Frederic Louis Billon.

Annals of St. Louis in its territorial days, from 1804 to 1821; being a continuation of the author's previous work, the Annals of the French and Spanish period online

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Online LibraryFrederic Louis BillonAnnals of St. Louis in its territorial days, from 1804 to 1821; being a continuation of the author's previous work, the Annals of the French and Spanish period → online text (page 19 of 24)
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between Spain and the tribes and nations of
Indians, until by mutual consent of the United
States and the said tribes or nations, other suitable
articles shall have been agreed upon.

Article T. As it is reciprocally advantageous to
the commerce of France and the United States to
encourage the communication of both nations for
a limited time in the country ceded by the present
treaty, until general arrangements relative to the
commerce of both nations may be agreed on, it has
been agreed between the contracting parties, that
the French ships coming directly from France, or
any of her colonies, loaded only with the produce
or manufactures of France or her said colonies, and
the ships of Spain, coming directly from Spain or
any of her colonies, loaded only with the produce
or manufactures of Spain or her colonies, shall be
admitted during the space of twelve years to the
ports of New Orleans, and in all other legal ports
of entry within the ceded territory, in the same
manner as the ships of the United States, coming
directly from France or Spain, or any of their colo-



nies, without being subject to any other, or greater
duty on merchandise, or other or greater tonnage
than those paid by the citizens of the United

During the space of time above mentioned, no
otlaer nation shall have a right to the same privi-
leges in the ports of the ceded territory ; the twelve
years shall commence three months after the ex-
change of ratifications, if it shall take place in
France, or three months after it shall have been
notified at Paris to the French government, if it
shall take place in the United States ; it is, however,
well understood, that the object of the above article
is to favor the manufactures, commerce, freight and
navigation of France and of Spain, so far as relates,
to the importations that the French and Spanish
shall make into the said ports of the United States,
without in any sort affecting the regulations that the
United States may make concerning the exportation
of the produce and merchandise cf the United States,
or any right they may have to make such regula-

Article 8. In future and forever after the expira-
tion of the twelve years, the ships of France shall be
treated upon the footing of the most favored nations
in the ports above mentioned.

Article 9. The particular convention signed this
day by the respective ministers, having for its object
to provide for the payment of debts due to the
citizens of the United States by the French Republic,
prior to the 30th Sept., 1800 (8th Yendemiaire year
9) is approved, and to have its execution in the same


manner as if it had been inserted in the present
treaty, and it shall be ratified in the same form
and in the same time, so that the one shall not be
ratified, distinct from the other. Another particular
convention, signed at the same date as the present
treaty, relative to a definitive rule between the con-
tracting parties, is in the like manner approved, and
will be ratified in the same form, and in the same
time and jointly.

Article 10. The present treaty shall be ratified in
good and due form, and the ratifications shall be
exchanged in the space of six months after the date
of the signature by the minister plenipotentiary, or
sooner if possible.

In faith whereof, the respective plenipotentiaries
have signed these articles in the French and English
languages, declaring nevertheless, that the present
treaty was originally agreed to in the French lan-
guage, and have thereunto put their seals.

Done at Paris, the tenth day of Floreal, in the
eleventh year of the French Kepubfic, the 30th
April, 1803.

Robert R. Livingston.
James Monroe.
Bakbe Maebois.



was born in Prussia, August 14, 1757, and at the
breaking out of the American Revolution in 1775,
he joined the American Array from New York as a
commissioned officer in the State troops, and' served
throughout the war, participating in a number of

At the close of the war, and the disbandment of
the Continental Army, he was one of the few who
were retained in the Federal service with the rank of
Lieutenant from 1777.

By Act of Congress, June 3, 1784, the First Regi-
ment of U. S. Infantry was organized, to which he
was appointed with the rank of Captain, April 12,
1785, promoted to Major, Oct. 20, 1786. Lieut.
Colonel, Feb'y 18, 1793, and full Colonel, April 1,

He died at his Head Quarters at Detroit, Michi-
gan, April 11, 1803, in his 46th year, leaving a son
and three daughters, all young, but who reached
maturity and all married, viz. :

John F. Hamtramck, Jr., born in Indiana, entered
West Point in 1815, graduated in 1819, commis-
sioned 2nd Lieut. Artillery, July 1, 1819, resigned
March 1, 1822. He was twice married and lived in
St. Louis some years, commanded a Regiment from
Virginia in the Mexican War.

Julianne, married to Doct. Harvey Lane, of Ste.
Grenevieve .

Harriet, to Capt. Joseph Cross, formerly U. S.
Army at Kaskaskia.


Eebecca, to Capt. Thomas J. Harrison, 3rd Eegi-
ment, at Jefferson Barracks, April 26, 1827.

Col. Hamtramck's widow became the wife of
Judge Jesse B. Thomas in 1805. Gen'l Wm. H.
Harrison was the guardian of Col. Hamtramck's
children, all minors.

A son of Doct. Harvey Lane, John F. Ham-
tramck Lane, born in Ste. Grenevieve in 1812, died
there July 16, 1826, aged 14 years. Doct. H. Lane
had died there a year previously in 1825.

A daughter, Harriet, is the wife of Henry Gr.
Soulard, of St. Louis.

Another was the wife of Julius Chenie, of St.
Louis, both now deceased.

Col. Hamtramck was attached to the 1st U. S.
Reg't from its commencement in 1784, he was with
G-en'l Harmer in 1790, St. Clair in 1791, Wilkin-
son 1792, finally at Vincennes and Detroit.

Col. H. being in Pittsburgh on business in March,
1801, invited the officers of his Regiment then sta-
tioned at that post to dine with him on March 4th,
Pres't Jefferson's inauguration day. At 4 p. m.,
they assembled at the garrison, and duly celebrated,
the day in an appropriate manner, Capt. Read of
the Artillery fired the salute, and Major Craig,
Quarter Master, prepared the fire works.
. Inscription on his monument at Detroit :

" Sacred to the memory of John F. Hamtramck,
" first United States Regiment of Infantry, and
" commander of Detroit and its dependancies, he
" departed this life on 11th April, 1803, aged 45
"years, 7 months, 28 days.


" True patriotism and a zealous attachment to lib-
" erty, joined to a laudable ambition, led him to
" military service at an early period of his life, and
" an active participator in all the dangers, diffieul-
"ties and risks of the Revolutionary war, and his
" heroism and uniform good conduct procured him
"the attention and thanks of his friends and the
" immortal Washington.

" The United States in him have lost a valuable
" officer, a good citizen and member of society, his
" loss to his country is incalculable, and his friends
" will never forget the memory of Hamtramck.

" This humble anonument is placed over his
"remains by the officers who had the honor to
" serve under his command, as a small but grateful
"tribute to merit and worth."


was born Aug't 18, 1774, near Charlottesville, Al-
bemarle County, Virginia. His grand-uncle, John
Lewis, had been a member, of the King's Council
before the Revolution. Another of his grand-uncles,
Fielding Lewis, was a brother-in-law of Greorge
"Washington, having married a sister of "Wash-

In 1794, at the age of 20 years, he joined the
volunteers called out by Washington to suppress
the Whiskey Insurrection in the western part of
Pennsylvania • from this he was appointed by Wash-
ington a Lieiit. in the Regular Service of the


United States, and in 1797, at the age of 23 years,
was promoted to a Captaincy.

At the first inauguration of President Jefferson,
in 1801, he appointed Capt. Lewis his private Sec-
retary, which position he filled for two years until
1803. In this year after the promulgation of the
treaty of cession, Congress made an appropriation
"to explore the Missouri- River, cross the Stoney
" Mountains, and descend some river to the Pacific

President Jefferson, knowing well the man from
his infancy, at once selected him to the command of
the expedition, and as, in the event of an accident,
it was necessary that some one should be associated
with him in this then very hazardous expedition,
Mr. William Clark, a younger brother of Col.
George Eogers Clark of Revolutionary history, was
appointed, and received the commission of Cap-

(Hence called "expedition of Capts. Lewis &

Jefferson's instructions to Capt. Lewis are dated
"Washington, July 4, 1803." Thus instructed
Capt. Lewis left Washington on the next day, July
5, 1803, then 29 years of age, and proceeded to
Pittsburgh to fit out the expedition. The time
necessary for this purpose, the low stage of water in
the Ohio, and other causes, so retarded the move-
ment of the expedition, that on its arrival at Caho-
kia, opposite St. Louis, the season was too far-
advanced to ascend the Missouri River this season.

(It was during this winter of 1803-4, that, while


waiting here for the spring to prosecute his voyage,
Capt. Lewis Avas present at the transfer of the
country to the United States on the 9th of March,
1804, and that his name is affixed, as one of the wit-
nesses, to the official document executed by Delas-
sus and Stoddard to that effect.)

Capt. Lewis' party consisted originally of 28 per-
sons, viz. :

Nine young men from Kentucky, 14 U. S. sol-
diers, 2 Canadian boatmen, Capts. Lewis and Clark,
and a negro servant of Capt. Clark. When leaving
here in the spring, Capt. Lewis added to his party
1 Indian Interpreter^ 1 Hunter and ]5 boat hands,
the party then numbering 45 in all.

The expedition left Wood river, opposite the
mouth of the Missouri, where the boats had win-
tered, on the opening of navigation in the spring of
1804, and reached the Mandan Villages in latitude
47 degrees 21 minutes, where they spent the first
winter in a rude Fort erected for their shelter and

In the spring of 1805 Capt. Lewis dispatched a
pirogue with 13 of his boat hands to St. Louis with
dispatches, &c., for the government, and having
lost one man, his party now numbered 31 men.

On the 7th of April he resumed his movement
ascending the Missouri River, and reached the falls
of the same about the middle of June. About the
last of July, they reached the three forks which
they named Jefferson, Madison and Gallatin, as-
cended the Jefferson fork, the northern and largest.


to its soui'ce, procured horses and a guide from the
Shoshonee Indians in August, passed through the
Mountains, reaching the western slope Sept. 22nd —
built canoes and embarked in them on the Koos-
koosky, a branch of the Columbia, on October 7th,
and reached the Pacific Ocean JSToy'r 15th. Here
they also erected a fort, and passed the second
winter, on the South bank of the Columbia River.
On the 23rd of March, 1806, they recommenced
the ascent of the river on their return home, left
their canoes on May 2nd, crossed the mountains as
in going on horseback, reached the Missouri river
August 12th, and St. Louis Sept. 23rd.

Absent on the expedition 2 years, 4 months and
10 days.

After spending some little time iu St. Louis,

Capts. Lewis & Clark proceeded to Washington,

where they arrived in Feb'y, 1807. ' Congress

passed an act granting each of them and their

companions a donation of lands. Shortly after this

Capt. Lewis was appointed Governor of Upper

Louisiana, and Capt. Clark, General of the militia.

When Governor Lewis returned to St. Louis^

' he found the Territory distracted by feuds and

' quarrels among the ofiicials, and the people

'greatly discontented." Mr. Jefferson in his

sketch of Gov. Lewis, says, "he took no sides

'with either party, but administering even-handed

' justice to all, soon established a respect for his

' person and authority, and time wore down ani-

' mosities, and reunited the citizens again into one

' family."


In the autumn of 1809, his affairs requiring his
presence in Washington, he left St. Louis in Sep-
tember to proceed down the river to 'New Orleans
and there take a coasting vessel around — ^from his
youth he had been subject to occasional fits of low
spirits and despondency, and on his arrival at the
Chickasaw Bluffs (now Memphis) somewhat indis-
posed, he changed his mind and concluded to go
through by land. Mr. JS^eeley, U. S. agent for the
Chickasaw Indians, who was to accompany him,
perceived in him occasional symptoms of derange-
ment of mind.

After passing the Tennessee river about a day's
journey, they stopped for the night of October 10th
at the house of a Mr. Griner. At about 3 o'clock
in the morning of the 11th, Mrs. Griner was awak-
ened by the report of a pistol from the room occu-
pied by Gov. Lewis, followed in a little while by a
second. On entering the room the Governor was
found dead in his bed, with a bullet hole under his
chin up to and through his skull.

The place where this occurred is near Gordon,
the county seat of Lewis County (named by the
Legislature in honor of Governor Lewis) in Middle
Tennessee. .He was only 35 years of age (near
this spot the Legislature of Tennessee erected in
the year 1848, a gray stone monument of native
rock, about 25 feet high, inclosed with an iron rail-
ing, with suitable inscriptions on the four sides) .

Before leaving St. Louis on this his last journey,
Governor Lewis, on the 19th day of August, 1809,


appointed his " three most intimate friends, William
"Clark, Alexander Stuart, and Wm. C. Carr, his
"lawful attorneys, with full authority to dispose of -4-
"all or any part of his property real and personal,
" and to pay, or receive, all debts due by or to him
"&c.," executed in presence of Jeremiah Connor
and Sam'l Solomon as witnesses.

From the fact of his naming three attorneys
clothed with such full powers as are usually exer-
cised by Executors only, it would seem to indicate
that he might have had some foi-eboding that he
might never return to St. Louis, even if he then
entertained no idea of self destruction.

Edward Hempstead was appointed administrator
of his estate by the General Court of the Territory
of Louisiana in 1810. Lewis had purchased several
pieces of land in the vicinity of the village, among
them a 3 V2 arpent piece from John Mullanphy,
adjoining Roys Mill tract, just above the north end
of the then village. The Belcher Sugar refinery
is on part of it, and Lewis Street, named after
him, is also on it.

In concluding this brief sketch of M. Lewis, I
deem it the proper place to say a few words of his
associate in the expedition, and intimate friend.


was born in Caroline County, Yirginia, Aug't 1,
1770, and was a younger brother of Col. Geo.
Rogers Clark of Revolutionary fame. In 1784 his


father moved to Kentucky, and settled at the Falls
of the Ohio, now Louisville.

In 1788 he was appointed an Ensign. In March,
1792, prornqted to a Lieutenancy, and appointed
Adjutant and Quarter-Master. These positions he
resigned in July, 1796, owing to ill-health. In 1803
he was appointed a Lieutenant of Artillery with
orders to join Capt. Lewis in his expedition to the
Pacific Ocean. In 1806 he was promoted to first
Lieutenant of Artillery. President Jefferson ap-
pointed him a Lieut. Colonel, but the appointment
not being confirmed he resigned from the regular
service in 1807, and was appointed Brigadier Gen-
eral of the militia of the Territoiy of Upper

In 1813 he was appointed by President Madi-
son, Governor of Missouri Territory, succeeding
Governor Benj. Howard, which position he filled to
the satisfaction of all parties, iintil the admission of
Missouri into the Union.

The ofiice of Superintendent of Indian Affairs
having been established by Act of Congress, he
was appointed to the position by President Monroe
in May, 1822, which oflace he held for 16 years until
his death on Sept. 1, 1838, at the age of 68 years
and one month.

As some thing co-incident in the lives of these
two men, they were both from the same State,
Virginia, both associated in the conduct of the
expedition to the Pacific, and both became gov-
ernors of the Territory, and so close the intimacy

GEN. Z. M. PIKE. 381

between them, that Clark on the birth of his first
son, named him after his old associate Meriwether

Gen'l Clark was twice married, his four sons
by his first wife are all deceased. His only pne
by his second, Jefferson K. Clark, being the sole


was born at Lamberton, ISTew Jersey, Jan'y 5, 1779.
Son of Major Zebulon Pike of the Revolutionary
Army, who moved over to Bucks Co., Penn'a.

March 3, 1799. Appointed Ensign in the 2nd
Regiment of Infantry.

April 24, 1800. 1st Lieut, same Regiment,
1802, transferred to 1st Regiment.

1806. Captain same Regiment.

1809. Major same Regiment.

1810. Lieut. Col. 4th Regiment.

4th July, 1812. Colonel 15th Regiment.

Feb'y, 1813. Brigadier General.

Married in 1801 at 22 years to Clarissa Brown of
Kentucky. Killed at York (Toronto), Upper
Canada, April 27, 1813. Aged 34 years.

About the time of the transfer in 1803-4 Lieut.
Pike was in command for a time at Kaskaskia,
the first Military Post established by the U. S. on
the Mississippi River after the treaty with Spain
in 1795.


Exploration to the Sources of the Mississippi River,
1805 and 1806, appointed by Gen'l James Wilkinson,
*U. S. Army, to the command of the party.
Lieut. Z. M. Pike.
Interpreter, Pierre Eosseau.
Sergeant, Henry Hennerman.
Corporals, Wm. E. Meek; Samuel Bradley.


Jeremiah Jackson. John Brown.

John Boley. Jacob Carter.

Thomas Douglass. William Gordon.

Solomon Huddleston. John Mountjoy.

Theodore Miller. Hugh Menaugh.

Alexander Roy. John Sparks.

Patrick Smith. Freegift Stout.

Peter Bran den. David O wings.
David Whelpley. 22 in all.

This party left St. Louis, Friday, Aug't 9, 1805,
in a keel boat, on Sat., Feb. 1, 1806, arrived at
Leech Lake, extremity of navigation, in 47° 16' 18",
north latitude, and returned to St. Louis, all well,
April 30, 1806. Absent 8 months 22 days.


Capt. Z. M. Pike.

Zdeut. James B. Wilkinson.

Doct. John H. Robinson.

Sergeants Joseph Ballenger, William E. Meek.

Corporal Jeremiah Jackson.

GEN. M. PIKE. 383


John Boley. Theodore Miller.

Henry Kennerman, Hugh Menaugh.

Samuel Bradley. John Mountjoy.

John Brown. Alexander Roy.

Jacob Carter. John Sparks.

Thomas Douglass. Patrick Smith.

William Gordon. Preegift Stout.

Solomon Huddleston. John Wilson. 23 in all.

Interpreter, Baronet Vasquez.

The party left St. Louis July 15, 1806. As-
cended the Missouri and Platte rivers, crossed the
mountains, and on Oct. 27, reached the Arkansas,
which they at first supposed was the Red River.
Here Capt. Pike divided his party.

Lieut. Wilkinson with Sergeant Ballenger, and
privates Boley, Bradley, Wilson and Huddleston,
and Interpreter Baronet Vasquez, seven in all de-
scended the River in canoes to ]S^ew-Orleans, which
they reaqhed in February, 1807. While Pike and
Doct. Robinson with the balance sixteen in all,
ascended the River, traversed the mountains into
Mexico and Louisiana, and reached ]N^atchitoches on
Red River, July 1, 1807, absent a year.

Zeb. M. Pike, Major.




City oe "Washington, Feby. 11, 1807.

Sir: This will be handed you by a particvilar
friend and acquaintance of mine Mr. Fleming Bates,
late Judge of the Michigan Territory and receiver
of public monies at Detroit.

Mr. Bates has been recently appointed the Sec-
retary of the Territory of Louisiana, and recorder
of the Board of Commissioners for adjusting the
land claims in that territory and is about to estab-
lish himself at St. Louis, in order to take on him
the discharge of the duties incumbent to those

The situation of Mr. Bates as a public officer
sufficiently shows the estimation in which he is, in
my opinion, deservedly held by the Executive of
the United States, and consequently renders any
further observations in relation to his talents or
integrity unnecessary on my part. You will confer
an obligation on me by making Mr. Bates ac-
quainted with the respectable inhabitants of St.
Louis and its vicinity, or by rendering him any serv-
ice which it may be in your power to give him.

The papers you confided to my c^re have been
laid before the Executive, but as yet I have received


TIC answer on the subject ; nor do I believe that any
definite answer will be given, or measures taken in
relation to the land claims of Louisiana, until after
the passage of a law on that subject which is now
under the consideration of Congress.

I shall probably come on to St. Louis in the
course of the next fall, for the purpose of residing
among you ; in such an event I should wish timely
to procure a house by rent or otherwise for my ac-
commodation, and I have fixed my eye on that of
Mr. Gratiot, provided we can come on terms which
may be mutually agreeable. I would prefer renting
or leasing to purchase ; in either case the enclosure
of the garden must be rendered secure, and the steps
and floor of the piazza repaired by the 1st of Oc-
tober next. I would thank you to request Mr.
Gratiot to write me on this subject, and to state
his terms distinctly as to price, payment, etc., in
order that I may know whether my resources will
enable me to meet these or not, or whether it will
become necessary that I should make some other
provision for my accommodation.

My respectful compliments to your lady, Mad'e
P. Chouteau, and my friends of St. Louis and its
vicinity, and believe me

Your sincere friend and

Obed't servant,

Meriwether Lewis.

Mon'r Aug't Chouteau.



St. Louis, May 27, 1807.

Sir: I had this afternoon the honor of receiv-
ing- your polite intimation with respect to a Parade
of Volunteers. It is believed to be an affair, over
which the Executive ought to have no controul.

I should be gratified by your making on this, and
all similar occasions, such dispositions and arrange-
ments, as will be satisfactory to yourself and to the

I am Sir, very respectfully

Your most Obed't Servant,

Fl. Bates.
Col. Aug't Chouteau.

Col. Chouteau.

Sir: I received last afternoon your friendly and
hospitable Billet — and • intended , to have had the
honor of accepting the invitation which it con-
tained, but the press of business which I ought
not for a moment to postpone, will I hope be a
sufficient apology for my not waiting on you.
I am Sir,

Most respectfully,

Your Obed't Sei'vant,

Fl. Bates.*
July 8, 1807.

* Fleming Bates died Dec. 29, 1830, in liis 53d year, at Northumber-
land, Virginia.

official corkespondence. 387

Seorbtaby's Office,

St. Louis, Aug. 1, 1809.
'Sir: I have the honor to send herewith three
pamphlets of the acts of the Congress of the United
States, also, a volume of the Laws of this territory,
comprising the whole, at this time, in force, passed
subsequently to the cession.

I have the honor to be

Very respectfully.
Your most Obed't Servant,
Feedeeick Bates.
Hon'ble Aug't Chouteau,
Judge of the Court of
Common Pleas, &c., &c.

St. Louis, Sept. 6, 1809.
Sir: I have th^ honor to enclose you the bond
of Francis Deroin, deposited this morning in my
office, also a new License and Bond, which you will
have the goodness to be executed at your leisure.
I have the honor to be.

Very respectfully. Sir,

Your Obed't Servant,

Feedekiok Bates.
Hon. Augte. Chouteau.

St. Louis, 11th Sept., 1809.
Sir: I had the honor to receive this moment
your nomination of sundry persons to fill the vacan-


cies occasioned by the resignation of Major San-
guinet. I expect the printer will supply me, in a
few days, with blanks, when these appointments
will be made immediately.

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Online LibraryFrederic Louis BillonAnnals of St. Louis in its territorial days, from 1804 to 1821; being a continuation of the author's previous work, the Annals of the French and Spanish period → online text (page 19 of 24)