UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.
T. AND T. CLARK, 38, GEORGE STREET.
MD COOL XXXV.
PRINTED BY MORRISON AND GIBB,
T. & T. CLARK, EDINBURGH.
LONDON HAMILTON, ADAMS, AND CO.
DUBLIN, .... GEO. HERBERT.
NEW YORK, .... SCR1BNKR AND WELFORD.
F ft A N Z DELITZSCH, D. D.,
PKOFKSSOR OF THEOLOGY. LF.IPSIC.
(SECON'D EDITION, THOROUGHLY REVISED AND ENLARGED,)
BY THE REV. ROBERT ERNEST WALLIS, PHIL. Dn.
SKNIOR PRIKST-VTCAR OF WEIJ.S CATHEDRAL, AND INCUMBENT
OF CHRIST CHURCH, COXLEY, SOMERSET.
UNIVERSITY i SECOND ENGLISH EDITION.
1 Absit ut ideo credamus ne rationem accipiamus sive quaeramus." AUGUSTINCS.
T. & T. CLARK, 38, GEORGE STREET.
-B 6 , f 6"
THE translator is assured that nothing is needed on his part to
commend this remarkable work to the philosophical student of
theology in England, beyond an apology for the imperfections
of the English garb in which it appears.
The great and growing interest of the subject, and the
profound and exhaustive learning which the author 1 has brought
to bear upon its treatment, had made the translation of this
book a desideratum to many, who only knew it by casual refer-
ence and quotation, long before this attempt was contemplated.
But the hope that such a work would fall into thoroughly
competent hands was indulged in vain, when, by the enterprise
of the publishers of the Foreign Theological Library, the pre-
sent translator was encouraged to do what he could to supply
the need. The result of his endeavour is here presented to
the English biblical student as a mine of wonderful depth and
fertility, which will well repay those who have the courage to
pierce through a somewhat unattractive surface.
1 The subjoined testimony of Dr Fuerst to the deserved reputation of
Dr Delitzsch, may not .be uninteresting to the English student :
Extract from the Preface to FuersCs Hebrew Concordance.
"Non possum quin publice gratum meum animum testificer Fr.
Delitzschio Phil. Dr. adolescent! doctrina disciplinaque prsestantissimo,
cujus vivo literarum amore et adjutrice consuetudine non paucse de
disquisiticnibus meis interioribus ac reconditis maturuerunt. Prseclara
ejus in literis biblicis ac judaicis eruditio quam jam coinpluribus operibus
satis luculente cornprobravit, eum, quamquam in rebus theologicis prorsus
a me dissentientem, socium atque adjutorem mihi adjuuxit, quern in literis
rabbinicis ac talmudicis antea auditorem et discipulum habuisse merito
** JULIUS FUERSTIUS.
" LIPSLE, Idibus Juniis 1840."
vi TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE.
The peculiar difficulties with which the translator has had
to contend, were not unanticipated by the learned author him-
self, and may therefore be reasonably pleaded in bar of severe
criticism on the way in which the task has been accomplished.
Dr Delitzsch, in a courteous reply to a communication in which
he had been informed of the intention to translate his book,
says : " You are right: that book of mine greatly resists trans-
lation into English; it is full of newly-coined words and daring
ideas; and both its form and substance are most elaborately
involved." This witness is profoundly true; and should it
approve itself so to the reader in the course of his perusal
of the following pages, it is hoped that he will indulgently
remember this testimony.
Any attempt to criticise the work itself, the translator con-
ceives to be beyond his province. He contents himself, there-
fore, with briefly reminding the reader, that in giving all the
author's views and statements without comment or qualification,
he does not pledge himself to their indiscriminate adoption or
approval. His desire has been, as far as he was able, to convey
the writer's thoughts, in English which should as nearly as
possible be equivalent to the original.
WELLS, Dec. 30, 18G&
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.
WHEN } in the summer session of 1854, I proposed a course
of Biblical Psychology, I was compelled to discontinue it before
beginning the middle division, because unforeseen circumstances
had laid me under the necessity of limiting the number of hours
appropriated to these lectures. Invited from many quarters to
complete the fragment, I laboured ceaselessly onward ; and thus
appeared this book, wherein I discharge to my dear hearers of
that time, a debt which, as I venture to hope, they had not
My preparations for the subject are so old, that as early
as the year 1846 I was endeavouring to arrange them. In
a Latin dissertation upon the elements of man's nature
sketched out at that time, but suppressed I proposed to myself
an answer to the fundamental question : Whether the soul, so
far as it is distinguished from the spirit, belongs by its nature
to matter or to spirit ? This question I proposed to consider
apart from the ecclesiastical doctrine of dichotomy that had
become prevalent, which, moreover, I defended in my Theology
of Biblical Prophecy (1845), and in both editions of my Com-
mentary on Genesis (1852 and 1853). 1 That dissertation, indeed,
is absolutely right in maintaining the essential unity of soul
and spirit ; but it suffers from the great defect, that it does not
do justice to the substantial difference between the two that
is everywhere presupposed in the Holy Scripture. If this de-
fect be not remedied, the psychologic mode of speech and
matter generally in the Holy Scripture will be an obscure
and formless chaos. The key of biblical psychology is found
in the solution of the enigma: How is it to be conceived, that
spirit and soul can be of one essence, and yet be distinct sub-
1 The first edition of the System of Biblical Psychology (1855) comes
between the second (1853) and third (1860) editions of the Commentary
viii PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.
stances? It was not until I was enlightened upon this ques-
tion that my confused materials of biblical psychology formed
themselves as if spontaneously into a systematic unity.
My problem was an historical one, standing indeed in a
wholly different internal attitude to the psychologic views of
the Holy Scripture, from that in which it stands say to those
of Plato or of the Indian Vedanta. In seeking exegetically to
ascertain these views, and to combine them into a whole which
should correspond to their own internal coherence, I proceeded
from the auspicious assumption, that whatever of a psychologic
kind Scripture presents will neither be self-contradictory, nor
be so confused, childish, and unsatisfactory, as to have any
need to be ashamed in view of the results of late anthropologic
researches. This favourable assumption has, moreover, per-
fectly approved itself to me, without my having feared to con-
sider the psychologic statements of Scripture in any other than
their own light. For while the Scripture testifies to us of the
fact of redemption, which is the revealed secret of human history
and the universe, it gives us also at the same time disclosures
about the nature of man, which, as well to speculative investi-
gation into the final causes and connections of things, as to
natural and spiritual self-contemplation, manifest themselves to
be divine suggestions. So far, perhaps, the book before us may
claim some consideration from inquirers into natural science and
philosophy from such, that is, as are not dissembling views of
the same kind as were lately frankly avowed by Carl Vogt.
But especially would I commend my work to the exami-
nation of all those who are interested in the controversy on the
fundamental question of psychology at issue between the Giin-
therish school and its opponents. For years the works of Anton
Gunther were my favourite study; and a book by a friend of
his, J. H. Pabst, who preceded him into eternity on July 28,
1838, entitled Der Mensch und seine Geschichte (1830), which
first called my attention to Gunther, even attained the im-
portance of a turning-point in my course of theological training.
Nevertheless I could never make the view of Gunther my own,
on the essential distinction between the human soul and spirit,
however I might have wished, and that for biblical and experi-
mental reasons, which I have explained in this book in several
places. The human soul gives life to the body by means of
PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION. IX
natural energies which appertain to matter, but the human soul
itself is not the substance of these natural powers.
The now greatly extended literature of the psychologic
controversy, which is raging in the Roman Catholic Church,
a controversy which has lately exploded in the face of all the
world in the Allgemeine Zeitung, has not been, I regret to
say, very familiar to me. In general, in the immensely wide
range of psychological literature, a great deal that is deserving
of consideration, both old and recent, has undoubtedly escaped
me. But I have read many writings also that were known to
me which I have not spoken of, because they were of no use to
me ; for an exegetically careful, intelligent, and liberal probing
into the depths of Scripture, an investigation which in the
church creed has its restraining barrier, but yet not its circum-
scribing measure, this just mean between a false bondage and
a false freedom craving after novelty, is a virtue not so fre-
quently found in the literature of theology.
I have striven after this virtue; and as I seek at no point
to overstep the limit of the church's judgment up to the pre-
sent time, without at the same time assuring myself that I am
abiding in harmony with the scripturally sound creed of my
church, I shall not be blamed for some theosophic sy m pathies, espe-
cially as I have reduced what Jacob Bohme taught about God's
sevenfold nature to the more biblical conception of the divine
glory (doxd), and, moreover, have only so far appropriated it as it
commended itself to me on biblical grounds. It was immediately
in the light of this conception that the solution of the psycho-
logical problem occurred to me. In it (scil. this conception)
hitherto unduly neglected, and, as Weisse (Philosophische Dog-
matik, i. 617) not at all too strongly expresses it, emptied of
soul and life as it was under the hands of dogmatic philosophy
there are still to be found undiscovered treasures of knowledge.
I have still much to say to courteous readers. But I shrink
from bringing myself any longer personally in the front of my
book. In deeply conscious acknowledgment of its imperfection,
but yet with a grateful retrospect to the enjoyment I have found
in the inquiry, I resign it to the not less merciful than strict
criticism of the divine Fire (1 Cor. iii. 11-15).
ERLANGEN, September 1855.
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
THE reason why I so long resisted the general wish for a
second edition of my Biblical Psychology, will be found in the
book itself. I wanted first to ascertain whether the substantial
view of the book approved itself to me anew. When this had
been the case, however, I was bound to yield to that wish with
the less hesitation, in consideration of the numerous studies of
language and history that I have stored in this book indepen-
dently of that fundamental view, to which I have now con-
siderably added, studies in a more rigid historical apprehension
of the nature of my undertaking.
I therefore beg all my readers carefully to distinguish the
unassailable historical matter that is here placed before them,
from that which is submitted to them for examination, and
especially from those merely individual attempts to arrange
it in general consistency with the scriptural view of God and
the world ; and to combine it systematically, agreeably with the
suggestions of the Bible. He who in this behalf desires to form
a competent estimate of my work, must first occupy a similar
dogmatic, or, which is the same thing, ecclesiastical position to
mine. That critics who are unprepared to answer the question,
What is the Son of man? and who pare down the holy truths
of faith in which they were baptized, and on account of which
they are called Christians, nay, evangelical Christians, for the
greater glorification of their scientific integrity, that such
critics should be able to find no enjoyment in rny book, is wholly
natural ; and that the exact critics, who have no taste for a
gnosis exercised in biblical paths, and the materialist critics,
who know of no other induction than one which is calculated
by atoms, should reject my book as a senseless production, is
neither more nor less than might be expected.
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. XI
I rejoice in another estimate on the part of those who
regard everything earnest and without duplicity not merely
the book of nature, but also the book of the Holy Scripture as
the attestation of a divine revelation, and w r ho acknowledge the
ground upon which I build (not without taking heed HOW I
build) as the one that endures for ever. If my building on
this ground should prove a failure, it is after all a first attempt,
which still perhaps may supply many stones for a more solid
and newer edifice. It is always something gained, that the
doctrinal material of biblical psychology here at length more
completely and successfully than formerly appears organically
articulated, as is required by the idea of science. And
if even many developments slip in, which appear to lose
themselves in what is fanciful, and can pretend to no de-
monstrative force, a reproach which no science will escape,
if it be concerned with the invisible, the spiritual, it is a
fault that may be easily atoned for by the instructive com-
munications of most manifold contents presented in connection
In such readers, thankful, and yet critically examining and
sifting, the book has not hitherto been deficient. And if I
thank those who, as Noack and Strobel, have considered it
intelligently, although unfavourably, and have not despatched
it with an arrogantly brief notice, or still more arrogantly
ignored it altogether, I am doubly and treblv indebted to those
who, as v. Hofmann, J. P. Lange, Schubart, Werner, and
v. Zezschwitz, have submitted it to a more or less severe but
still friendly criticism. But I have been deeply ashamed of
the very favourable consideration which President Dr. K. F.
Goschel and General-Major v. Rudloff have devoted to my
work. These two honourable veterans, grown grey in the
noblest service, have prosecuted the examination of it step for
step in special writings. The one is no more among those who
live in this world, from whom he was removed on the 22d
September in this year, in the seventy-seventh year of his
age ; but as the church above and the church below form an
undivided living unity, my grateful greeting will find its way
to him above. And how deeply I know how to esteem the
loving service which the other has rendered to my work, this
revision will, I hope, show him, for which the delightful study
Xll PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
of his work lias supplied me with an abundance of fertile
But otherwise, moreover, clear friends, such as Besser,
Biesenthal, v. Harless, Luthardt, J. Schubring, v. Strauss,
by epistolary, others by oral communication of their critical
observations, have rendered service to my work, especially " my
Elberfeld Critic," whose critical annotations, communicated to
me by the goo f dness of the mission-inspector, Dr Fabri, sug-
gested to me rich material for the revision and elaboration of
my views of biblical psychology. And although my book
should even contain but little that is good originating from
myself, yet care is taken that the reader should be made aware
of the communications of such others as might partly dissent
as to principles, partly might positively correct what has been
written. Important inquirers, such as Molitor, Hamberger,
R. v. Raumer, Fleischer, Tischendorf, have afforded such
contributions. Moreover, there are not wanting extracts from
rare books. There is found here the complete draught of the
biblical psychology of C. Bartholinus, which I discovered at
the library at Nordlingen in a compilation, where I had pre-
viously not looked for it; and passages important to the history
of science from other writings : moreover, an extract from a
mediaeval manuscript, entitled das leben der minnenden sele,
which is transferred from the library of Dr. Biesenthal into mine.
As only a few pages of the book have remained with-
out improvement and enrichment, its extent, in spite of the
unequally crowded print, has grown by four sheets. The
relation of the soul to the spirit will be found even now
also conceived as secondary, but everywhere more clearly and
simply expressed. The relation of the dosca to the personal
nature of God is represented, as I hope, more convincingly,
as well exegetically as speculatively (i. Sec. 3., IV. Sec. 6).
The distinction of nature and substance, which in the first
edition was assumed, is now discussed (ii. Sec. 4). The
trichotomic fundamental text, 1 Thess. v. 23 (n. Sec. 4), and
that of creationism, Heb. xii. 9 (n. Sec. 7), are searchingly con-
sidered. And equally so, the interpretation of the foundation
texts of the conscience, Rom. ii. 15 (in. Sec. 4); of the relation
of the soul to the blood, Lev. xvii. 14 (iv. Sec. 11) ; and
of the antinomy of the spirit and the flesh unabolished in this
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. Xlll
world, Rom. vii. (v. Sec. 6), are investigated anew. The just
claim of biblical psychology to be called a science (Proleg.
Sec. 2) ; the ideal pre-existenre of the historically actual (i.
Sec. 2) ; the similitude of God, and not merely of the Logos in
man (n. Sec. 2); the dualism of spirit and matter (n. Sec. 4) ;
the distinction between a wider and a narrower conception of
irvevpa (iv. 4, 5, v. 6) ; tlie fundamentally of the will (iv. 7);
the priority of the spirit over the soul (iv. b); the conception in
the evangelical history of the Kenosis (v. 1); the importance to
the history of redemption of the Descent into Hell (vi. 3); the
actual reality, in the sense of Scripture, of the conjuration of
the dead, 1 Sam. xxviii. (VI. Sec. 5) are all established anew,
with reference to the objections that have been advanced.
Language, as a psychological manifestation, is better appreciated
than before, as well in accordance with Scripture as experience
(iv. 4, 10) ; the nature of the dream is more sharply defined,
and its biblical name explained (iv. Sec. 14) ; and more atten-
tion is directed, in the region of extraordinary phenomena of
the life of the soul, to the individual degrees and conditions of
prophecy (iv. 14, v. 5). The earlier view of the psychologic
matter of fact of possession (iv. 16), and the view of the re-
lation of the resurrection-corporeity to the present one (vii. 1),
are justified. Many psychologic definitions of relation, as soul,
power, and matter (iv. 9), person (I) and nature (iv. 2),
heart and brain (iv. 12), are newly examined, and the history
of the views referring to them enlarged upon. In this manner
the revision is extended to every paragraph. The substantial
views, and the arrangement of the material, are nevertheless
first and last the same.
To the doings of the later physiology, empirical psychology,
and medical psychology, I have referred in this second edition,
as compared with the former, not more frequently, but rather
more seldom, because I have gained the experience, that the
representatives of this school of inquiry do not quite approve
of seeing themselves named by a theologian of my tendency.
And such references might, besides, easily be misunderstood,
as though biblical views ought to be modelled according to the
results of natural science (precarious though they are), or the
latter according to the former. Yet they were not always to
be avoided. But my task is one wholly uncon fused with that
xiv PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
of these inquirers. The book whose answers to the questions
respecting the source, the operations, the conditions, and destinies
of the soul I have undertaken to discover, is not the book
of nature, but the book of Scripture ; and I have written
for those to whom the answers of this book of books are not
indifferent, and who know not merely a natural world of ex-
perience, but also one that does not give place to that, in reality
Thanks be to God for the capacity bestowed once again to
accomplish this work. May He bless it, to the stimulating of
further labours in this field of biblical psychology. Should it,
moreover, be impossible entirely to solve the problems which
meet us here, still the Creator of all things is to be glorified,
that He has granted to the human soul the capacity of raising
itself above itself by self-investigation, and with the necessity
for this investigation has imparted the blissful pleasure that
ERLANGEN, Mid-November 161.
SEC. I. History of Biblical Psychology, .... 3
II. Idea of Biblical Psychology, .... 12
III. Method of Biblical Psychology, .... 19
APPENDIX. Caspar Bartholinus' First Sketch of a Biblical Psy-
chology, . ..... 26
I. THE EVERLASTING POSTULATES.
SEC. I. The False Pre-existence, . . . .41
II. The True Pre-existence, . . . .46
III. The Divine Archetype, ..... 55
APPENDIX. Letters of Molitor on Jacob Bourne's Doctrine of a
Nature in God, . . . . . 65
II. THE CREATION,
SEC. T. Man as the Object of the Six Days 1 Work, . . 71
II. The Divine Likeness in Man, .... 78
III. The Process of Creation, . . . .81
IV. The False and the True Trichotomy, . . .103
V. The Origin of the Psyche in an Ethical Point of View, . 119
VI. The Difference of Sex, . . . . .124
VII. Traducianisin and Creationism, .... 128
APPENDIX. R. von Rautner on the Fundamental Import of the
names " Geist " and " Seek," . . .143
III. THE FALL.
SEC. I. The Sin of the Spirit and the Sin of the Flesh, . , 147
II. The Ethico-Physical Disturbance, . . .151
III. Shame and Fear, . . . . .154
IV. Conscience and Remoteness from God, . . . 159
V. The Promise and Faith, . . . .170
APPENDIX. From Pontoppidan's Mirror of Faith, . . .176
IV. THE NATURAL CONDITION.
SEC. I. Personality and the " I," . . . .179
II. Personal Life and Natural Life, . . . 185
III. Freedom, . . . . . .191
SEC. IV. The Trip! icity of the Spirit, . . . 196
V. Nous, Logos, Pneunia,
VI. The Seven Powers of the Soul,
VII. The Established View of the Capacities of the Soul.
VIII. The Beginning and Development of the Threefold Life,
IX. The Twofold Aspect of the Soul,
X. The Body as the Sevenfold Means of Self Representa
tion to the Soul, ....
XI. Soul and Blood, ....
XII. Heart and Head, ....
XIII. Within>the Body the Intestines and the Kidney.*,
XIV. Sleeping, Waking, Dreaming,
XV. Health and Sickness, ....
XVI. Natural and Demoniacal Sickness,
XVII. Superstition and Magic,
APPENDIX I. Passages from the Physics of Comenius, . . 373
II. Theses on Fire and Light, Soul and Spirit. By
Jul. Hamberger, .... 370'
V. THE REGENERATION.
SEC. I. The Divine-Human Archetype, .... 381
II. The New Life of the Spirit, . . . .393
III. The Conscious and Unconscious Side of the Work of
Grace, ...... 401
IV. The Actus Directi and Refexi of the Life of Grace, . 407
V. The Three Forms of the divinely wrought Ecstasy, and
the Theopneustia, ..... 41?
VI. The Unabolished Antinomy, .... 433
APPENDIX I. Luther's Trichotomy, .... 460
II. Upon the "Spirit of the Mind." A. From H. TV.
Clemens' Work on the Powers of the Soul, . 462
J5. From a Mediaeval Tractate entitled Das Leben der
Minnende Sctle, . . . . .464
SEC. I. Soul and Spirit in the midst of Death, . . .467
II. The True and the False Immortality, . . . 473
III. Future Life and Redemption, .... 479
IV. The False Doctrine of the Sleep of the Soul, . . 490
V. The Phenomenal Corporeity and Investiture, . . 499
VI. The Relation of the Souls of the Righteous to the Cor-
poreity of Christ, ..... 513
VII. The Relation of Souls to their Soulless Corporeity, . 520
APPENDIX. Johann Heinrich Ursirius on the Intermediate State of