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Smithsonian Institution,
Bureau of American Ethnology,

Washington, D. C, August 4, 1910.
Sir: I have the honor to submit herewith the Thirty-first
Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology, for the
fiscal year ended June 30, 1910.

With appreciation of your aid in the work under my charge,
I am

Veiy respectfully, yours,

F. W. Hodge,
Dr. Charles D. Waloott,

Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution.




Systematic researches 7

Sperial researches 17

Publications 20

lUustrations 22

Library 22

Manuscripts 23

Removal of offices 23

Property 24

Administration 25

Note on the accompanying paper 25


Tsimshian Mythology, by Franz Boas, based on texts recorded by Henry W.

Tate (pis. 1-3; figs. 1-24) " ." 27






F. W. Hodge, Ethnologist-in-Charge


The operations of the Bureau of American Ethnology
during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1910, conducted in
accordance with the act of Congress approved March 4, 1909,
authorizing the continuation of ethnological researches
among the American Indians and the natives of Hawaii,
under the direction of the Smithsonian Institution, were
carried forward in accordance with the plans of operations
approved by the Secretary June 1, 1909, and Januarj- 7,

During the first half of the fiscal year the administration of
the Bureau was under the inmiediate charge of Mr. William
H. Holmes, who, on January 1, 1910, severed his official con-
nection with the Bureau in order to resume his place as head
curator of anthropology in the United States National
Museum and to become curator of the National Gallery of Art,
as well as to enable him to take advantage of the facilities
afforded b}^ the change for publishing the results of his various
archeological researches. Mr. F. W. Hodge was designated
on the same date to assume the administration of the Bureau
under the title "ethnologist-in-charge."

In view of the approaching change and of the necessity for
devoting much of his time to affairs connected with the
Department of Anthropology of the National Museum and the
National Gallery of Art and the administration of the Bureau,



Mr. Holmes found it impracticable to give attention to field
research during the remainder of 1909. Good progress was
made in the preparation of the Handbook of American
Archeology, to which he had devoted much attention during
the year and to which reference has been made in previous

The systematic ethnological researches of the Bureau
were continued as in previous years with the regular force
of the Bureau, consisting of eight ethnologists, increased
to ten toward the close of the year by the appointment of
two additional members of the staff, and finally decreased
by the death of one member. In addition, the services of
several specialists in their respective fields were enlisted
for special work, as follows :

Prof. Franz Boas, honorary philologist, with several assist-
ants, for research in the languages of the American aborigi-
nes, particularly with the view of incorporating the results
in the Handbook of American Indian Languages.

Miss Alice C. Fletcher and Mr. Francis La Flesche, for
continuing the revision of the proofs of theu" monograph
on the Omaha Indians, to be published as the "accom-
panying paper" of the Twenty-seventh Annual Report.

Miss Frances Densmore, for researches in Indian music.

Mr. J. P. Dunn, for studies of the tribes of the Algonquian
family residing or formerl}^ resident in the Middle West.

Rev. Dr. George P. Donehoo, for investigations in the
history, geogx'aphy, and ethnology of the tribes formerly
living in western Pennsylvania and southwestern New
York, for incorporation in the Handbook of American

Mr. William R. Gerard, for studies of the etymology of
Algonquian place and tribal names and of terms that have
found then' way into the English language, for incorporation
in the same work.

Prof. H. M. Ballon, in conjunction with Dr. Cyrus Thomas,
for bibliographic research in connection with the List of
Works Relating to Hawaii, in course of preparation for


The systematic ethnological researches by meml^ers of the
regular staff of the Bureau are summarized as follows :

Mr. F. W. Hodge, ethnologist-in-charge, when administra-
tive work permitted devoted his attention almost exclusively
to the editing of the Handbook of American Indians (pt. 2),
which was so far advanced toward completion at the close
of the fiscal year that it seemed very probable the volume
would be ready for distribution within about six months.
As the work on part 2 was in progress, advantage was taken
of the opportunity afforded ])y the necessary literary research
in connection therewith to jirocure new data for incorpora-
tion in a re\'ised edition of the entire work, which it is pro-
posed to issue as soon as the first edition of part 2 has
appeared. The demand for the handbook is still very great,
many thousands of requests haAang been received which
could not be supplied owing to the limited edition.

With the exception of a brief trip, Mr. James Mooney,
ethnologist, remained in the office throughout the entire
fiscal }'ear, occupied chiefly in the elaboration of his study of
Indian population, with frequent attention to work on the
Handbook of American Indians, and to various routine
duties, especially those connected with supplying informa-
tion to correspondents. The investigation of the former and
present population covers the entire territory north of Mexico,
from the discovery to the present time, and involves the close
examination of a great body of literature, particularly docu-
mentary records of the various colonies and of the official
reports of French and Spanish explorers and commanders,
together with such special collections as the Jesuit Relations
and the annual Indian reports of the United States and Cana-
dian governments from the beginning. It is also necessary,
first, to fix and differentiate the tribe, and then to follow
the wasting fortunes of each tril^e and tribal remnant under
change of name and habitat, further subdivision, or new
combination, to the end. For better handling, the whole
territory has been mapped into fifteen sections, each of
which has its own geographic^ and historical unity, and can
thus be studied separately. The investigation includes a


summary of the Indian wars, and notaljle epidemics Avithin
the same region from the discovery. No similar investiga-
tion has ever before been attempted, even the official Indian
reports being incomplete as to identity of tribes and number
of Indians not directly connected with agencies.

In January, 1910, by request of those organizations,
Mr. Mooney was designated to represent the Bureau of
American Ethnology at the joint meeting of the Mississippi
Valley Historical Association and the Nebraska State His-
torical Society, held at Lincoln, Nebraska, and delivered
several addresses, with particular reference to the utiliza-
tion of the methods and results of the Bureau in local
ethnologic and historical research.

At the request of the Secretary of the Interior, Dr. J.
Walter Fewkes, ethnologist, continued the excavation and
repair of the prehistoric ruins in the Mesa Verde National
Park, in southern Colorado, begun in the previous year.
Doctor Fewkes commenced work on Cliff Palace in May,
1909, and completed the excavation and repair of this cele-
brated ruin in August. He then proceeded to northwestern
Ai-izona, and made a reconnoissance of the Navaho National
Monument, visiting and studying the extensive cliff and
other ruins of that section, knowledge of the existence of
which he had gained many years ago during his ethnological
researches among the Hopi Indians. At the close of this
investigation Doctor Fewkes returned to Washington and
prepared for the Secretary of the Interior a report on the
excavation and repair of Cliff Palace, which was published
by the Department of the Interior in November. A more
comprehensive illustrative report on the same ruins, giving
the scientific results of Doctor Fewkes's studies during the
progress of the excavation of Cliff Palace, was prepared for
publication as Bulletin 51 of the Bureau of American Eth-
nology and is now in press, forming a companion publication
to his description of Spruce-tree House, published earlier in
the fiscal year as Bulletin 41. Doctor Fewkes prepared also
a report on his preliminary researches in the Navaho National
Monument, which is in type and will be published as Bul-
letin 50. Dming the remainder of the winter and spring.


Doctor Fewkes Avas occupied in the preparation of a mono-
graph on Casa Grande, an extensive ruin in Ai'izona, exca-
vated and repaired by him during previous years. He gave
some time also to the elaboration of an account of antiquities
of the Little Colorado Valley, a subject to which he has
devoted considerable study. This work was interrupted in
May, 1910, when he again departed for the Navaho National
Monument for the purpose of continuing the archeological
studies commenced during the previous field season. At
the close of the year Doctor Fewkes was still at work in this

Owing to the large amoiuit oi' material in process of
puljlication as a result of his own researches or assigned to
him b}^ reason of his special knowledge of the subjects
involved. Dr. John R. Swanton, ethnologist, devoted the
year entirely to office work. Much of this time was spent in
proof reading (1) Bulletin 43, Indian Tribes of the Lower
Mississippi Valley and Adjacent Coast of the Gulf of Mexico,
the result of personal field investigations and historical
study ; as well as in proof reading (2) Bulletin 46, a Choctaw
Dictionary, by the late Cyrus Byington; and (3) Bulletin 47,
on the Biloxi Language, by the late J. Owen Dorsey, arranged
and edited by Doctor Swanton, who incorporated therein
the related Ofo material collected by him in 1908 and added
a brief historical account of the Ofo tribe. In connection
with his researches on the Southern tribes or tribal remnants.
Doctor Swanton has revised and rearranged the Attacapa,
Chitimacha, and Tunica linguistic material collected by the
late Dr. Albert S. Gatschet and has put it almost in final
form for the press. With the aid of several texts recorded
in 1908, Doctor Swanton has spent some time in studying
the Natchez language, preparatory to further investigations
among the survivors of this formerly important group, now
in Oklahoma. The I'emainder of his energies has been
devoted chiefly to researches pertaining to the Creek Con-
federacy, with the aid of books and documents in the library
of the Bm'eau and in the Library of Congress, in anticipa-
tion of field in^'estigation among the Creek tribes to be
undertaken, it is expected, later in 1910.


iVIi-s. M. C. Stevenson, ethnologist, continued her researches
among the Pueblo tribes of the Rio Grande Valley, New
Mexico, giving special attention to the Tewa gi'oup. As
during the previous year, her studies were devoted chiefly to
the pueblo of San Ildefonso, which offers better facilities for
ethnologic investigation than the other Tewa villages,
although her inquiries were extended also to Santa Clara and
Nambe. Owing to the extreme conservatism of the Tewa
people, Mrs. Stevenson found great difficulty in overcoming
their prejudices against the stud}^ of the esoteric side of their
life, but with patience she succeeded finally in gaining the
warm friendship of many of the more influential headmen,
and by this means was enabled to pursue a systematic study
of the Tewa religion, sociology, and philosophy. Like most
Indians, the Tewa are so secretive in everything that pertains
to their worship that one not familiar with their religious life
is readily mislead into believing that the ceremonies held in
the public plazas of their villages which, Avith few exceptions,
are more Mexican than Indian in outward character, consti-
tute the sole rites of these people, whereas it has been found
that the Tewa still adhere as strictly to many of their ancient
customs as before white men came among them, although
some of their "ceremonies are now less elaborate than they
were in former times.

While the creation myth of the San Ildefonso Indians differs
somewhat from those of the Zuni and of other Pueblo tribes,
it is the same in all essentials. According to their belief they
were created in an undermost world, and passed tlirough
three other worlds before reaching this one. The tribe is
divided into the Sun or Summer, and the Ice or Winter,
people, the former having preceded the latter in their advent
into this world, and their final home was reached on the
western bank of the Rio Grande almost opposite the present
pueblo. This place is marked by an extensive ruin.

Every mountain peak, near and far, within sight of San
Ildefonso is sacred to the Tewa people, and they make pil-
grimages at prescribed intervals to lofty heights far beyond
the range of their home. The names of these sacred moun-
tains, with a full description of each, AA'ere procured.


The philosophy of all the Pueblos is closely related in a
general way, yet there are marked differences in detail.
Although Mrs. Stevenson has penetrated the depths of the
Tewa philosophy, she has not been able to discover any dis-
tinctive features, it l^eing a composite of Zuni, Sia, and Taos
beliefs. The great desire of all these people, and the burden
of their songs and prayers, is that rain, which in their iDelief
is produced by departed ancestors working behind the cloud-
masks in the sky, should come to fructify the earth, and that
they may so live as to merit the l:)eneficence of their deities.
The entrance to this world is believed to be through a body
of water which the Tewa of San Ildefonso declare existed
near their village until certain Zuni came and spirited the
water away to their own country. Further studies, no
doubt, will shed more light on these interesting beliefs, and
render clearer the origin and relations of Tewa and Zmii

There are but two rain priests among the Tewa of San
Ildefonso: one pertaining to the Sun people, the other to
the Ice people, the formei' taking precedence in the general
management of tribal affairs. The rain priest of the Sun
is the keeper of the tribal calendar and is the supreme head
of the Sun people. The governor of San Ildefonso, who is
chosen vu'tually by the rain priest of the Sun people, is
elected annually, and has greater power than that accorded
a Zmii governor. The war chief, whose religious superior is
the war priest, who holds the office during life, is also elected
annually, and also is a person of great power. There are
three kivas, or ceren^ouial chambers, at San Ildefonso, one
belonging to the Sun people, another to the Ice people, and
one used jointly for certain civic gatherings, for rehearsal of
dances, and for other purposes. The religion of the Tewa
of San Ildefonso consists in worship of a supreme bisexual
power and of gods anthropic (embracing celestial and ances-
tral) and zoic, the latter especially associated with the sacred
fraternities. The fundamental rites and ceremonies of
these fraternities are essentially alike among all the Pueblos.
Their them'gists are the great doctors, whose function is to
expel disease inflicted by witchcraft, and those of San


Ildefonso have as extensive a pharmacopoeia as the Zuiii
theurgists. The behef of the Tewa in witchcraft is intense,
and is a source of great anxiety among them. Accused
wizards or witches are tried by the war chief.

Many of the San Ildefonso ceremonies associated with an-
thropic worship are identical with those of Taos, while others
are the same as those observed by the Zuiii, although neither
the ritual nor the paraphernalia is so elaljorate. Some of
the songs used in connection with the dances at San Ilde-
fonso are in the Zuni tongue. It is to be hoped that fiu-ther
comparative stud}' among these people will reveal to what
extent the ceremonies have been bori'owed, like that of the
Koh'-kok-shi of the Zuni, which is asserted to have been in-
troduced b}^ M^ay of Santo Domingo generations ago by a
Laguna Indian who had visited Zuni.

j\Irs. Stevenson devoted much attention to a stud)- of Tewa
games, finding that those regarded as of the greatest im-
portance to the Zuni in bringing rain have been abandoned
l3y the San Ildefonso people. The foot race of the latter is
identical with that of Taos, and is performed annually after
the planting season. As complete a collection and studv of
the Tewa medicinal plants were made as time permitted.

The material culture of the Tewa also i-eceived special at-
tention. Weaving is not an industry at San Ildefonso, the
only weaver in the tribe being a man who learned at Laguna
to make women's belts. Basketry of various forms is made
of willow. The San Ildefonso people, like other Pueblos,
have deteriorated in the ceramic art, and they have now
little or no understanding of the symbols employed in pot-
tery, except the common form of cloud and rain. Their
method of irrigation is the same as that observed by the
neighboring Mexicans, who, having accjuired extensive tracts
of land from the San Ildefonso land grant, work with the
Indians on the irrigating ditches for mutual benefit. The
San Ildefonso people raise a few cattle and horees, but no
sheeji. Much of their land is o^oied in severalty, and their
chief products are corn, wheat, and alfalfa. The women
raise melons, squashes, and chile.


AVhile nian-iages, Ijuptisnis, and burials are attended with
the rites of the Cathohc Church, a native ceremony is always
performed before the anival of the priest. ^\Tiile their
popular dances of foreign admixture are sometunes almost
depleted by reason of intoxication, no such thing happens
when a pureh' Indian ceremony is performed, for the dread
of offending their gods prevents them from placing themselves
in such condition as not to be able to fulfill their duty to the
higher powers.

Mrs. Stevenson not only prepared the way for a close stud}^
of the Tewa of Nambe by making a warm friend of the rain
priest of that pueblo, but found much of interest at the Tigua
pueblo of Taos and Picuris, especially in the kivas of the latter
village. It was in an inner chamber of one of the Picuris ki^'as
that the priests are said to have observed their rites during
the presence of the Spaniards. Another interesting feature
observed at Picuris was the hanging of scalps to a rafter in an
iipper chamber of a house, the eastern side of which was open
in order to expose the scalps to \'iew. At Picm-is the rain
priests, like those of Zuni and San Ildefonso, employ paddle-
shaped bone implements (identical with specimens, hitherto
undetermined, found in ruins in the Jemez Mountains and
now in the A^ational ^Museum) for lifting the sacred meal
during their rain ceremonies.

During a \'isit to Taos Mrs. Stevenson obtained a full
description of an elaborate ceremony performed immediately
after an eclipse of the sun.

After her return to Washington, in February, Mrs. Steven-
son devoted attention to the preparation of a paper on the
textile fabrics and dress of the Pueblo Indians. For com-
parativ^e studies it was necessary to review a large number
of works on the general subject and to examine collections
pertaining thereto. ]Mrs. Stevenson also prosecuted her
studies of medicinal and edil)le plants.

During the entire fiscal year Mr. J. N. B. Hewitt, ethnolo-
gist, was engaged in office work devoted chiefly to studies
connected -s^ath the Handl)Ook of American Indians, espe-
cially part 2. A number of articles designed for this work


had been prepared l^y other collaborators, but were recast
by Mr. Hewitt in order to embody in them the latest views
regarding their subject-matter. Mr. Hewitt also conducted
extensive researches into the history of the Indians of the
Susquehanna River dm'ing the seventeenth century, and
their relations with neighboring peoples, resulting in the
discovery that a number of important tribes were desig-
nated by the names Susquehanna, Conestoga or Andastes,
Massawomek, Erie, Black Minquas, Tehotitachsae, and
Atrakwayeronon (Akhrakwayeronon) . It is proposed to
incorporate this material into a bulletin, with several early
maps, in order to make it available to students of the his-
tory of the Indians of Pennsylvania and New York, and
their relations with white people. Mr. Hewitt also devoted
about two months to the translation of Onondaga native texts
relating to the New Year ceremony, and began work on the
classification of the late Jeremiah Curtin's Seneca legends,
with a view of preparing them for publication b}^ the Bureau.

As custodian of the linguistic manuscripts in the Bureau
archives, Mr. Hewitt spent considerable time in installing
this material, comprising 1,704 items, on its removal from
the former quarters of the Bm'eau to the Smithsonian
building. He was frequently occupied also in receiving
manuscripts and in searching and charging those required
by collaborators either for temporary or for prolonged use.
Much time and labor were also devoted by Mr. Hewitt to
the collection and preparation of data of an ethnological
character for replies to correspondents.

Dr. Cyrus Thomas, ethnologist, wiiile not engaged in revis-
ing the proofs of Bulletin 44, Indian Languages of Mexico
and Central America and their Geographical Distribution,
prepared by him with the assistance of Doctor Swanton,
devoted his attention to the elaboration of the List of
Works Relating to Hawaii, with the collaboration of Prof.
H. M. BaUou. Toward the close of the fiscal year Doctor
Thomas undertook an investigation of the relations of the
Hawaiians to other Polynesian peoples, but unfortunately
this work was interrupted in May by illness which termi-
nated in his death on June 26. Doctor Thomas had been a


member of the Bureau's staff since 1882 and, as his memoirs
pubUshed by the Bureau attest, one of its most industrious
and proHfic investigators.

As the result of a special civil-service examination held
March 3, 1910, the staff of the Bui'eau was increased by the
appointment, as ethnologists, of Dr. Tiinnan Michelson on
June 1 and of Dr. Paul Radin on Jiuie 3.

Doctor Radin immediately made preparations to resume
his researches among the Winnebago Indians in Nel^raska
and Wisconsin, commenced under personal auspices three
years before, and by the close of the fiscal year was making
excellent progress toward completing his studies of this
important Siouan group.

About the same time Doctor Michelson departed for Mon-
tana with the puipose of studying the Blackfeet, Northern
Chej'enne, and Northern Ai-apaho, Algonquian tribes, whose
relations to the other members of the stock are not definitely
known. It is the intention that Doctor Michelson obtain a
view of the relations of the Algonquian tribes generally, in
order that he may become equipped for an exhaustive study

Online LibraryFranz BoasTsimshian mythology → online text (page 1 of 122)