weed of the North Atlantic— Characteristics of the
" Horse Latitudes."— Crossing the Equator. — Looking North
for the Sun.— Catching a Sword - fish.— Dying Dolphins.— A
Tropic Storm at Sea.— Tierra del Fuego. — Amenities of Sea
Life.— How the Time is Passed.— The Etiquette of Signals-
Contrast of Sunrise on Land and Ocean. — Christmas on the
Briny Deep. — Omnivorous Reading. — Ship Discipline — Good-
bye to the Southern Cross and Welcome Farralone Light. —
San Francisco at Last Page 17

CHAPTER II.

IN 'FRISCO.

Justly praised Climate of Central California.— Influence of the Black
Stream of Japan.— Bracing Property of the Air.— Vegetable Vari-
eties in the Markets.— Where are the Public Buildings ?— San
Francisco contrasted with New York. — Aspect of the Private
Residences.— Public Gardens at Alameda, Oakland, and Sauce-
lito.— Breakfasts and Suppers at the Cliff House.— The "fast-
ness " of San Francisco Society.— Want of Sanctity on the Sab-
bath. — Peculiarities of the Chinese Inhabitants. — Celestial Con-
ceit and Thrift. — A Mongolian Drama 4 l



Vlll CONTENTS.

CHAPTER III.

HONOLULU.

Off to the Sandwich Islands. — We Sight Molokai April 10, 1870. —
First Impressions of Oahu. — Situation of Honolulu. — American
Appearance of the Town. — The Poke Bonnets and Antediluvian
Hats. — I ask for Breadfruit Groves and am shown a Bar. — Fare-
well to the Golden Fleece. — The Pali. — The Valley of Nuuanu. —
Souvenirs in Bone of Kamehameha I. — A Superb Landscape. —
Wonderful Agility of the Natives 51

CHAPTER IV.

AT THE HAWAIIAN PALACE.

How Foreign Residents Live. — The Royal Palace. — Appointments
of the Interior. — The Library and Paintings. — Scientific and Il-
lustrated Works. — The Crown-Room. — Grand Reception-Room.
— The Magnificent Mamo, or Feather Cloak. — Porcelain Likeness
of the Empress Eugenie. — The Billiard-hall and the Royal Plate.
— Bill of Fare at Iolani Palace. — The Kamehamehas a Short-lived
Race. — Dr. Judd's Unpardonable Mistake. — " No nagurs allowed
at this table." — Succession of Kalakua. — The Old Crater of Dia-
mond Head. — Cheery Salutations of the Kanakas 57

CHAPTER V.

GLIMPSES OF THE HAWAIIAN GROUP.

Sailing for Hilo. — Kanakas as Passengers. — Their Constitutional
Shiftlessness. — Their Ideas of Conviviality. — Molokai and its
Leper Hospital. — Mauna - Haleakala. — The Largest Quiescent
Crater in the World. — A Hole Thirty-five Miles in Circumfer-
ence and Three Thousand Feet Deep. — Fertility of the Soil of
Hawaii.— Is another Island in Process of Volcanic Formation?
— Native Productions. — Churches and Missionaries. — Gathering



CONTENTS. IX

Cocoa-nuts in Hilo. — How they are Eaten. — Bananas. — Pests
of the Sandwich Islands. — Caterpillars Five Inches Long. ... 64

CHAPTER VI.

THE GREAT CRATER OF KILAUEA.

In Quest of a Big Crater. — Scenery through the Woods. — Accom-
modations at the Half-way House. — Delights of the Lomi-lomi.
— A Pleasant Way of Getting Fat. — A Sulphur Steam-bath in the
Lap of Nature. — The Three Lofty Mountains of Hawaii. — Mau-
na-Loa. — Kilauea, the Largest Active Volcano in the World. —
The Inside of a Crater. — How it Feels to be on the Under-side
of the Earth's Pie-crust. — We Impinge on a Small Crater. — De-
scription of a Lava Stream. — Overflow of Kilauea. — Terrific Ap-
pearance of a River of Burning Lava. — Natives Propitiate the
Kilauean Deity. — Visit to an Extinct Crater 71

CHAPTER VII.

AT HOME WITH THE KANAKAS.

Native Canoes. — Artistic Swimming. — The Ocean a Natatorium
for Kanakas. — Captain Spencer's Sugar-cane Plantation. — A
Labor-saving " Flume." — Mode of Planting Sugar-cane. — How
the Sugar is Made. — Setting out for Mauna-Kea. — Eleven Peo-
ple in One Room. — Kapa Cloth. — Pleasures of Poi-eating. — The
Lively Manner in which it is done. — Rum among the Sandwich
Islanders. — Decimation since the Time of Cook 80

CHAPTER VIII.

MAUNA-KEA, WAIPIO, AND WAIMEA.

Inducements to Ascend Mauna-Kea. — Hard Work for a Sublime
View. — What Geologists Say about the Mountain. — Source of
the Crateriform Lake. — Waipio Valley. — An Eden bounded by
Mountain, Sea, and Waterfall. — Fair Possessions of Kameha-

A 2



X CONTENTS.

meha V. — His Numerous Pursuits. — He Runs a Cattle Ranch
and Rules a Throne. — Waimea, the Sanitarium of Hawaii. — The
Spot where Captain Cook Fell. — A Solitary Palm-tree Stump
Consecrates it. — Inscriptions of a Grateful but Impecunious Pos-
terity. — Vain Efforts of the British Consul. — Hawaiian Cata-
combs. — Decrease of Population since the Time of Cook. — Na-
tive Temple of Kawaihae. — Unique Method of Shipping Bul-
locks. — Miscellaneous Islands 86

CHAPTER IX.

FROM HONOLULU TO SYDNEY.

Facts from the Honolulu Directory. — Rapid Civilization of the
Hawaiians. — Sail for Auckland, New Zealand. — Steamship Cbm-
pany Complications. — Ineffectual Efforts to Reach Tahiti. — Mi-
cronesia an Incorrect Name for the Polynesian Archipelagoes.
— Climate, Vegetation, and Scenery of these Groups. — Method
of Structure in Coral Reefs. — Wide Dispersion of the Islands.
— The Irrevocable Manner in which we Lost a Day. — Where
Cannibalism still Flourishes. — Magnificent Harbor of Sydney. —
Burlesque Fortifications. — Spacious Hotel Hospitality 97

CHAPTER X.

WONDERS OF KANGAROO LAND.

Popular Impression concerning Australia. — Something more than
an Infinite Island with a Desert at Heart. — Character of the
Aborigines. — Their Burial Superstitions. — Animal Life. — The
Kangaroo, Ornithorhynchus, and other Quidnuncs. — Vegetable
Phenomena. — Aspect of Sydney. — Public Buildings. — Origin of
Botany Bay. — Australian Railways. — A Grade that Cost Five
Hundred Thousand Dollars per Mile. — Newcastle Mines. —
Features of an Australian Landscape. — Melbourne and Sydney
Contrasted. — Sudden Rise of Melbourne. — Imperial Presents to
the Public Library. — Exquisite Models in the Mining Museum.



CONTENTS. XI

— The Observatory. — The Second Botanical Gardens of the
World. — Ballarat Gold Nuggets. — An Old-fashioned Coach-
drive in Tasmania. — Coup iTccil of Hobart-town. — Bound for Cal-
cutta.— We Escape the Cyclone. — Specimen of Caste. — Anchor-
ing at Calcutta 104



'o



CHAPTER XI.

CALCUTTA.

First Impressions of Calcutta. — Small Ponies. — Furniture in Indian
Houses. — Population, Imports, and Exports. — An Inexpensive
Eurasian. — The Pleasures of a Palankeen. — The Government
House. — Asiatic Society's Museum. — Chantrey's Statue of He-
ber. — The Banyan - tree at the Botanical Gardens. — The Dying
Houses. — "Morgues for the Moribund." — Idiosyncrasies of Hin-
doo Mourning. — The Goddess Kali at Home. — The Esplanade,
Calcutta's " Rotten Row." — An Attenuated Operatic Chorus. —
The Voices are Thin to Suit the Climate. — Menagerie and Garden
of the ex-King of Oudh. — Interview with Moonshee Ameer Allie,
Khan Bahadoor. — Aviary of the King of Oudh. — His Personal
Appearance. — Debauchery and Extravagance. — Burra Bazar. —
Cheating Propensities of Native Traders. — Departure for the
Himalayas and Thibet 126

CHAPTER XII.

NORTHWARD TO HIGH ASIA.

First Sight of the Ganges. — Experiences in a Shigram. — Hindoo
Rareyism. — A Unique Specimen of Midnight Coachmanship. —
Dak-bungalows. — At the Foot of the Himalayas. — Nepaulese
Coolies. — Their Wonderful Strength and Endurance. — Precip-
itous Roads and Exquisite Valleys. — European Residents at Dar-
jeeling. — European Vegetables for Sale. — Find it Impossible to
Proceed to Thibet. — Contumacy of the Pugla Diwan. — A Horse-
back Excursion into Sikkim. — Abysmal Bridle-paths at an An-



XII CONTENTS.

gle of Forty-five Degrees. — A Bamboo Suspension-bridge. — Un-
expected View of the Sublime Kanchinginga. — A Mountain Five
Miles in Perpendicular Height. — The Alps, the Andes, and the
Himalayas Compared. — Tea - plantations. — Land - owners and
Peasants. — Native Productions. — Poppy Plants. — Patna. — Shops
and Dwellings. — A Famous Old Granary. — The Government
Opium Manufactory and Warehouse 138

CHAPTER XIII.

THE SACRED CITY OF THE HINDOOS.

The Soane Bridge. — The Victoria Hotel. — General Characteristics
of Benares. — Situation. — Hindooism at Home. — A Short Cut to
Paradise and a Royal Road to Bliss. — Sacred Simians. — Bull
Deities. — The Monkey-gods Scramble for Rice and Corn. — Jai
Singh's Observatory. — The Vivishas Temple. — Shopping en
prince. — Kinkob Manufacture. — The Fascinations of Fakirism. —
Amenities to the Sick and Aged. — Oriental coup cfceil. — Mosque
of Aurungzebe. — Experience in Betel-chewing. — Ruins of Sar-
nath. — Snake-charming. — Received by the Maharajah of Benares.
— Ramnaghur Citadel. — The Heir-Apparent. — Royal Gardens. —
Audience with the Rajah. — Invited to a Private Entertainment at
Karnatcha Palace. — The Rajah's Nautch Girls. — Their Style of
Dancing. — Their Style of Singing. — The Accompanying Musi-
cians. — The Rajah's Hookah. — Description of the "Been." —
His Highness's Distinguished Courtesy. — Attar -of- Roses and
Silver -silk Neck -ribbons. — " Palagan Maharaj !" — Something
more about Hookahs. — The Trick-elephant. — Claims of Benares
upon the Traveler. — Reluctant Departure for Allahabad 155

CHAPTER XIV.

MOSQUES, PALACES, AND TOMBS.

The City of Allah. — Memorial Gardens. — Nana Sahib's Victims. —
Lucknow. — The Alumbagh. — La Martiniere. — Its somewhat Ro-



CONTENTS. XI 1,

raantic History. — The Tomb of Ghazee-ooder Hyder. — A Court
and a Cock-fight. — Royalty and Roosters. — Ghazee-ooder's
Rapacity. — Badshahd Munzil. — Costly Palaces and Pleasure-
houses. — The Great Emambarra. — Hoseinabad Emambarra. — A
Prismatic Apartment. — The Tombs of Mohammed Allie Shah
and his Mother. — From Cawnpore to Agra. — The Fort of
Agra. — Sandal -wood Gates of Somnauth. — The Motee Mus-
jid, or Pearl Mosque. — A Persian Panegyric. — The Emperor's
Palace. — The Shish Mahal, or Palace of Glass. — Black -mar-
ble Baths. — Tomb of King Akbar. — A Cenotaph Open to the
Sky iSl

CHAPTER XV.

A GLANCE AT HINDOO LIFE AND LETTERS.

The Confluence of the Ganges and Jumna. — A Tonsorial Pass to
Paradise. — Losing Hair and Gaining Heaven. — Nefarious Prac-
tices of the Brahmins. — The Melas, or Religious Fairs. — How
Sun-worship is Conducted. — Cave-temples of Elephanta. — The
Trimurti, or Triad. — Hindoo Superstitions and Proverbs. — Vari-
ous Dialects. — Ancient Writings. — The Vedas. — The Rig- Veda.
-■-The Puranas. — The Ramayana and Mahabharata. — An Epic
of Two Hundred Thousand Verses. — The Manuvadharmasastra.
— The Rajneet Proverbial Philosophy of the Hindoos. — Speci-
mens of their Poetry and Letter-writing. — General State of Edu-
cation. — Sanskrit School at Benares 195

CHAPTER XVI.

THE PALACE-TOM I! TAJ MAHAL.

Supremacy of the Taj. — Meaning of the Term. — Locality of the
Tomb. — A Magnificent Gateway. — Dimensions. — Various other
Architectural Details. — Who Mumtaz Mahal was. — Wealth of
Marble Fiorittire. — Gems as Thick as Pebbles in a Brook. —
The Echo in the Dome. — Tributes of Various Writers. — Depre-



XIV CONTENTS.

dations of English Troops and the Jauts. — M. Austin de Bor-
deaux the Architect. — Details respecting Cost and Laborers. —
Localities where Gems were Obtained. — Fabulous Wealth of
Ancient Mogul Sovereigns. — A Throne worth Thirty Million
Dollars, and a Crown worth Twelve Millions. — Chameleon-like
Characteristic of the Taj. — Probable Order of Architecture. —
Shah Jehan's Poem. — Taj-haunted. — " Kings for such a Tomb
might wish to Die." 204

CHAPTER XVII.

FUTTEHPORE-SIKRI.

The Favorite Residence of the Emperor Akbar. — The Emperor
Subservient to the Saint. — Futtehpore-Sikri. — Gateway Inscrip-
tions. — Horseshoes as an Expression of Gratitude. — Hindoo
Epitaphs. — Beer-Bui's Palace. — A Parable of the Olden Time. —
The Good Plowman and the Wicked Kotwal. — The Elephant
Tower. — The Antelope Tower. — Palace of the Sultana of Con-
stantinople 223

CHAPTER XVIII.

AN ORIENTAL PICTURE.

A Day in Futtehpore-Sikri Three Hundred Years ago. — Emperor
Akbar an Early Riser. — Abdul Kadir and Abul Fazl. — Morning
Prayers. — The Tomb of the Sheik. — Shooting Antelopes. — Cav-
alry Review. — Prince Selim and Prince Khusru. — The Two Ec-
clesiastics. — Rajah Beer-Bui.— Noontide. — A Harem Interior. —
" Oh ! Istamboul !" — An Oriental Afternoon. — Prince Danial. —
A Prodigal Son of the Olden Time.— A Talk with the Two Ec-
clesiastics. — The Emperor in the Dewan-i-aum. — Prince Danial
at Home. — "Jenazeh! O Jenazeh !" — Premonitions. — A Breath
from the Inevitable 232



CONTENTS. XV

CHAPTER XIX.

THE HOME OF THE GREAT MOGULS.

Off for Delhi. — Devotion under Difficulties. — The Chandra Chowk.
— Cheap Fruit. — The Circular Road. — General Nicholson's Mon-
ument. — English and Native Residences. — A Persian Hummaum.
— Contrast with Turkish and Russian Baths, and Hawaiian Lomi-
lomi. — Shah Jehan's Palace. — Great Crystal. — Peacock Throne.
— The Emerald Parrot. — Costly Umbrellas. — The Jumma Mus-
jid. — Venerable Relics. — The Print of Mohammed's Foot. — Pu-
rana Killa. — A Village in a Fort. — Emperor Humayon's Tomb.

— The Princess Jehanara. — Contrast between her Obituary
and that of Mumtaz Mahal. — The Junter Munter. — The Kutub
Minar, the Loftiest Single Pillar Extant. — An Unfinished Mi-
liar. — The Oldest Authentic Mohammedan Tomb in Hindo-
stan 244

CHAPTER XX

AMONG THE SIKHS.

From Delhi to Umritsur. — Letter of Introduction to Bey Purdamon
Singh. — Brief Account of Umritsur. — The Sikhs. — Sacred Res-
ervoir. — The Golden Temple. — Religious Order Established by
Goroo Govind. — Narnak Shah. — Resemblance of his Career to
Gautama Buddha's. — Narnak's Writings. — Uniform Dress of the
Sikhs. — Principles and Practice. — Rules. — Attentions from Bey
Purdamon. — Appearance of the Bazar and Shops. — A Cos-
mopolitan Throng. — Manufacture of the Famous Attar-of- Roses.

— Reception by Bey Purdamon. — Hindustani Ideas respect-
ing America. — Golden Temple by Moonlight. — Bridal Proces-
sion. — Ruinous Nuptials. — Golden Temple and Sacred Tank.
— A Moment of Romance and Ecstasy. — Proceed to Lahore.—
M hi ;i )1. ums of "Selim" and " Nour Mahal." — Her Desecrated
Grave. — Duty of the Anglo-Indian Government 261



XVI CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XXL

DOWN THE INDUS.

Mooltan City. — a Moslem Mausoleum. — Genuflexions of Mussul-
mans. — Camel-riding. — Beauty of Navigation on the Chenab. —
Sticking on a Sand-bar. — Appearance of the Indus. — Pentapo-*
tamia. — Brilliant Blundering of Sir Charles Wentvvorth Dilke. —
Scenery of the Indus. — The Province of Sindh. — The Unhappy
Valley. — Bholan Pass. — Khelat. — Husbandry of the Sindhees. —
Roree. — Sukkur. — Ruins of Alore. — Kotree. — Hydrabad. — Kur-
rachee. — Muggur Peer, the Alligator Tank. — The Holi Festival.
— Reach Bombay 276

CHAPTER XXII.

LAST DAYS IN INDIA.

Population of Bombay. — The Parsees. — Their Disposal of the
Dead. — The " Towers of Silence " and the Vultures. — The Par-
see Theatre. — " No Gentleman Admitted unless Accompanied
by a Lady." — A Comedy in the Gujeratti Tongue. — The Jam-
setjee Jeejeebhoy Hospital. — The Western Ghauts. — Poona. —
Koolburga. — The Cerulean Throne of the House ofBhamenee. —
Dominions of the Nizam. — Golconda. — Situation of Madras. —
The Masullah. — The Catamarans. — Summing Up. — Four Thou-
sand Miles of Hindostan. — India in the Past. — India in the Fut-
ure. — Oriental Civilization to Come 288

Index 299



THROUGH AND THROUGH THE TROPICS.



CHAPTER I.

SOUTHERLY AROUND THE CONTINENT.

On the 24th of October, 1869, the stanch old clipper
ship Golden Fleece, of fifteen hundred tons' burden, left
the port of New York on a trading voyage around the
world, her more immediate destination being San Fran-
cisco via Cape Horn. Her cargo was extremely mis-
cellaneous, embracing marble and machinery, coals and
coffins, liquors and lumber, paint and pianos, hats and
hardware. The passengers were four in number — the
Reverend Dr. Nehemiah Adams, his two accomplished
daughters, and myself. The Doctor was taking this
long voyage for his health, which forty years' work had
impaired, and the young ladies in order to unite filial
duty with the desire to see that world whose principal
resemblance to heaven is that " it lies about us in our
infancy." The fourth passenger had in view three ob-
jects, to be sought in the following ratio of importance :
health, instruction, and amusement. The chief officer



1 8 THROUGH AND THROUGH THE TROPICS.

was Captain Robert C. Adams, son of the reverend doc-
tor, and one of the best navigators that ever sailed from
New York.

Seven miles beyond Sandy Hook the pilot left us
with a cool "good-morning," as though he were merely
going down town for a little business, and might cer-
tainly be expected back to dinner. He was the last
link which bound us to shore, and we felt his profes-
sional indifference the more when we remembered the
stern rhetoric of the shipping articles. These set forth
that our expedition was " from New York to San Fran-
cisco, at and from thence to such other ports or places
in the Pacific Ocean, East Indies, China, the China
Seas, or Europe, in a general trading or freighting voy-
age, for a term not to exceed twenty-four (24) calendar
months, and back to a final port of discharge on the
Atlantic coast in the United States, either via Cape
Horn or the Cape of Good Hope, or, should the master
so elect, direct back to New York or some other At-
lantic port in the United States from the said port of
San Francisco."

Our favoring breeze continued for three days, and
finally increased to a gale in the Gulf Stream, the char-
acteristics of which Professor Maury has so well de-
scribed. When one week out we had made a thousand
miles, and were heading directly for the Strait of Gib-
raltar. This we did in order to make sufficient "east-
ing" to obtain a slant which would enable the ship to
weather Cape St. Roque, the most easterly point of the
South American continent.



SOUTHERLY AROUND THE CONTINENT. 19

One day, while we were still several hundred miles
from the Tropic of Cancer, a fine specimen of flying-fish
— seldom met with outside of the tropics — fell on deck
and was captured. It was one foot long, and resembled
a pickerel. Its fins or " wings " were of beautiful con-
struction, the ribs being like delicate strips of whale-
bone, and the membraneous covering like gold-beater's
skin. Of course we sacrificed it to our appetites, but
found the flesh dry and tasteless, and the bones super-
fluous enough to please a North River shad. Fish of
this species, as the name implies, have the remarkable
power, by means of their pectoral fins, of sustaining
themselves in the air several seconds at a time. Their
nature is gregarious, and their locomotion extremely
swift. Whole shoals of them often combine to lead the
dolphin a vexatious and futile chase ; while it is not
alone in the water that pursuit exists for them, for the air
swarms with predatory birds. At night, if a stiff breeze
is blowing and the waves are high, these strange fish
may be caught in large quantities by simply hanging a
lantern near the rail ; attracted by the light, they fly on
board, and are stunned or killed by striking the deck.

While yet within one thousand miles of New York
we entered the tropics. The water, bright indigo in
color and warmer than the air, was streaked with great
patches of Gulf weed. At night the sea seemed on
fire, especially where it clashed against the ship, which
left a luminous wake like a comet's fan -shaped tail.
Physicists say that this is produced chiefly by the phos-
phorus, but that the sea-feather and animalculae are like-



20 THROUGH AND THROUGH THE TROPICS.

wise concerned in it. To compare great things with
small, the phosphorus patches and stripes resembled
the streaks which enterprising youth is fain to produce
in dark corners from the ends of lucifer-matches. The
sea-feather is a vegetable growth, by day vermilion, but
at night possessed of a greenish glow which makes the
sea lustrous. The animalculae are millions of sparks —
microscopic medusae and Crustacea — which dance like
glow-worms through the sea-feather, and shine like in-
finitesimal stars in a miniature Milky Way.

About this time we experienced much light wind and
some head -wind, and were obliged to lay our course
more to the east than we wished, ultimately approach-
ing within three hundred miles of the Cape Verde Isl-
ands. Here were found large areas of the sea-weed of
the North Atlantic (sargasso baccifera, sea-weed bearing
berries), and some allied species. Our specimens were
similar to the common sea-weed found on the Atlantic
coast of the United States, with the addition of hollow
brown berries resembling currants in size and form.
On the stems and main branches were hundreds of shells
no larger than the heads of ordinary pins. These, un-
der a powerful microscope, grew to the size of a cent,
and assumed the outline and characteristics of a perfect
bubble-shaped testacea. They belong to the order tecti
branchiata — marine animals, which live also upon the
shore. By the aid of the magnifying-glass we likewise
discovered what seemed to be young jelly-fish. They
were oval and gelatinous, contained a stomach, and own-
ed a pair of claws, which doubtless procured their food.



SOUTHERLY AROUND THE CONTINENT. 2 1

Since most vessels that cross the Equator do so
within half-a-dozen degrees of longitude, we presently
reached the grand thoroughfare of nations, the cross-
roads of the Atlantic. Every day could be seen three
or four, and sometimes twice as many vessels of all
sizes and nationalities, bound to all parts of the world.
A fairer wind enabling the captain to lay his course
more to the south, the region of doldrums, or "horse
latitudes," was next attained. These are belts of calm
intervening between the northwest and southeast trade-
winds, visited by gentle breezes, but also subject to sud-
den squalls. They are styled "horse latitudes'' because


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