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François Pomey.

Tooke's Pantheon of the heathen gods, and illustrious heroes : revised for a classical course of education, and adapted for the use of students of every age and of either sex online

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usually rewarded with a *crown of chastity.

Truth, the mother of Virtue, fis painted in gar-
ments as white as snow ; her looks are serene, plea-
sant, courteous, cheerful, and yet modest ; she is the
pledge of all honesty, the bulwark of honour, the
light and joy of human society. |She is commonly
accounted the daughter of Time or Saturn ; be-
cause truth is discovered in the course of time : but
Democritus feigns that she lies hidden in the bottom
of a well.

Good Sense, or Understanding, [men^,] was made
a goddess by the Romans, §that they might obtain
a sound mind. ||An altar was built to her in the
capitol, by M. JEmilius. ITThe praetor Attiliiis
vowed to build a chapel to her ; which he perform
ed when he was created duumvir.



• Corona pudicitiae. Val. Max. 1. 2.
f Philost. in Heric. et Amp.
t Pint, in Quffist.

Aug. de Civ. Dei. 2.

Cic. Nat. Deor. 2.

Liv. 22 et 23.



296

We shall find by *the concurrent testimony of
many, that the goddess Concordia had many altars
at several times dedicated to her ; but she was es-
Apecially worshipped by the ancient Romans. Her
image held a bowl in her right hand, and a horn of
plenty, or a sceptre from which fruit seemed to
sprout forth, in her left, f The symbol of concord
was two right hands joined together, and a pome-
gi-anate.

Pax was honoured formerly at Athens with an
altar, Jas Plutarch tells us. At Rome she had a
most magnificent temple in the Forum, begun by
Claudius, and finished by Vespasian ; <5>^vhich w?.s
afterwards consumed by fire under emperor Corn-
modus. She was described in the tbrm of a matron,
holding forth ears of corn in her hands, and crowned
with olives and laurel, or sometimes roses. Her
particular symbol was a caduceus, a white staff
borne by ambassadors when they go to treat of
peace.

The goddess Salus was so much honoured by the
Romans, that anciently several holy days were ap-
pointed in which they worshipped her. There was
a gate at Rome called Porta Salutaris, because it
was near to the temple of Salus. Her image was
the figure of a woman sitting on a throne, and hold-
ing a bowl in her right hand. Hard by stood her
altar, a snake twining round it, and lifting up his
head toward it. The Augurium Salutis was for-
merly celebrated in the same place. It was a kind
of divination, by which they begged leave of the
gods that the people might pray for peace.

Fidelity, ||says St. Augustine, had her temple and

• Liv. I. 9. Plut. in C. Gracch. Suet, in Tib.
t Lil. Gyr. synt. 1. 1.
X Plut. in Cimon.

Herodot. 1. 2.

De Civ. Dei. 4.



PIXSJ^.




SJlLIJ^



297

altar, and sacrifices were performed to her. They
represented her like a venerable matron sitting upon
a throne, holding a white rod in her right hand, and
a great horn of plenty in her left.

As the Romans were, above all things, careful of
their liberty, especially after the expulsion of the
kings, when they set themselves at liberty, so they
built a temple to Liberty, among the number ol
their other goddesses.

The Romans invoked Pecunia as a goddess, that
they might be rich. They worshipped the god
^sculanus, the father of Argentinus, that they
might have plenty of brass and silver : and esteem-
ed jEsculanus, the father of Argentinus, because
brass money was used before silver. " I wonder,"
*says St. Augustine, " that Aurinus was not made a
god after Argentinus, because silver money was fol-
Gwed by gold." To this goddess. Money, O how
many apply their devotions to this day ! what vow s
do they make, and at what altars do they impor-
tune, that they may fill their coflers ! "If they have
those gods," says f Menander, " gold and silver at
home, ask whatever you please, you shall hav^
it, the very gods themselves will be at your ser-
vice."

Lycurgus ridiculously erected an image among
the JLacedaemonians, to the god Risus. The Thes-
salonians, of the city of Hypata, every year sacri-
ficed to this god with great jollity.

The god Bonus Genius had a temple in the way
that leads to the mountain Meenalus, as says Pau-
sanius. At the end of the supper they ofiered a cup
to him, filled with wine and water ; which was call-

* Miror autem quod Argentinus non genuit Aurinum, quia et
aurea pecunia subsecuta est, De Civ. Dei. 1. 4.

t Hos Deos Aurum et Argentum, si domi habeas, quicquid
voles, roga, tibi omnia aderunt, ipsos babebls, vel mioistranted
Peos. Ap. Strob. or. de laude auri.

X Plut. in Lycurgo



2^3

cd " the grace cup." Some say the cup had more
water than wine ; others say the contrary.

QUESTIOjYS for EXAMWATIOK,

From what does the goddess Virtue derive her name >

To what does the temple of Virtue lead ?

In what way did the priests sacrifice to Honour?

Where was the temple of Fides, and how are her sachficet
^rformed ?

What were the usual symbols of Fides ?

How is Hope described, and where was her temple ?

How was Hope preserved to the inhabitants of the earth ?

How is justice described ?

Where was there a chapel dedicated to Piety, and what wai
the cause of it ?

Wha«. temples were dedicated to Chastity?

How is Truth painted ; whose daughter is she; and why?

Why w^as wens mado a goddess ?

How is Concordia described, and by what symbol is she
known ?

Where w-as Pax honoured, how is she described, and what fcs
her peculiar symbol?

What is said of the goddess Salus ?

How is Fidelity represented?

What is said of Liberty?

Why did the Romans invoke Pecunia as a goddess ?
* What w'as the saying of Menander ?

Who sacrificed to Risus r

Where was there a temple dedicated to Bonus GeniuS) find
what was offered to this god ?



CHAPTER II.

THE VICES AND EVIL DEITIES.

1 CALL those Evil Deities which oppose our hap-
piness, and many times do us mischief. And first,
of the Vices to which temples have been conse*
crated.

That Envy is a goddess, appears by the con-
fession of Pallas, who owned that she was assisted
by her, to infect a young lady, called Aglauros,
with her poison. Ovid describes the house where



299

she dwells in very elegant verse, and afterward givw
a most beautiful description of Envy herself.

**Protinus Invidiae nigro squallentia labo

Tecta petit, Domus est imis in vallibus antri

Abdita, sole carens, nee uili pervia vento;

Tristis, et igiiavi plenissinia frigoris ; et (]uae

Igne vacet semper caligine semper abundet." Met, 2.

Then strait to Envy's cell she bends her way,

Wlilch all with putrid gore infected lay.

Deep in a gloomy cave's obscure recess,

No beams could e'er that horrid mansion bless;

No breeze e'er fann'd it, but about it roU'd

Eternal woes, and ever lazy cold ;

No spark shone there, but everlasting gloom,

Impenetrably dark, obscur'd the room.

"Pallor in ore sedet; macies in corpore toto;
Nusquam recta acies; livent rubigine dentes;
Pectora felle virent ; lingua est sutfnsa veneno;
Risus abest, nisi quem visi movere doiores.
Nee fruitur somno, vigilantibus excita cnris;
Sed videt ingratos, intabescitque videndo,
Successus hominum : carpitque, et carpitur ana;
Suppliciuraque suum est." Mel* &

A deadly paleness in her cheeks are seen ;
Her meager skeleton scarce cas'd with skin;
Her looks awry; an everlasting scowl
Sits on her brows ; her teeth deform'd and foul ;
Her breast had gall more than her breast could hold ;
Beneath her tongue black coats of poison roU'd ;
No smiles e'er smooth'd her furrow'd brows, but those
Which rise from common mischiefs, plagues, and woes:
Her eyes, mere strangers to the sweets of sleep,
Devouring spite for ever waking keep ;
She sees blest men with vast successes crown'd,
Their joys distract her, and their glories wound:
She kills abroad, herself's consum'd at home,
And her own crimes are her perpetual martvrdom.
\

The vices Contumely and Impudence, were both
adored as deities by the Athenians : and particular-
ly, it is said, they were represented by a partridge ;
which is esteemed a very impudent bird.

The Athenians erected an altar to Calumny.
Apelles painted her thus : There sits a imiu with



300

great open ears, inviting Calumny, with his hand
held out, to come to him ; and two women, Igno-
rance and Suspicion, stand near him. Calumny
breaks out in a fury ; her countenance is comely and
beautiful, her eyes sparkle like fire, and her face is
inflamed with anger ; she holds a lighted torch in
her left hand, and with her right twists a young
man's neck, who holds up his hands in praj^er to the
gods. Before her goes Envy, on her side are Fraud
and Conspiracy; behind her follows Repentance^
clad in mourning and her clothes torn, with her
head turned backward, as if she looked for Truth,
who comes slowly after.

Fraud was described with a human face, and with
a serpent's body : in the end of her tail was a scor-
pion's sting : she swims through the river Cocytus,
and nothing appears above water but her head.

Pretronius Arbiter, where he treats of the civil
war between Pompey and Csesar, has given a beau-
tiful description of the goddess Discordia.

Intremuere tubae, ac scisso Discordia crine
Extulit ad superos Stygium caput. Hujus in ore
Concretus sanguis, comesaque luraina flebant J
Stabant terata rubigiue denies,
Tabo lingua fluens, obsessa draconibus ora:
Atque inter loto laceratam pectore vcstem,
Sanguineam tremula quatiebat lampada dextra '*

The trumpets sound, and with a dismal yell
Wild Discord rises from the vale of hell
From her swell'd eyes there ran a briny flood,
And clotted gore upon her visage stood;
Around her head serpentine elf-locks hung,
And streams of blood flow'd from her sable tongwe*
Her tatterd clothes her yellow skin betray
(An emblem of the breast on which they lay ;)
And brandish'd flames her trembling hand obey.

Fury is described sometimes chained, sometimes
raging and revelling with her chains broke : but
Virgil cliooses to describe her bound in chains.



301

— " Furor impius intus

Saeva sedens super arma, et centum vinctus ahenis
Post tergum nodis, fremit horridus ore cruento " ^n. 1

■Within sits impious war



On cursed arms, bound with a thousand chains,
And, horrid wi.h a bloody mouth complains.

Petronius describes her at liberty, unbound.

Furor abruptis, ceu liber, habenis



Sanguineuni late tollit caput; oraque mille
Vulneribus confossa cruenta casside velat.
Haeret detritus laevse Mavortius umbo
Innumerabilibus telis gravis, atque flagranti
Stipite dextra minax terris incendia portat "

Disorder'd Rage, from brazen fetters freed,
Ascends to earth with an impetuous speed :
Her wounded face a bloody helmet hides,
And her left arm a batter'd target guides ;
Red brands of fire supported in her right,
The impious world with flames and ruin fright.

*Paiisanias and fPlutarch say, that there were
temples dedicated to Fame. She is thus finely and
delicately described by Virgil.

*' Fama, malum quo non aliud velocius ullum,

Mobilitate viget, viresque acquirit eundo ;

Parva metu primo ; mox sese attollit in auras,

Ingrediturque solo, et caput inter nubila condiL

Illam terra parens ira irritata Deorura,

Extremam (ut perhibent) Cceo Enceladoque sororem

Progenuit ; pedibus celerem et pernicibus alis:

Monstrum horrendum, ingens ; cui quot sunt corpore plumn*

Tot vigiles oculi subter (mirabile dictu)

Tot linguae, totidem ora sonant, tot subrigit aures.

Nocte volat cceli medio terrsque per umbram

Stridens, nee dulci declinat luminasomno.

Luce sedet custos, aut summi culmlne tecti,

Turribus aut altis ; et magnas territat urbes :

Tam ficti pravique tenax, quam nuncia veri." JEn* ^

Fame, the great ill, from small beginning grows,
Swift from the first, and every moment brings

♦ Pansan. in Atti. t Plut in Camilla.

26



302

New vigour to her fligl ts, new pinions to her wings<

Soon grows the pigmy to gigantic size,

Her feet c earth, her foreljead in the skies

Enrag'd against tho gods, revongeful Earth

Produc'd he) last v/,' the 1'itanian birth.

Swift is her walk, more swift her winged haste,

A monstrous phantom, horrible and vast:

As many plumes as raise her lofty flight,

So many piercing eyes enlarge her sight;

Millions of op'ning mouths to Fame belong,

And ev'ry mouth is furnish'd with a tongue ;

And round with list'ning ears the flying plague is hung.

She fills the peaceful universe with cries ;

No slumbers ever close her wakeful eyes ;

By day from lofty tow'rs her head she shows,

And spreads through trembling crowds disastrous news.

With court-informers' haunts, and royal spies,

Things done relates, not done she feign-s, and mingles truth

w^ith lies :
Talk is her business, and her chief delight
To tell of prodigies; and cause affright.

Why was Fortune made a goddess, says *St. Au-
gustine, since she comes to the good and bad with-
out any judgment ? She is so bHnd, that without
distinction she runs to any body ; and many times
she passes by those that admire her, and sticks to
those that despise her. So that Juvenal had reason
to speak in the manner he does of her.

" Nullum numen abest si sit prudentla; sed te

Nos facimus, Fortuna, Deam, cceloque locamUs." Sat. 20.

Fo4'tnne is never worshipp'd by the wise ;
But she, by fools set up, usurps the skies.

Y"et the temples that have been consecrated to
her, and the names that she has had, are innumera-
ble : the chief of them I will point out to you.

She was styled Aurea, or Regia Fortuna, and
an image of her so called was usually kept in the
emperor's chamber ; and when one died, it was re-
moved to the palace of his successor.

* Aug. de Civ. Dei. 1.



m



'^i) 'j.r




...II.:



Ttyitstmi.



303

She Is also called Caeca, ^' blind." Neither is
she only, says ^Cicero, blind herself, but she many
times makes those blind ihat enjoy her.

She was called Muliebris, because the mother
and the wife of Coriolanus saved the city of Rome.
And when his image was consecrated in their pre-
sence, f it spoke these words twice : " Ladies you
have dedicated to me as you should do."

Servius Tullus dedicated a temple to Fortuna
Obsequens, because she obeys the wishes of men.
The same prince worshipped her, and built her
chapels ; where she was called Prin^^^eri a, Jbe-
cause both the city and the empire - -^ -d their
origin from her ; also Privata or ^Propria, because
she had a chapel in the court, which that prince
used so familiarly, that she was thought to go down
through a little window into his house.

Lastly, sh€ was called Viscata, Viscosa, because
we are caught by her, as birds are with birdlime ; in
which sense Seneca says, *' kindnesses are birdlime."

Febris, Fever, had her altars and temples in the
palace. She was worshipped that she should not
hurt : and for the same reason they worshipped all
the other gods and goddesses of this kind.

Fear and Paleness were supposed to be gods, and
worshipped by Tullus Hostihus; ||when in the bat-
tle between the Romans and the Vejentes it was told
him that the Albans had revolted, and the Romans
grew afraid and pale, for in this doubtful conjecture,
he vowed a temple to Pallor and Pavor.

The people of Gadara made Poverty and Art
goddesses ; because the first whets the wit for the
discovery of the other.

* Dei Amicitia.

t Rite me, Matronae, dedicatis. Auff. de Civ. Dej. 4. Val
Max. 1. 2.
t Plutarch.

Ibid.

Liv. 1 1.



304

Necessity and Violence had their chapel upon the
Acro-Corinthus : but it was a crime to enter into it.

M. Marcellus dedicated a chapel to Tempestas,
without the gate of Capena, after he had escaped a
severe tempest in a voyage to the island cf Sicily.

Both the Romans and Egyptians worshipped the
gods and goddesses of Silence. The Latins parti-
cularly worshipped Ageronia and Tacita, whose
image, they say, stood upon the altar of the god-
dess Volupia, with its mouth tied up and sealed ;
^because they who endure their cares with silence
and patience, do by that means procure to them-
selves the greatest pleasure.

The Egyptians worshipped Harpocrates, as the
*• god of Silence,*' f after the death of Osiris. He
was the son of Isis. They offered the first fruits of
the lentils and pulse to him. They consecrated the
tree persea to him ; because the leaves of it were
shaped like a tongue, and the fruit like a heart..
He was painted naked in the figure of a boy, crown-
ed with an Egyptian mitre, which ended at the
points as it were in two buds ; he held in his left
hand a horn of plenty, while a finger of his right
hand was upon his lip, thereby commanding silence.
And therefore I say no more ; neither can I bettei
be silent, than when a god commands me to be so

qUESTIOKS FOR EXAMINATION.

How are the evil deities described ?

How is it ascertained ? he.

Wliora did the Athenians adore a,s deities?

HoAV is Calumny painted by Apelles ?

How was Fraud described ?

Repeat the lines descriptive of Discord.

How is Fury described by Virgil ?

What are the lines by Fetronius ?

Give me Virgil's fine description of Fame ?

* Quod, qui suos angores (unde Angeronia dicta est) seqoo
animo ferunt, perveniunt ad maximam voluptatem.
f Epiph. 3. contra Haeresc!




II M...... .1.1



HiLUFDOiMrj^^



305

How is Fortune described ?

What does Juvenal say of her ?

How is she described by Cicero ?

What did Servius Tullus do with respect to Fortune ?

Wliy was Fortune called Viscosa, and what was Seneca^
phrase ?

Why was Febris worshipped ?

By whom were Fear and Paleness worshipped ?

VVhy, and by whom were Poverty and Art deified ?

What is said of Necessity and Violence ? ^

Who dedicated a temple to Tempestas ; and why did he 00
so?

Who worshipped the gods and goddesses of Silence?

Whom did the Latins worship, and why ?

Whom did the Egyptians worship ?

How is Harpocrates painted ?



THE END



26«



INDEX.



Absyrtus, torn in pieces by Me-
dea 259
Achelous, turns himself into a
serpent, then into a bull, in
which shape be is conquered
by Hercules 255
Acheron, one of the infernal
rivers 209
Achilles, history of 281
Acidalia, one of the names of
Venus ^ 102
Action, turned into a deer by
Diana, and torn in pieces by
his own dogs 176
Adonis, killed by a boar^ and
by Venus turned into the
flower anemone 111
Adrastaea, the same with Ne-
mesis, one of the goddesses
of justice 166
Adsc'riptitii Dii, gods of the
lower rank 21—249
^acus, judge of hell 221
iEcastor, an oath OTily used by
women, as Hercle was used
by men 265
jEdepol, an oath used by both
sexes 265
TEgeon, account of 223
iEgis, Jupiter's shield 26
Aello, one of the Hai-]iies 230
^obis, god of winds, descrip-
tion of 136

, great skill of 137

iE!?culapius, description of 270

^son,the father of Jason, when

very old, restored to youth

by Medea 259

JEta, father of Medea, and king

of Colchis 259

Africans, gods of the 18

Agamemnon, history of 266



Aglaia, one of the graces 111

Ajax, kills himself, and his

blood turned into a violet

284

Alcides, one of the names of

Hercules, see Hercules 251

Alecto, one of the Furies 218

Alectryon, why and how pun- .

ished 80

Alpheus, story of 188

Amazons, female v^^arriors, ac-
count of 261
Ambarvalia, description of 157
Ambrosia, festivals in honour
of Bacchus 71
Amica, a name of Venus 101
Amphion, from whom he re-
ceived his harp 280
Amphytrite, wife of Neptune
196
Andromeda, delivered by Per-
seus from a sea-monster 268
Angerona, the goddess that re-
moved anguish of mind 246
Anteus, a giant overcome by

Hercules, see Hercules

Antiope, 28

Anubis, a god with a dog's

head, history of 287

Aonides, the Muses so called

162

Apaturia, a title of Venus 103

Apis, king of the Argivi 290

Apollo, description of, and how

painted, 39

, what devoted to 40

Apollos, the four ib.

Apollo, actions of 41

, names of 45

, signification of the fa-
ble of 50
, things sacrificed to 50



INDEX.



Arachne, turned into a spider
by Minerva 96
Areopagus, for what used 75
, judges of their du-
ties ib.
Arethusa, for what celebrated
188
ArgonautEe, Jason's compan-
ions that w^ent with him to
fetch the g-olden fleece 259
Argus, description of 86
Ariadne, daughter of Minos
260
Arion, history of 280
Aristffius, history of 174
Armata, a title of Venus 101
4scolia, games in honour of
Bacchus 71
Astraja, description of 165
/Italanta and Hippomenes, sto-
ry of 106
Atlas 276
Atropos, one of the Fates 218
Atys, hi'story of 147
Avernus, a lake on the borders
of hell 208
Augaeas, his stable containing
three thousand oxen, cleans-
ed in one day by Hercules
253
Aurora, birth and description
of 115



B



Baal, a name of Jupiter 30
Babylon, Avails of 54

Babylonians, gods of the 18
Bacchanalia, when celebrated
72
Bacchae, the priestesses of Bac-
chus 68
Bacchus, description of 64

, birth of ib.

• , names of 65

, sacrifices of, when ce-
lebrated 70

. , actions of 63

, fables of 73

Battus, turned by Mercury into

an index 62

Belides, fifty daughters of Da-



naus, who killed their hus-
bands on the wedding night
226

, punishment of in hell

ib

Bellerophon, history of 269

's letters, meaning

of ib.

Bellica, a pillar before the tem-
ple of Bellona 78

Bellona, description of 77

Belus, king of Assyria, the first
to whom an idol was set up
and w^orshipped 17

Berecinthia, a title of Cybele,
see Cybele

Biblis, falls in love with her
brother Caunus 57

, pines away with grief,

dies, and is turned into a
fountain 67

Bona Dea, a title of Cybele
144

Briareus, one of the giants that
warred against heaven 224

Busiris, a tyrant that offered
human sacrifices to his father
Neptune 264



Cabh-i, priests of Cybele 149

Cacus, son of Vulcan 134

Cadmus, banished, and builds
the city of Thebes 29

, invents the Greek let-
ters : SOW' s the teeth of a dra-
gon in the ground whence
armed men sprung up 29

Caduceus, Mercury'.s wand de-
scribed 61

Caeculus, a robber, Vulcan's
son 135, Caenis 198

Caprotina, &ic. names of Juno
88

Calisto, turned into a bear, and
made a constellation 28

Calliope, one of the muses 160

Calumny, how painted by Apel-
les 300

Camillus, a name of Mercury,
see Mercury



INDEX.



Canopus, god of the Egj-ptians
201

Cantharus, the name of Sile-
nus' jug 172

Casitolinus, a title of Jupiter
30

Castalides, the Muses so called
162

Castor and Pollux, accompani-
ed Jason to Colchis, 264

Celeno, one of the harpies 230

Centaurs, overcome by The-
seus 261

Cephalns and Tithonus how
carried to heaven 116

Cerberus, description of 210

Ceres, description and history

of 150

, inventions of 151

, why called the foundress

of laws 152

Cham, to which of the heathen



gods likened
Charon, how represented
, office of



125

208
209
205
231



Charybdis, description of
Chymara, description of
Chiron, a centaur, account of
270
Circe, character of 56
, a famous sorceress, ban-
ished for poisoning her hus-
band ib.

, falls in love with Glau-

cus, and turns Scylla into a

sea-monster 204

eiio, one of the Muses 160

Clotho, one of the fates 217

Clowns of Lycia, turned into

frogs 115

Clytem nostra, history of 265

Cocytus, description of 210

Ccelum, wife and children of

119

Colossus of Rhodes, one of the

seven wonders of the world

described 53

Concordia, temples dedicated

to 296

Corybantcs, whence the name

of derived 149

Cupid, character of 109



Curetcs, signification of 148
Cybele, reason of lier different

names 143
, names of the priests of,

rites observed in sacrificing

to 14S

Cyclops, servants of Vulcan 134
Cyllenius, a title of Mercury,

see Mercury
Cynthius, a title of Apollo, see

Apollo
Cyparissus, a beautiful youth

turned into a cypress-tree 43
Cypria, Cypris, Cythersa, &c.

names of Venus, see Venus
Cyrus, palace of 54

D.

Daedalus, character and descrip-
tion of 66
Dana?, 27
Danaides, story of 227
Daphne, turned intoalaurel 43
Deianira, wife of Hercules, oc-
casion of his death 256
Delius, Delphicus, titles of

Apollo, see Apollo
Delos, origin of 113

Deluge, account of the 275
Deucalion, history of ib.

Diana, description and history
of 176

, names of 177

, temple of 53

Diespiter, a name of Jupiter 31

Diomedes, a tyrant of Thrace,

subdued by Hercules, and

given as food to his horses

253

Dira?, a name of the Furies 218

Dodoneus,aname of Jupiter 31

Dreams, bv what ways convey*

edto men, 220, Dryades 186

E.

Echo, description of 189

Elysium, description of 233

Envy, description of 3

Erato, one of the Muses, 160

Erisichthon, story of 164


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Online LibraryFrançois PomeyTooke's Pantheon of the heathen gods, and illustrious heroes : revised for a classical course of education, and adapted for the use of students of every age and of either sex → online text (page 21 of 22)