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Frederic Louis Billon.

Annals of St. Louis in its territorial days, from 1804 to 1821; being a continuation of the author's previous work, the Annals of the French and Spanish period online

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house, of two stores, with a hall in the center,
leading to the upper part, designed for a public-
house, which on completion was opened that same
fall by Timothy Kibby, from St. Charles, as the
" Washington Hall," the seventh brick house in St.



* These McKnis;hts were John, Thomas, James, Robert and William.
John never married and died a confirmed old bachelor.



THOMAS BEADY. 233

Louis, and the first built for a Hotel, in which, on
the 22d February following, 1817, the first observ-
ance of "Washington's birthday west of the Missis-
sippi river took place by a public dinner, presided
over by Gov'r Wm. Clark.

In 1812 Mr. Brady purchased Glamorgan's stone
dwelling, with the block of ground on which it
stood, near the upper end of Main Street, in which
he resided until 1819, when he built another about
three miles north of the village.

In 1820 they dissolved their copartnership, hav-
ing during its continuance purchased and sold ex-
tensively of real estate.

Mr. Brady was married in Il^ovember, 1814, at
Ste. Genevieve, to Miss Harriet, a daughter of
John Rice Jones, Bsq'r, and died Oct. 11, 1821,
leaving his widow with three little girls, the oldest
about six years old. The Kight Rev'd Bishop Du-
bourg officiated at the funeral obsequies.

After the death of Tho's Brady, the widow re-
moved to the City, and her father, John Rice
Jones, then Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
of the State, lived with her until his death, January
31, 1824, when she removed to Ste. Genevieve
and afterwards became the second wife of John
Scott.

The three little girls grew to be women and mar-
ried:

The eldest to George Campbell, of Galena.

The second to Ferdinand Rozier JSTo. 2, of Ste.
Genevieve.



234 BIOGRAPHICAL.

BARTHOLOMEW BERTHOLD,

son of Alexander Berthold and Maria Magdalena
Beltramy, was born near the City of Trent, on the
Adige, in the Italian Tyrol in the year 1780.

In 1798, at eighteen, he came to the United
States, remained for a time in Philadelphia, and
then settled in Baltimore, where he lived for some
years. In 1809, associated with Kene Paul, he
came with a stock of fresh goods to St. Louis,
Where they established themselves in business.

Mr. Berthold was married on Jan'y 10, 1811, to
Miss Pelagie, the only daughter of Major Pierre
Chouteau, Sen'r.

In 1812, Mr. B. built a brick house for his
store and dwelling on Main Street, the first brick
building, not in St. Louis alone but west of the
Mississippi River, into which he removed on its
completion late in that year.

On June 6, 1812, the firm of Berthold & Paul
was dissolved, and Mr. B. went into partnership
with his brother-in-law, Peter Chouteau, Jr.

On May 1,1813, "Berthold & Chouteau" opened
their new firm with a freph Stock of Merchandise
they had purchased at the east. This was the
foundation and origin of what, in a very few years
thereafter, by the addition of two new partners,
Messrs. Jno. P. Cabanne and Bernard Pratte, Sr.,
with their added capital, became the great and
wealthy " American Fur Company," that for many
yeai'S almost monopolized the fur trade of the
upper country, and acquired large wealth.



LOUIS RENE PAUL. 235

Mr. Berthold, Sr., died April 20, 1831, at the
age of 51 years.

Mrs. B. survived him 44 years, dying May 24,
1875, in her 85th year. '

Their children were :

Pierre Alexander, born JSTov. 17, 1811, married
Virginia E. Maclot, Jan'y 31, 1837.

Auguste, born Feb. 26, 1814, died unmarried in
1837.

Pelagie TalHa, born Oct. 3, 1815, died 1885.

Amedee, born Feb. 10, 1818, died 1886.

M. T. Clara, born April 12, 1819, married to
Wm. L. Ewing, in 1838.

Frederick, born Oct. 18, 1821, married to Vir-
ginia Sarpy, 1847.

Emilie, born Jan. 29, 1824, first Mrs. Kennedy,
secondly Mrs. "Waggaman.

The children of P. A. Berthold are :

Mrs. Sanford of JS'ew York, and Mrs. Ladd and
Miss Martha of St. Louis, three daughters, and
Augustus and Bartholomew — two sons.

Mrs. Ewing has :

Augustus, Wm. L. and Frederick, three sons.
Mrs. Kerr, Mrs. Taylor, Mrs. "Wilson — three
daughters.



GABRIEL E. ANT> LOUIS E. PAUL,

were sons of Eustache Paul and Marie Scholas-
tique Mace, were born at Cape Francois, Island
of St. Domingo, and with their mother and sisters
were in Paris, for their education, when the insur-



236 BIOGRAPHICAL.

rection of the negroes broke oat in the Island in
1793. Their father Mr. Paul being, as all others,
compelled to leave the Island took passage for Phil-
adelphia, he died on the voyage and was buried
at sea.

The widow remained in France for about ten
years, until the children were grown, and their
education completed. They then came to the
United States in 18U2, and took up their residence
in Baltimore, where the sons einbarked in business
(the eldest Miss Paul had been married in Paris
in 1801 to Mr. Fleury Generelly of Lyons, who
came with them to the United States, and went
into business in Philadelphia. In the fall of 1814
Mr. Generelly removed to New Orleans with his
family, arriving there in December jast in time to
participate in the battle of Jan'y 8, 1815, two of his
children, a daughter born in Philadelphia in 1805,
and a son born in New Orleans in 1838, are yet
living there in 1888).

In the year 1809, Rene Paul associated with Mr.
Bartholomew Berthold, came to St. Louis and com-
menced business.

April 9, 1812. He married Miss Marie Therese
Eulalie, the eldest daughter of Col. Augustus
Chouteau.

She died May 18, 1835, at the age of 38 years.
Col. Paul survived her about 16 years and died in
1851, aged about 70 years.

Their- children were :

Gabriel Rene, born March 21, 1813, married
Miss Whistler in 1835.



GEN'L G. K. PAUL. 237

Edmund, born Feb'y 22, 1816, [married Marie
E. St. Yrain, 1836.

Maria Louisa Estelle, born March 8, 1818, died
an infant.

Emilie ] June 14, 1819, married Peter N. Ham.

Louise ) June 14, 1819, married Charles
Dubreuil.

Sophia Tulia, born Dec. 11, 1821, married
Frederick Beckwith.

Julius, born Mar. 9, 1828, died aged 16 years.

Harriet, born June 16, 1831, died young.

Julia Augustine, born July 24, 1834, died
young.

And two or three that died infants, all now
deceased except Mrs. Beckwith, who is the sole
survivor of the children of Col. Rene Paul.

GBNEKAIi G. R. PAUL, U. S. A.

Graduated at "West Point in the year 1834, and
was assigned to the 7th Infantry Col. Wm. Whist-
ler, then stationed in the Cherokee nation.

In December, 1834, he was a 2nd Lieut. ; Oct.
1836, a first Lieut.; in 1846 a Captain; 1847,
Brevet Major; 1861, Major; 1862, Lieut.-Col. ;
1864, Colonel; 1866, Brigadier-General.

At the battle of Gettysburg, he was supposed to
have been mortally wounded and was left for dead
on the field, but his life was miraculously pre-
served, although blinded by the shot, and after-
wards lived to a good old age.

He was twice married, first at Fort Gibson,
March 24, 1835, to Miss Mary Ann "Whistler, the



238 BIOGRAPHICAL.

daughter of his Colonel, his three daughters of
this wife, were in after years married, one to Capt.
Gurden Chapin, another to Capt. Chas. B. Stivers,
U. S. A., and the third to Mr. Duff , c ommissary ;
he left also a son by this first wife.

By his second wife a Mrs. R. Rogers, a widow
lady who survives him, he left two daughters, one
a married lady residing in I^ew York.

Gen'l Paul died in Washington, May 5, 1886,
aged 73 years.

CAPT. EDMIHSTD PAUL,

second son of Col. Rene Paul, born 1816, married
in 1836, commanded a Company of the St. Louis
Legion, in the Mexican war of 1846-7.

He died in St. Louis, June 27, 1880, aged 64
years and 4 months. Of a family of several
children, one son and the widow survive.



was born in Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania,
in 1783, and came to Missouri in 1806 and settled
at Mine a Burton, Washington County, where he
became a prominent individual, representing that
county in the Convention that framed the Consti-
tution of the State, and subsequently in the House
of Representatives and Senate of the State.

In 1817 he was married to Mrs. Anne M. Lowe,
whose first husband was Capt. Joseph Cross, of
the 1st Regiment U. S. Artillery. This lady was



COL. R. P. FAREIS. 239

born in ]!^orthumberland County, Pemi'a, April 11,
1786.

They raised but one' daughter, who became the
wife of Edward Bredell.

Capt. S'. Perry died at Potosi, "Washington
County, Mo., Dec. 12, 1880, aged 47 years, and
Mrs. Perry died at St. Louis, Feb'y 12, 1860, aged
73 years and 10 montlis.



COL. EOBEET P. PARRIS,

was born in l^atick, near Boston, Mass., in the
year 179+ .

He came to St. Louis about 1815-16, and com-
menced the practice of law. In 1820-21, he was
appointed Lieut. -Col. of the First JRegiment of
Missouri militia under the new militia law at St.
Louis, and in 1822 was elected to the position of
Colonel.

In 1822, he was appointed by Governor McNair,
Circuit Attorney for the County of St. Louis, and
entered upon his duties at the June term of that
year. This office he held for seven years, being
succeeded in the same by Hamilton Gamble, March
23, 1829.

Col. Farris was married on Mai'ch 31, 182-1, at
Potosi, "Washington County, Mo., to Miss Cath-
erine Ann Cross, daughter of Capt. Joseph Cross,
formerly of the United States Artillery, and step-
daughter of Samuel Perry, Esq., merchant. She
died March 2, 1829, at the age of 21.



240 BIOGRAPHICAL.

Col. Parris died in this city Dec'r 27, 1830, the
year after his wife, aged about 36 years, leaving
an only son, the Rev'd Robert P. Parris.



DOCT. BEKlSrAED GAIN"ES PAERAE,

son of Joseph Royal Parrar, was born in Gooch-
land County, Virginia, July 4, 1785. His parents
removed to Kentucky in the same year.

In the year 1800, at fifteen years of age, he
commenced his medical studies in Cincinnati, and
afterwards in Lexington, Ky.

In 1804, he attended medical lectures at the
University in Philadelphia.

In 1806, when 21 years of age, he located at
Prankfort, Ky., but at the suggestion of his
brother-in-law. Judge Cob urn, one of the terri-
torial Judges of Missouri, removed to St. Louis
the following year, he being the first American
Physician who established himself west of the
Mississippi River. His professional card appears
in the Gazette, May 16, 1809.

In 1812, Jan'y, he was associated for a short
time in the Drug and Medicine business with Mr.
Joseph Charless, Sr., of the Oazette; and in
Aug't, 1812, he formed an association in business
with Doct. David V. Walker, who had just come
to the place. As these two gentlemen became
subsequently brothers-in-law, their wives being
daughters of Major Wm. Christy, their copart-
nership in business continued until dissolved by



JUDGE ROBERT WASH. 241

the death of Doct. Walker, April 9, 1824, a
'period of twelve years.

Doct. Farrar was twice married.

First, in 1811, to Miss Sarah, the oldest
daughter of Major Wm. Christy. She died on
Nov'r 3, 1817, leaving two sons and one daugh-
ter, Wm. Clark Farrar and James Leach Farrar,
both deceased unmarried, and Martha Farrar,
relict of the late Jas. T. Sweringen, deceased.

Doct. Farrar married his second wife, Ann
Clark Thruston, in Louisville, Kentucky, Feb'y,
1820, by whom he left at his decease a number
of sons and daughters.

He died in the summer of 1849, and Mrs.
Farrar April, 1878, aged 79.



JUDGE ROBERT "WASH

was born in Louisa County, Virginia, IS^ov'r 29,
1790. He received a good education at William
and Mary College, where he graduated in 1808, at
the age of 18, came west and opened a Law-oflSce
in St. Louis in 1810.

During the war of 1812-15 he served on Gen'l
Benjamin Howard's staff with the rank of Major.
He was not long enough at the Bar to acquire
much fame as a Lawyer, but that he made an ac-
ceptable judge is generally admitted.

Like most Virginians, Judge Wash was a great
hunter, fond of the chase, and always kept a pack
of hounds.

16



242 BIOGRAPHICAL.

After the incorporation of the City, he served
for a time as an Alderman in 1823, and was always
very sanguine of the future prosperity of St. Louis,
so that investing his limited means in real estate,
it laid the foundation of an ample fortune, which
he enjoyed through life.

He was appointed one of the Judges of the Su-
preme Court, to fill a vacancy in 1824, which posi-
tion he held for thirteen years and resigned in 1837.
He had previously held under President Monroe the
position of United States District Attorney.

Judge Wash was twice married. First, in 1828
to Frances, widow of Major Taylor Berry and
daughter of Major Wra. Christy, who bore him one
daughter, who became the wife of Greo. W. Goode,
and

Secondly, Miss Eliza L. Taylor, daughter of
Col. ]S"at. P. Taylor. They had several sons and
daughters. .

Judge Wash died 'Nov. 29, 1856, having just
completed his 66th year.



JAMES A. GEAHAM

was a young lawyer from Pennsylvania, of a family
of position in the Cumberland Yalley (Carlisle or
Shippensburgh) , and came to the place about
1809-10.

In the earl}' part of 1810 he received a challenge
for a duel, from whom is not stated, which he de-
clined to accept on the plea that the challenger was



DOCT. ROBERT SIMPSON. 243

not a gentleman. The bearer of the challenge,
Doet. B. Farrar, according to the code, took his
place. Graham was severely wounded, and went
on crutches tor nearly a year, and died towards its
close, while on his way to the East.

Eobert Wash administered on his estate, and
gave bond in six hundred dollars, his personal prop-
erty being inventoried at exceeding that amount,
"Wash's securities being Wm. Christy and Capt.
Jas. O. Allen.

Graham had been employed by Matthew Kerr,
Merchant, to collect for him, they being from the
same place. He had a well furnished room, a fine
riding horse, pistols, &c., but as he did not die in
St. Louis, but on his way home, his death is not
found in our paper. Accounts against his estate
were allowed in 1814, and Wash's final settlement
and discharge in the year 1826.



DOCT. ROBERT SIMPSON

was born in Charles County, Maryland, Nov. 1,
1785 ; when young he studied medicine at Phila-
delphia, and graduated at the College.

In 1809 he was appointed Ass't Surgeon in the
United States Army, and was ordered to St.
Louis. In 1810 he accompanied the troops that
established Fort Madison, Upper Mississippi, and
remained one year, and then returned to St.
Louis.



244 BIOGRAPHICAL.

1811, June 27, Doct. Simpson was married to
Miss Breeia Smith, from Massachusetts, sister of
Mrs. Col. Kufus Baston.

1812, opened a Drug Store and appointed
Postmaster to succeed Col. Easton.

1823, appointed Collector of St. Louis County.

1826, elected Sheriff of the County, and in
1828 re-elected the same.

1840 to 1846, served seven years as City
Comptroller, and as

Cashier of the Boatmen's Savings Institution.

Doct. Simpson died May 2, 1873, in his 88th
year, his wife having preceded him. They had
several sons, the last of whom, Symmes, died at
Davenport, Iowa, Aug't 4, 1885, aged 72 years.

Their only daughter,, the wife of Gen. A. J.
■Smith, yet survives.



JUDGE ALEXANDER STUART,

from Virginia, was practicing Law in Kaskaskia
as early as 1806-7, and then came over to St.
Louis about the year 1809.

When Chonteau & Lucas laid out their addi-
tion to the little old French village of St. Louis
on the hill in 1816, Alex'r Stuart was the first
purchaser of a lot in the same.

On the 22d of May, 1816, he purchased from
Chouteau for $1,200 the block of ground
bounded by Market, Walnut, Fifth and Sixth
Streets, 270 by 288 feet, then considered a fair
price.



HON. DAVID BARTON. 245

He was appointed by Gov'r Alex'r Mc^fsTair,
Judge of the St. Louis Circuit Court to succeed
Judge N. B. Tucker; he was on the bench
from 1823 to 1826, and was succeeded in turn
by Judge Wm. C. Carr.

He died in January, 1833, while on a visit to
Virginia.

HOlSr. DAVID BAKTON,

the eldest of six brothers, was ■ born in Green
County, Korth Carolina, (now a part of East
Tennessee,) Dec. 14, 1783, and came when a
young man .to Missouri, prior to the commence-
ment of the war with England in 1812, and served
for some time, as a mounted Ranger in that war.

In 1814, he commenced the practice of the law
in St. Louis. Upon the establishment of the Cir-
cuit Courts in 1814-15, he was appointed by the
Governor, the first Judge of the Northern Circuit,
and held his first terra at St. Louis on April 10,
1815. This position he held for three years, and
then resumed the practice of the law in 1818.

Being very popular with the people, he was
elected to preside over the convention that adopted
the State constitution in 1820, and then by a unan-
imous vote of the Legislature, our first Senator in
Congress, his colleague being Col. Thos. H. Ben-
ton, in drawing lots for the term he drew the short
one for four years. In 1824, he was re-elected
Senator for the full term of six years, and served
until 1830.



246 BIOGRAPHICAL.

Afterwards, he served as a State Senator in
1834-35. In his late years he had become very
intemperate, and died unmarried, near Boonville,
Cooper County, Sept. 28, 1837.

JOSHUA BAETON,

the second brother, came to St. Louis with, or
about the same time with David the oldest. He
studied law with Col. Easton, in St. Louis, and
after being admitted to the Bar, he became asso-
ciated in the practice with his friend Edward Bates.

After the formation of the State government, he
was appointed Secretary of State, which office he
resigned to accept the appointment of United
States District Attorney, which oflSce he held at the
time of his death on June 30th, 1823.

He was killed in a duel on Bloody Island, by
Thos. C. Rector; like his brother David he was
never married.

ISAAC BARTON,

a third brother, came to St. Louis, some little time
a:^ter the two first. He was for a time a Deputy
Sheriff.



WILLIAM SMITH, 8K., MERCHANT,

was born in Culpepper County, Virginia, in 1772,
moved young to Lexington, Ky., and was there
married to Eliza Brady.

He came to St. Louis with his family in the year
1810. Having ample means he purchased from B.



WILLIAM SMITH, MERCHANT. 247

Pratte, Sr., a lot on the east side of Main Street,
just north of Market, upon which in 1812 he erected
the second brick house built in the Town, for his
store and residence, which he occupied until his
death in 1817.

During the few years between his arrival in the
place and death, being a business man of means and
an active politician, he acquired prominence and
influence in our then little town, was a director in
our first bank of St. Louis, &c.

* He died Sunday, Sept. 28, 1817, at the age of
45 years, leaving his widow, four sons and one
daughter, viz. :

John B. Smith, who was afterwards twice mar-
ried.

William, who married the daughter of Wm.
Stokes.

Henry, who died unmarried.

Dalzell, who also married subsequently, and

Juliana, who died a young lady, in 1822.

The widow of Wm. Smith was married on Dec.
29, 1827, to Lewis Edward Hempstead, a grandson
of Capt. Stephen Hempstead, Sen'r. She died
Oct. 24, 1832.



* The day following the death of Charles Lucas, in his duel with Col.
Thos. H. Benton, a collection of idlers were assembled in front of
Washington Hall, southeast corner of Main and Pine Streets, discussing
the unfortunate affair of the preceding day, when an altercation arose be-
tween Smith and a William Tharp, who received a blow from Smith,
whereupon Tharp drew his pistol and shot Smith dead.



248 BIOGRAPHICAL.



\



JOHN B. SMITH, MERCHANT,

the eldest son of the above, was born in Lexington,
Ky., in January, 1800. On coining of age in 1821,
he formed a connection with Alexander Ferguson,
under the style of " Smith & Ferguson, Dry-goods
Merchants," at IS'o. 7 North Main, which continued
for several years, and on the younger brothers be-
coming of age was subsequently changed to

" SMITH BROTHERS,"

Ferguson retiring. The firm continued for a num-
ber of years. At the organization of the State
Bank of Missouri, in 1837, John B. Smith was
elected its first President, holding the office for —
consecutive years. In 1852-54 he was appointed
State and County Collector, and subsequently
United States Surveyor for the port of St. Louis.

Jno. B. Smith was twice married.

1st. In New York, in 1821, to Miss Louisa,
youngest daughter of Capt. Alexander McDougall,
formerly of the British Navy, and his wife. Miss
Ellsworth, of New York. Their children were :

Ellsworth F., born in 1825, married to Miss Belle
Chenie in 1861, with 5 children.

Charles Bland, born in 1830, married to Miss
Emilie Demun, 1860.

Julia Penelope, born in — , married to Jno. H.
Wilson, 1845, and died in 1861.

Jno. B. Smith's first wife died Feb. 18, 1832,



CAPT. JOSEPH CROSS. 249'

and iu 183(3 he married Mrs. Penelope Hepburn,
her sister.

John Brady Smith died in March, 1865, at the
age of 65 years.



was born in the year 1776, and was appointed
from Massachusetts an Ensign in the Battalion
of Artillery in 1797.

Promoted Feb. 16, 1801, a first Lieutenant.

Promoted 'Noy. 7, 1808, a Captain, and left
the service in 1818, at St. Louis.

During his service of sixteen years, he was
the most of his time on duty in the west.

In 1805 he was stationed at Michilimacinac,
iu 1807-8 at Niagara and Fort Pitt, in 1810
brought troops to St. Louis for Bellefontaine,
in the fall descended the Mississippi with a de-
tachment for Natchez and Fort Adams, went
around by sea to the east. In 1811 came again
to St. Louis with a detachment of troops for
Bellefontaine, and two years later his military
career was brought to a close.

Capt. Cross was an educated, well read man,
poetically inclined, as is shown by several of
his published effusions in prose and verse. Of
a convivial disposition, a jovial good fellow, fond
of the pleasures of the table, he gradually ac-
quired a taste for drink, not uncommon with
gentlemen of the Army, which resulted in his



250 BIOGRAPHICAL.

being compelled to leave the service May 20,
1813. Shortly afterwards he left the country for
Arkansas and Texas.

In the fall of 1807 Capt. Cross was married
at IS'iagara Falls to Miss Anna M. Lowe, born
in Northumberland County, Penn'a. Their chil-
dren were :

Catherine Anne, born at Fort Pitt in 1808,
married to Col. Rob't P. Farris, of St. Louis,
in 1824, and ' died in 1829, aged 21 years, and
Horatio JN'elson, born in 1811.

In 1817, Mrs. Cross, having obtained a legal
separation from her first husband, w^as married
at . Potosi, Washington County, to Capt. Samuel
Perry, merchant of that place.

HORATIO NELSON CROSS,

married Feb'y 19, 1833, Margaret Emily Austin.
After the death of H. N. Cross his widow was
married to Chas. D. Drake, March 9, 1842, now
living in Washington City.

I

CAPT. HANNIBAL MONTE80UE ALLEN

was born in Vermont, and appointed from that '
State, on June 27, 1804, a second Lieut, in the
Artillery Regiment.

Jan'y 31, 1806, a first Lieut, in the same.

Jan'y 29, 1811, a Captain in the same.

He died May 11, 1813, at Norfolk, Virginia.

Capt. Allen was married at Niagara Falls, in
the fall of 1807, to Miss Catherine Lowe, a
sister of Mrs. Capt. Joseph Cross.



HEMPSTEAD FAMILY. 251



CAPT. STEPHEN HEMPSTEAD, SR.,

was born in New London, Connecticut, May 6,
1754, and married Mary Lewis, born Feb'y 24,
1757 in that place, where they continued to reside
for many years after their marriage and where tlieir
numerous family of sons and daughters were all
born. In the year 1811 Capt. Hempstead, then in
his fifty-seventh year, with the largest portion of his
family came to St. Louis where they arrived on
June 12, 1811.

Two of his sons had preceded him to St. Louis,
Edward and Stephen, Jr., and three sons and three
daughters came with him, with some of his grand-
children, while others of his children remained and
ended their days in Connecticut.

The sons who came with him were Thomas,
Charles S. and William young men and boys, and
long afterwards an older one, Joseph.

The daughters were Mary, the widow of Keeney,
with a son a lad, and a daughter of Keeney by a
former wife.

Sarah, wife of Elijah Beebe, with her husband
and children.

Miss Susan, unmarried.

There was also in his party, an Ehsha Beebe, a
brother of his son-in-law Elijah, also with a young
family. So that the Captain's colony numbered
twenty souls, and was an event in our early history
long remembered and talked of.



252 BIOGRAPHICAL.

Mrs. Stephen Hempstead, Sr., died in St. Louis,


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Online LibraryFrederic Louis BillonAnnals of St. Louis in its territorial days, from 1804 to 1821; being a continuation of the author's previous work, the Annals of the French and Spanish period → online text (page 12 of 24)