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BULLETIN.OF THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

No. 941; High School Series, No. 17



STANDARDS IN MANUAL ARTS, DRAWING
AND DESIGN



15 1927



F. D. CRAWSHAW

Professor of Manual Arts
The University of Wisconsin

and



W. H. VARNUM

Associate Professor of Drawing

The University of Wisconsin




The University of Wisconsin

MADISON

June, 1918



HHiH SCHOOL SKRIES

1. THK HIGH SCHOOL COURSE IN ENGLISH, by Willard G. Bleyer, Ph. D.,
Professor of Journalism. 1906. 1907. 1909. 1911.

2. THE HIGH SCHOOL COUUSK IN GERMAN, by M. Blakemore Evans,
Ph. I)., formerly Associate Professor of German. 1907. 1909. Revised
by Chas. M. Purin, formerly Assistant Professor of German, 1912.

3. COMPOSITION IN THE HIGH SCHOOL. TuV; FIKST AND SECOND YEAIIS,
by Margaret Ashmun, formerly Instructor in English. 1908. 1910.

4. THE HIGH SCHOOL COURSE ix LATIN, by M. S. Slaughter, Ph D
Professor of Latin. 1908.

5. THE HIGH SCHOOL Corns*: IN VOICE TRAINING, by Rollo L. Lyman,
formerly Associate Professor of Rhetoric and Oratory. 1909.

G. THE RKLATIVE STANDING OK PUPILS IN THE HIGH SCHOOL AXI> ix Tin;
UNIVERSITY, by W. F. Dearborn, Ph. D., formerly Assistant Professor of
Education. 1909. (Out of print)

7. A COT-USE IN MORAL INSTRUCTION von THE HIGH SCHOOL, by Frank
Chapman Sharp, Ph. D., Professor of Philosophy. 1909. 1913.

8. THE HIGH SCHOOL COURSE IN MATHEMATICS, by Ernest B. Skinner,
Ph. D., Associate Professor of Mathematics. 1910.

9. SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITY GRADES, by W. F. Dearborn, Ph. D., form-
erly Assistant Professor of Education. 1910.

10. THE HIGH SCHOOL COURSE IN GEOGRAPHY, by R. H. Whitbeck, Pro-
fessor of Physiography and Geography, assisted by Lawrence Martin,
Associate Professor of Geology. 1910.

11. THE TEACHING OF MANUAL ARTS, by Fred D. Crawshaw, Professor
of Manual Arts, The University of Wisconsin, and Robert. W. Selvidge,
Assistant Professor of Manual Training, Department of Manual Arts,
University of Missouri. 1911. 1912.

12. THE HIGH SCHOOL COURSE IN AGRICULTURE, by K. L. Hatch, Pro-
fessor of Agricultural Education. 1911. 1913.

13. REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION TO THE FRESHMAN ENGLISH COURSE
(English 1), issued by the Department of English. 1913.

14. THE RELATION OF LATIN TO PRACTICAL LIKE, by Frances E. Sabin,
Assistant Professor of Latin. 1915.

15. THE PRACTICAL ENDS OF THK STUDY OF LATIN, by Frances E. Sabin,
Assistant Professor of Latin. 1915.

16. SUGGESTIONS FOB SCHOOL AND HOME PROJECTS IN AGRICULTURE, by
K. L. Hatch, Professor of Agricultural Education. 1915.

17. STANDARDS IN MANUAL ARTS, DRAWING AND DESIGN, by F. D. Craw-
fihaw, Professor of Manual Arts, and W. H. Varnum, Associate Profes-
sor of Drawing and Design. 1918.



Copies of these bulletins may be obtained by writing the Secretary of
the Committee on Accredited Schools, Room 119, University Hall.
Copies will be mailed to address outside the state upon receipt of ten
cents per copy, except No. 7, for which the charge is twenty cents.



Tssned monthly by tho University of \Yisconsin at Madison. AYiscojisin.
EJntere*! as second-class matter June n. i:uf>, t the post office :it
Madison, \Yiscorisin, under the act of August 21. 1012.



BULLETIN OF THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

No. 941; High School Series, No. 17



STANDARDS IN MANUAL ARTS, DRAWING
AND DESIGN



F. D. CRAWSHAW

Professor of Manual Arts
The University of Wisconsin



W. H. VARNUM

Associate Professor of Drawing and Design
The University of Wisconsin



MADISON

Published by the University

June, 1918



PREFACE

The organization of industrial schools in communities in which
manual training is established in the regular school system, the edu-
cational and industrial survey, and the general problem of the re-
organization of public school work, have brought about a marked
transformation in the teaching of manual arts. In this transforma-
tion the department of manual, arts in the University of Wisconsin
has attempted to view new demands in the light of present social,
economic and educational conditions. It has been and is now, there-
fore, evaluating old methods and practices in the teaching of manual
arts in terms of present-day developments in public school educa-
tion.

This bulletin gives general suggestions in methods of teaching
and in outlines of courses of study for the commonly accepted di-
visions of the public schools, including the industrial school. It does
not prescribe just what shall be taught in a particular subject,
school year or type of school, nor does it dictate a method of teach-
ing, because the subject matter and the method of teaching will
vary with local conditions. It does present, however, a definite edu-
cational program in the field of the manual arts and it expresses
desiderata both in method and context for particular school con-
ditions.

Supplementary and detailed material upon any particular sub-
ject or for any particular type of school will appear in forth-
coming bulletins if the demand warrants their preparation and pub-
lication.



CONTENTS



Page

The Point of View j 5

Pedagogical , -

Classroom Conduct

Classroom Instruction j

Individual Instruction 7

Industrial g

Aesthetic ] Q

Suggestions for the Elementary School 11

A. Primary Grades 11

Motives and Standards 12

Expressional Handwork 13

Expressional Drawing and Design 16

Technical Handwork 17

B. Middle Grades 19

Construction Problems 22

Motives and Standards 24

Representative Drawing 24

Technical Expression 25

Design 25

C. Upper Grades 25

Plans 28

Units of Work 27

Motives and Standards for Drawing and Design 20

Correlations 30

The Junior High School 31

Drawing and Design 35

Senior High School 39

One Year High School Course 40

Two Year High School Course 42

Drawing and Design 43

Three or Four Year High School Course 46

Drawing and Design 48

Rural High School Course 50

Industrial School Courses 54

Conclusion 55

Bibliography 58



STANDARDS IN MANUAL ARTS, DRAWING
AND DESIGN



THE POINT OF VIEW
Pedagogical.

Manual training as the term is used in this bulletin refers to the
method by which industrial work is developed under school control.
It signifies a plan by which hand, tool and machine work is made
educative through a series of progressively developmental problems.

Manual arts as herein used indicates the content of the several
subjects which are included in a division of the school dealing with
industrial work.

Industrial education as used herein refers to the study of all or a
branch of industry (a manual art) by means of the most approved
pedagogical and industrial methods. It includes both information
about and practice in industry.

There has come into the shops and drawing rooms of our Ameri-
can schools a form of handwork which can be characterised perhaps
by no better term than ' ' busy work, ' J in which there may be little
or no educational value. Teachers in the field of manual arts,
then, need to look to the motivation of its subject matter quite as
much as do those who are teaching language, mathematics and other
subjects of the academic type. When boys and girls are found in
manual arts classes who fail to be interested in their work, it is
an indication that the proper mental stimulus is lacking.

Theoretically, training in the manual arts is a valuable means
to an educational end because it takes account of the child's natural
demand for a physical activity to accompany mental development.
Practically, it serves its purpose as a means to this end when by
proper motivation it creates in the pupil an interest in his work



6 THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

The motivation may be secured as a rule by one of three natural
means, viz:

1. The desire to create because the creation satisfies a personal
demand in the life of the creator, such as the making of some-
thing which the maker will use.

2. The desire to create because the creation ' satisfies a demand
in the life of someone in whom the creator is interested, for ex-
ample, the making of something which will be used as a gift.

3. The desire to create because in the process of creation the
creator will achieve a new goal, that is, the making of something
for the sake of accomplishment.

By any one or all of these means of motivation, the manual arts
will secure interest on the part of the individual creator. With
interest secured, the pupil will react in an individual way to what
has become an individual problem. Therefore, to make this re-
action a most valuable experience for the pupil there is needed
only the helpful guidance of the instructor. This may be given
to the best advantage only when the instructor has organized his
teaching material to make the work of each and every pupil more
and more independent and individual. He must therefore have a
plan of developing his subject step by step, by groups, or units
of instruction. Each group should represent essential fundamentals
in individual performance and in elements of industry or of the trade
of which the subject taught is a part.

Such a plan will insure the solution of definite groups of prob-
lems by all members of a class. The particular problem to be
solved by any pupil, however, is represented by the project which
he chooses to make. To be sure this project must be representative
of the group of problems determined for all members of a class
by the instructor's plan, and it therefore represents a class problem.
It becomes an individual problem also because it is the choice of
a. particular pupil of all the possible problems within a group.

If this particular point of view regarding the division of subject
matter and its use by pupils is understood, it is needless to say that
there will be definite progress made by all members of a class, for
each one will get something from every part of a course. Just
how much and the particular kind of a problem each pupil will
get will depend upon his choice of a project. This project may repre-






STANDARDS IN MANUAL ARTS 7

sent a social, industrial or agricultural interpretation of the general
group problems. It may be made to meet both individual and com-
munity needs.

CLASSROOM CONDUCT

In terms of class instruction it must be apparent that the scheme
of developing an industrial subject, as suggested above, means both
class instruction upon the general problem or problems suggested
by a group in the instructor's plan, and individual instruction upon
each pupil's project.

CLASS INSTRUCTION

The class instruction should be in the nature of demonstrations
upon a project similar to any individual project to be made by
any member of a class and discussions upon the technical and in-
dustrial problems involved. This class instruction should take up
comparatively little of the time of a class period, perhaps one-fifth,
and not more than one-fourth. It should be direct and upon the
common problems to be solved by all members of a class in the
making of individual projects. It should be developmental, as far
as possible, rather than dictatorial in character in order that it may
develop actual participation by all members of a class. It should
produce in each pupil a desire to read, observe and investigate
between class periods and thus to secure for each one as large a
fund of industrial information as possible.

INDIVIDUAL INSTRUCTION

The individual instruction should be systematic rather than dis-
organized. The instructor should interview all members of a
class, secure from each a working plan of his next step in the mak-
ing of his project, and finally approve this plan. He should always
make his instruction constructive by means of encouragement and
criticism which will establish ideals and give the pupil new ideas.
Such instruction will result not in the doing for a pupil but rather
in the suggesting of means by which the pupil will do for himself.
Each pupil should produce, finally, a complete working drawing of
his project.



8 THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

No period of individual instruction should close without at least
a mental summary by the instructor of the performances of the
class in order that at the beginning of the succeeding class period
he may bridge over the intervening gap, caused by the time which
has elapsed between the meetings of tlie class, by recalling both
good and bad points in the conduct of the last class period, thus
orienting the class and shortening the time before they will again
actually participate.

Industrial.

That one part of every individual's education should be voca-
tional and at least semi-technical is self-evident when it is realized
that the great majority of the American public is occupied in
life's work in some form of manual labor. As the child reaches
the age when the state relinquishes its hold upon him as a school
subject, he realizes somewhat his possibilities as a wage earner.
He sees everywhere about him men and women whose daily life is
spent in an activity of which he knows little or nothing. He be-
gins to feel that the information which he is getting from books
has almost no relation to the work which he apprehends will be
his when he leaves school. As a result, he longs to join the great
army of his fellows who early leave school to accept wage-earning
positions. It is at this point in the grammar grades that the
teaching of manual arts should offer a real point of contact with
the workaday world. It should begin to deal with materials of
industrial significance, and in a way which will train the youth
in processes which the industrial worker follows in his life in the
factory or business house.

If the manual arts shop will provide a form of real industrial
work which is based upon the principles of educational handwork,
and if, in addition to this, the bookwork and laboratory work of
the school will take a practical turn, there will be fewer boys who
leave school in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades.

Industrial education, so called, and manual arts work must be
essentially the same. Each must have for its purpose the acquisi-
tion of a fund of knowledge capable of making its possessor an
efficient future worker in the industrial world. It must acquaint
the individual with the tools and materials used in industrial pro-
cesses. It must do more than this it must give him a broad out-



STANDARDS IN MANUAL ARTS 9

look upon industrial conditions; it must help so to organize his
individual forces that he may have as a result of his knowledge and
skill, a mental, moral, and physical control of himself; it must do
its part to make him, in a word, a useful, helpful citizen.

Beginning very early in the school process the course of study
should include both vocational and non-vocational subjects. In
doing this it is quite possible, without sacrificing anything of the
broad, general foundations which it is the duty of our elementary
school to lay, so to arrange the shop curriculum that as early as the
sixth grade the motor element in the school work shall have a strong
industrial significance. This may be done by organizing all in-
dustrial work on the unit industry basis. Each unit should be
typically industrial both in practice and in the information given
regarding the practice. By offering a program of this kind, every
sixth, seventh and eighth grade child will secure a modicum of
both practice and theory in a number of the more common indus-
tries. This will serve the end of a broadened education or of a
future vocational selection.

The high school should continue this program of selected indus-
trial experience and, besides, from the very first day of the first
year throughout the entire four-year course, should offer oppor-
tunity for specialization for those who will not complete such a
high school course but will enter industry at the end of any one
of the high school years. The field of choice should be much
broader than it is now. There is no reason why it should be con-
fined to the rather narrow field of industrial life represented in
the traditional manual training courses, nor to the particular se-
quence of subjects as they are ordinarily arranged'. Some specific
knowledge must be acquired and a definite power must be developed
in the line of work in which the student will probably engage.
In addition to this training for a specific occupation w r e must give
as broad a knowledge as possible of our social and industrial prob-
lems. The useful citizen is not only a good producer but he is
also a good consumer, and he should therefore understand the
social and industrial significance of modern methods of production
and distribution.



10 THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

Aesthetic.

A review of the commercial development of a nation shows the
arts of design and construction closely related to the development
of the industry of the nation. With industrial expansion, how-
ever, the art of aesthetic design is in dknger of elimination. To
give design its true place in relation to construction this bulletin
empliMsi/es the importance of this subject by giving suggestive prob-
lems in design simultaneously with those in construction for each
of the divisions of the school.

Freehand drawing as well as mechanical drawing is a means of
expressing design and construction. Both should be used as in-
tegral parts of all manual arts work as a means of conveying idens.
Freehand drawing is a valuable factor in vocational pursuits for
interpreting aesthetic values in industrial products. This bulle-
tin does not advocate freehand drawing as a separate subject for
the first six grades. During this period the grade teacher should
use drawing and design for instructional purposes. It is con-
tributory to the successful presentation of subject matter.

Beginning with the sixth year and continuing thereafter, draw-
ing and design are taught as distinct subjects but are closely cor-
related with other lines of school activity.

It should go without saying that one of the dominant elements
in the manual arts is good construction; another is good design.
In fact, if these are not considered fundamental the subject can-
not have either the educational or industrial values which may
otherwise be claimed for it. If it were not for the fact, however,
that both of these essential elements are often sadly neglected, space
would not be given here for emphasizing their importance.

Good construction has been more evident in the manual arts work
of the past than has good design. In fact it has not infrequently
been regarded as the all-important part of industrial practice. But
good construction is only one important factor in the practice work
of the manual arts; indeed it is one part of good design. The de-
sign of a project should both precede and be simultaneously developed
with its construction. The initial or blocked-in design should be
completed before construction begins but thereafter the design
should develop as the construction progresses. Only as the work in
drawing, both freehand and mechanical, is regarded as an integral
part of construction work can the design element become real. A



STANDARDS IN MANUAL ARTS 11

" paper" design may be good, but one which is not carried out in
constructive material certainly does not serve its greatest purpose
that of creating good taste in appropriately adapting material to
its possible form and shape. Either to develop a high standard
of appreciation or to cultivate creative ability in design, the plan
for fashioning material and the work of cutting, fitting and form-
ing it should go hand in hand. This means that those who design
must understand the necessities of construction and that those who
construct must know how to cooperate closely with the designers.

SUGGESTIONS FOR THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

The Primary Grades

A. Primary Grades. The primary grades must be regarded as
those in which a foundation is laid for all future work. This point
of view precludes the possibility of doing work in the first three or
four grades of the public schools which may be regarded as vo-
cational in character. The child comes to the school in the first
grade with little information other than that which pertains to the
activity of the home. In it he has had little conduct control of an in-
tellectual type. For the most part he has been allowed to follow
his own ' i bent ' ' with little restriction except in the narrow sense
of discipline. He is a romancer. He has played and imagined
and dramatized in a Avorld of his own with the natural home en-
vironment influencing him in his selection of symbols, which for
the most part have been stones, blocks, pieces of paper in fact
anything which happened to be near by when he was in the mood to
imitate his elders.

Close observation of the play of little children reveals the fact
that their powers of appropriation are far more developed than
are their powers of expression. Little children get "big" ideas
and carry them out in their play without attention to detail. There
are probably two reasons for this. In the first place they do not
see details they do not observe closely and in the second place
they do not have the motor control or mental organization to trans-
late into common language either verbal or graphic what they
wish to express.

These theories, though well founded, may be expressed in terms
of standards for the guidance of those who organize subject mat-
ter and select materials for the early primary grades.



12 THE UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN

1. Little children have information about far thin UK
do not center in the home or its immediate surroundings.

2. Little children do not observe closely but get ideas, some-
times very false, about the large or bulky circumstance or situa-
tion.

3. Little children express themselves for themselves (later for
others) with symbols representing real things. In this play, ex-
pression they use the large muscles and large nerve centers and
consequently handle comfortably only such objects as they can
grasp without difficulty.

With these standards it should not be difficult to arrange the en-
vironment and choose the setting for industrial arts work in the
primary grades. First and foremost, one should remember that
the primary school is a time and place for gaining much informa-
tion and making many adjustments, both physical and mental. The
starting points are the individual home activities and the ending
point is the life of many and different homes in fact, community
life in general.

To cater to the play instinct and gradually to control or harness
it and to develop in the child habits of clear thinking and accurate ex-
pression rather than the possession of examinable knowledge, the
industrial arts of the primary grades are divided into two main
classes termed ' ' expressional ' ' and ' ' technical ' ' work.

In the primary grades, the arts of drawing and design are to be
used as an expressional means of interpretation and appreciation
for other subjects in the child's program. The primary teacher
should be able to use drawing as a part of the language with which
ideas are expressed. The closest possible correlation should be
made, especially with construction work.

Motives and Standards for the Primary Grades

First and Second Grades:

1. Means of suggesting ideas rather than delineating form.

2. Automatic repetition of decorative unit into borders and sur-

face patterns.
Third and Fourth Grades:

1. Closer adherence to facts of form and color.

2. Kepresentation towards specific ends.

3. Beginning of formulative judgment.



STANDARDS IN MANUAL ARTS 13

For Both Grades:

1. Drawing regarded as a form of narrative expression.

2. Consider the tendency of the child to draw from what he

knows rather than from what he sees.

3. Emphasis upon large essentials.

4. Increase child's vocabulary of technical terms.

5. Increase child's ability to draw from memory.

6. Familiarize child with standard colors.

Expressional Handwork

Expressional handwork is an illustrative means of teaching. It
is a method of developing concepts by means of illustration. It
does not develop accurate hand manipulation but does expand ideas
by the use of concrete and physical materials. The accompanying
illustration (page 14) shows a concrete expression of the idea of
a farm by a class or group of pupils after the reading or telling
of a story about a visit to a farm.

Not all of the details of the scene are worked out by each mem-
ber of a class but all plan it together as a result of the work in
reading, language, geography or history which they are doing. On


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Online LibraryFred D. (Fred Duane) CrawshawStandards in manual arts, drawing and design → online text (page 1 of 5)