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Frederick E Shearer.

The Pacific tourist : J.R. Bowman's illustrated trans-continental guide of travel, from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean ... : acomplete traveler's guide of the Union and Central Pacific Railroads ... online

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Online LibraryFrederick E ShearerThe Pacific tourist : J.R. Bowman's illustrated trans-continental guide of travel, from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean ... : acomplete traveler's guide of the Union and Central Pacific Railroads ... → online text (page 13 of 61)
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also the line of the telegraph to the Black
Hills, which connects Deadwood and Cheyenne.
The time occupied in stage travel to the prin-
cipal places of
the Black Hills
is from forty-
eight to sixty
hours.

Sidney has
also become a
large outfitting
point, and there
is now invested
nearly $100,-
000 capital in
transportation,
equipments for
passengers and
freight to the
Black Hills
mines.

Stages leave
Sidney every
morning at 9
o'clock, and
make the dis-
tance in the fol-
lowing time:
RedCloud
Agency in
twenty hours;
Buffalo Gap
(the point of
intersection
with stage for
Custer, thirty
miles West) in
thirty hours,
and reaches the
entire distance to Deadwood in forty-eight to
sixty hours.

By the Sidney route the distances are as fol-
lows:

To Red Cloud Agency, 109 miles; Buffalo
Gap, 171 miles; French Creek, 184 miles; Bat-
tle Creek, 196 miles; Rapid River, 214 miles;
Spring Valley, 228 miles; Crook City, 253 miles;
Deadwood, 265 miles. The distance by the
Sidney route is considerably less than by any
other.

Result of the Opening of tlie Black
Hills. During the season of 1880, the yield



.*



70



of the gold mines -was ovei $3,000,000. Dead-
wood bankers are said to have bought above
$900,000 worth of goM dust, and various
amounts have been forwarded in other ways,
besides what has been kept in the Hills. This
result has been entirely from placer mining.
One mining party known as the Wheeler party
realized nearly $500,000 in. one season. Extra-
ordinary success attended their work; $2,600
was cleared in only forty-two hours' work,
and in general, on Deadwood Creek, the aver-
age to the miners on each claim was $300 to
$700 per day. Nearly all the yield of the Black
Hills in 1876 was gleaned in the vicinity of
Deadwood and Whitewood gulches.

Quartz mining has been attempted. First
assays were but $38 per ton, and the average
of the ores thus far experimented upon vary
from $10 to $50 per ton. During the past year
several gigantic stamping mills have been
erected.

Miners with mortar and pestle have taken
ore from some of these quartz lodes, and real-
ized as high as $15 per day. The width of the
mineral belt is now definitely ascertained to be
but ten to fifteen miles, but it stretches 100
miles long. The agricultural value of the Hills
is beyond all words of expression. The val-
leys have been found to be surpassingly fertile,
the rain-fall regular and constant, and were
any one dissatisfied with mining, still there is
room for thousands of farms and peaceful
homes.

A man prospecting on Iron Creek took out
$23.67 from one pan of dirt. Mr. Allen, the re-
corder of mining claims, took from his claim
four pounds of coarse gold in one month.

Professor Jenny, in July, 1875, writing to
the Department of the Interior at Washington,
announces the discovery of gold in paying
quantities near Harney's Peak. "The gold is
found in quartz ledges of enormous dimen-
sions. Whether the mines be valuable or not,
there is a vastness of future wealth in the grass
lands, farms and timber. The soil is deep and
fertile; the rain -fall more abundant than at any
other point west of the Alleghanies. " In the
summer of 1875, an expedition headed by
General Custer visited this region. He de-
scribes finding an abundance of wild fruits,
strawberries, raspberries, gooseberries, in won-
derful profusion; and frequently the wild
berry was larger and of a more delicious flavor
than the domestic species in the Eastern
States.

During one week eight hundred miners
passed through Hill City, en route for the
mines of Whitewood and Deadwood. In most
of the creeks the bed-rock lies fifteen to twen-
ty and forty feet below the surface. On the
first of March, 1877, there were estimated to
be over twenty thousand people in the Black



Hills, and rapidly accumulating at the rate of
one thousand per month, but since the rich
Colorado discoveries at Leadville, the excite-
ment has decreased.

A Terrible Thunder Storm. The Black
Hills of Dakota are the fear of Indians,
because of the frequent thunder storms.
Colonel B. I. Dodge, United States Com-
mander of the Black Hills Expedition, 1874,
states that in this region "thunder storms are
quite frequent, terrific in force and power,
and fearful in the vividness and nearness of
the lightning. There is scarcely a day in sum-
mer that there is not a thunder-storm in some
part of the hills.

" One afternoon, from the top of one of the
high mountains, near Hamey's Peak, I saw
five separate and distinct storms, occurring at
the same instant in different parts of the
hills. One of these struck our party with fatal
results.

"A heavy rain-storm coming on, two sol-
diers anl the boy took refuge under a tall
pine. All three were seated on a rock about
six feet from the trunk of the tree, and each
held in his hand the reins of his horse's bridle.
At the flash, the three persons and horses
were thrown to the ground, one of the soldiers
being pitched quite a distance, alighting on
his head. The surgeon was promptly on
hand. Each person had been struck on the
cheek bone, just under the eye. The fluid
passed down the person of each, going out
at the ball of the foot, boring a hole in the
shoe sole as clean and round as if made
by a bullet, and raising a large blood blis-
ter on the bottom of the foot. Neither had
any other mark whatever. Skipping from
the men to the horses, the flash prostrated
all, striking each just over the eye. Two
soon recovered their feet, and the third was
killed.

"During this storm, which lasted scarce
half an hour, more than twenty trees were
struck by lightning within a radius of a few
hundred yards.

"At another time I witnessed another
curious and unaccountable phenomenon. I
was on a high mountain of the Harney
group. Within four miles of me, in differ-
ent directions, were three thunder storms,
their clouds being probably five hundred
or one thousand feet below me. Though I
could see the vivid and incessant flashes
of lightning, not a sound of the thunder
could be heard. Throughout the Hills the
number of the trees which bear the mark
of the thunder-bolt is very remarkable, and
the strongest proof of the violence and fre-
quent recurrence of these storms. The elec-
tric current acts in the most eccentric way. In
some cases it will have struck the very top of a



71



lofty pine, and passed down, cutting a straight
and narrow groove in the bark, without any ap-
parent ill effect on the tree, which remains green
and flourishing ; at other times the tree will be
riven into a thousand pieces, as if with the blows
of a giant axe, and the fragments scattered a
hundred feet around."

Rainbows. " The rainbow of the Black
Hills is a marvel of perfection and beauty. Two
or three times wider than the rainbow of the
States, it forms a complete and perfect arch, both
ends being, sometimes, visible to the beholder,
and one so near and distinct that there would be
little difficulty in locating the traditional 'pot of
gold.' Very frequently the rainbow is doubled,
and several times I saw three distinct arches, the
third and higher being, however, a comparatively
faint reflex of the brilliant colors of the lower."



867 feet at base, 297 feet at top. It rises 1,127
feet above its base, and 5,100 feet above tide-
water. Its summit is inaccessible to anything
without wings. The sides are fluted and scored
by the action of the elements, and immense
blocks of granite, split oft from the column by
frost, are piled in huge, irregular mounds about
its base. The Indians call this shaft " The Bad
God's Tower."

Game. The Hills are full of deer, elk, bears,
wolves, cougars, grouse, and ducks. The streams
have an abundance of fish, although of but few
sorts.

After careful investigation General Dodge
closes with this expression of careful judgment :

Opinion of General Dodge. " 1 but ex-
press my fair and candid opinion when I pro-
nounce the Black Hills, in many respects, the




DEVIL'S TOWEK BLACK HILLS.



Mountains. Harney's Peak is 7,440 feet
above tide-water, the other peaks are



Crook's Monument,
Dodge's Peak,
Terry's Peak,
"Warren's Peak,
Ouster's Peak,
Crow Peak,
Bare Peak,
Devil's Tower,



7,600 feet elevation.
7,300 feet elevation.
7,200 feet elevation.
6,900 feet elevation.
6,750 feet elevation.
6,200 feet elevation.
5,200 feet elevation.
5,100 feet elevation.



The Devil's Tower is one of the most remark-
able peaks of the world. General Dodge de-
scribes it thus : " An immense obelisk of granite,



finest country I have ever seen. The beauty and
variety of the scenery, the excellence of the soil,
the magnificence of the climate, the abundance
of timber and building stone make it a most de-
sirable residence for men who want good homes.

" As a grazing country it can not be surpassed,
and small stock farms of fine cattle and sheep
can not fail of success.

" Gold there is every-where in the granite gold
enough to make many fortunes, and tempt to
the loss of many more.



72




WILLIAMS' CANON, COLORADO SPRINGS.



BY THOMAS MOHAN.



73



" Here is a country destined, in a few years, to
be an important and wealthy portion of the
great American Republic."

There is little doubt that in a few years this
section, from the Black Hills of Dakota to and
across the Big Horn region, and all northern
Wyoming, will be a rich field of industry, as
have been Colorado and Utah. The illustrations
we give are from photographs taken by General
Custer in his famous Black Hills Exploring
Expedition of 1875, and represent this country
to be of great scenic beauty.

COLORADO.

Pleasure Resorts. Colorado is an empire
of itself in enterprise, scenic beauty and abund-
ance of pleasure resorts. In 1870, few or none
of these were known, and towns were small in
number and population. Since that time, it has
become a center of great railroad activity, has
grown in wonderful favor as an attractive region
for summer travel ; and as a country for health-
giving and life-giving strength, it" has drawn
thither thousands who have made it their perma-
nent, home.

Tlie Colorado Division, Union Pacific
Raihvay. Tourists to Colorado will find a
journey over this railroad line, opened in 1877,
of special interest and attractiveness. Horton
Reclining Chair Cars run direct over this line
from Cheyenne to Denver, simply changing
trains at Cheyenne, and all trains make connec-
tions from Denver for Union Pacific trains
East. The route for the first fifty or more miles
south passes at the base of the Rocky Moun-
tains, in grand view of their sublime snow-
capped summits. The equal of this ride is not
found in any railroad in the Far West. At Fort
Collins the railroad crosses the famous Cache ii
Poudre Valley, one of the finest and most lovely
regions of agricultural wealth in the State; and
up -which the Greeley, Utah and Pacific Rail-
road is now being constructed into the rich
silver districts of North Park. Wheat and all
kinds of grain are here cultivated in large
farms, and yield luxuriant crops.

Esfes Park is a place of superb scenic at-
traction, which will afford a most pleasurable
resort for the overland Tourist to visit. It is
reached by stage from Longmont, distance 36
miles, contains a very superior mountain hotel,
and a wide expanse of park scenery, with mag-
nificent views of Long's Peak, and the snowy
caps of the neighboring peaks ; also there is
abundance of trout fishing. % For a health resort
to any one seeking rest and recuperation, a
sojourn here will be found particularly enjoyable.

Longmont is in the midst of a thriving agri-
cultural country, with large and rich farms the
country is nearly level yet the supply of water
is abundant for irrigating purposes, and the
farmincr advantages of the country are good.



Some of the little farms are gems in their neat-
ness. The railroad here is at its greatest dis-
tance from the range ; hence they seem smaller,
and lower in elevation, with less snow, though
here and there is an opening in the range which
reveals the glorious form of some tall snow cov-
ered monarch. The population is about 1,OOJ.
BoiiMer is most prettily located at the
entrance to the famous Boulder Canon,
and immediately in a little cove at the base
of the mountains. The valley is the most
fertile in the State, the water supply is un-
surpassed, the climate is the mildest of any
northern country, and the crops are much.
earlier than any place for one hundred
miles from Denver. Tourists will find numer-
ous mines near here worth visiting, also most
interesting rides up Boulder Canon, Bear Creek
Canon, and a trip to Caribon Silver mines. The
railroad, as it passes Southward and rises out of
the valley to the upland, reveals, as you cast a
glance back, a wondrously beautiful view of
landscape charms. The mountain view is sub-
lime; the near peaks being dark, while the dis-
tant ones, well covered with snow, afford start-
ling contrast and are beautiful in the extreme.

From Boulder to Golden Junction, and thence
to Denver, the railroad crosses alternately high
upland, then descends into and crosses the valley
of many streams flowing from the mountain,
which irrigate a region of wonderful agricultural
fertility. Upon these uplands, there is a mag-
nificent and exhilarating breeze, constantly blow-
ing from the mountains. Dark Canons appear
and disappear as the Tourist travels on. The
afternoon sun often reveals glorious displays of
sunset colors on the clouds, thunder storms with
lightning often give wild and thrilling effects.
And at each descent from the upland into each
little valley, the view is one of beauty and pleas-
ure.

The railroad as it turns East from Colorado
Junction, reveals at the right, the busy town of
Golden ; a mile distant, over it, towers a peak of
1,000 feet high and down the little valley of
Clear Creek, the route passes till your terminus
at Denver.

This route of reaching Denver from the East
must be specially advantageous to Tourists.

Hie Cheyenne Division, Union Pacific
Railway, also runs direct from Cheyenne,
southward, to Denver, and trains connect with,
the mid-day trains of the Union Pacific Railway.
The distance, 106 miles, is mainly over a vast
level plain, covered only with the short gray
buffalo grass, but parallel with the main range
of the Rocky Mountains, and twenty to thirty
miles from their eastern base.

Greeley Named in honor of Horace Gree-
ley, and settled in May, 1870. The colony
possesses about 100,000 acres of fine alluvial soil
in the valley of the Cache la Poudre River.



75



Irrigating ditches have been constructed, and
there is an abundance of water for all agricul-
tural purposes. The town for several years has
increased with steady rapidity, and the popula-
tion is slightly over 3,500. At this place are
located some of the finest grist-mills of the
entire "West. The place has achieved consid-
erable reputation as a temperance town.

Denver is the capital of the State. This
has become a large railroad point. From it
diverge the Kansas Division Union Pacific
Railway, 636 miles eastward to Kansas City, the
Denver and Rio Grande Railroad, Narrow
"Tauge, southward, to Canon City, Pueblo,
Leadville, Trinidad and San Juan; the Denver
and South Park Division Union Pacific Railway
to South Park, Leadville, and the Gunnison
country; also the various branches of the Colo-
rado Division Union Pacific Railway to George-
town, Idaho Springs, Central City, and the
mines of the mountains. In course of con-
struction are : the Denver and New Orleans Rail-
way, running to the southeast to connect with
the Texas system of railroads; the Denver,
Western and Pacific Railway, running north-
west to the Boulder County coal-fields and
Longmart; the Denver, Utah and Pacific
Railroad, running westward through South
Boulder Canon to the Middle Park country,
while the projected lines are almost " legion."

Its population exceeds 40, 000, and its location
is most advantageous for easy trade and com-
munication with all the principal points of the
Territory. Located on an open plain, about
thirteen miles from the Rocky Mountains, there
is a grand view of the entire range from Long's
Peak on the north to Pike's Peak on the south,
while eastward, northward and southward
stretch the vast upland plains which are so im-
pressive with their bouijdless extent. The city is
full of thrift, of life, and trade is always splen-
did. The buildings which grace the principal
streets are made principally of brick, and in
general appearance are superior to those of any
city west of the Missouri River. Daily, weekly
and monthly newspapers thrive. Here is a
branch of the United States Mint, gas-works,
"water-works, steam heating works, electric
light works, horse-railroads, and a multitude of
hotels. The best of which are the Windsor,
Grand Central, Inter-Ocean, American, Went-
worth, Delmonico and Villa Park. Prom this
point the traveler can radiate iu all directions
in search of pleasure resorts.

Notes to Tour lifts. The uniform railroad
fare in the State averages eight cents per mile.
Stage routes run all through the mountains, fare
from ten to twenty cents per mile. The uniform
rate of board is four dollars per day, and almost
everywhere can be found excellent living the
nicest of beefsteak, bread and biscuit. In many
of the mountain resorts plenty of good fishing



can be found, and delicate trout are common
viands of the hotel tables. The best season of
the year for a visit to Colorado is in July and
August, as then the snow has nearly disap-
peared from the mountains, and all the beauti-
ful parks and valleys are easily approachable.
Those who wish to include both Colorado and
California in a pleasure trip will do well to
visit California first, during April, May and
June, and then on returning spend July and
August leisurely in the cosy little home resorts
of Colorado.

The Denver and Rio Grande "Railroad
will carry the traveler southward from Denver,
along the base of the Rocky Mountains, to some
of the most noted pleasure resorts of the State.
This little narrow gauge is a wonder of itself,
representing nearly $20,000,000 of capital, and
operating over 700 miles of road ; it has devel-
oped a traffic exceeding $500,000 per month,
where ten years ago the stage route did not real-
ize $1,000 per month, and the prospects for the
future for its trade with the miners of the San
Juan country, Leadville and Santa Fe, are most
encouraging, as the new gold discoveries become
better developed. Seventy-six miles south of
Denver, on this line, are clustered three little
places of resort, practically one in interest
Colorado Springs, Colorado City, and

Manltou Springs. The former is the rail-
road station, a lively town, which in eight years
has risen from the prairie to a population of
5,000. Six miles distant from the Springs at
Manitou, are collected several elegant hotels,
and in the vicinity are numerous soda springs
iron springs and medicinal baths of great vir-
tue. The location of this resort, with its won-
derful collection of objects of natural interest
and scenery, has earned for it the title of
"Saratoga of the Far West." Travelers find
here beatitiful scenery in the Ute Pass Garden
of the Gods Glen Eyrie, numerous beautiful
canons, Queen Canon Cheyenne Canon, grand
and impressive, and towering over all is the lofty
summit of Pike's Peak, 14,300 feet high, up
which ascends a trail to the Government Signal
Station, the highest in the United States.

In this vicinity is located a pretty little canon
about fifteen miles in length, with walls of rock
rising to a uniform height of 600 and 800 feet
above a very narrow foot pass below. This canon
was discovered and named, in 1870, by a party of
editors, Williams' Canon, in honor of H. T. Wil-
liams, their commander. This was the first visit
of an Eastern party of any notoriety at the
Springs. No railroad was then built, and not a
house was to be seen, nor even a ranchman's
cabin. The scenery of this canon (see illustra-
tion) is at various points wild in the extreme.
The can on boasts several noted caves, the "Cave
of the Winds " being one of the largest, most
beautiful and generally attractive in the country.



76




MOUNTAIN OF THE HOLY CROSS. COLORADO.



77



Pleasure travelers are uniformly glad that
they have made a visit to these points, as they
excel in interest any other points in the Western
trip. Southward from Colorado Springs, the
next most noted resort is Canon City and the

Grand Canon of the Arkansas. This is
a scene of remarkable beauty and magnificence ;
at one point can be seen the river winding its
way for ten miles, at the base of huge perpendic-
ular rocks which rise fully 1000 and 2000 feet
above the current. This is the grandest canon
view in Colorado. AVestward from Colorado
Springs is the South Park, a noted route for
travelers who enjoy camping out, and a fine drive
through the mountains.

Garden of the Gods. The Beautiful
Gate. This is also a famous pleasure resort at
Manitou, near Colorado Springs. Midway be-
tween the Station and Springs is located one of
the most beautiful and curious little parks, and
upheaval of rocks that Western scenery can dis-
play. Descending from parallel ridges into a
little park, the traveler sees in front of him a
beautiful gate of two enormous rocks, rising in
massive proportion to the height of 350 feet, with
a natural gateway between of 200 feet in width,
with a small rock in the center. Standing a little
eastward, the observer gets the view illustrated in
our engraving. At the right is another parallel
ridge of rocks, pure white, which contrasts finely
with the dark red of the rocks of the gate.
Through the gate, in the long distance is seen
the summit of Pike's Peak, eighteen miles away.
Around these rocks is a- little grassy park of fifty
or more acres, in which according to the mytholog-
ical stories of the people, the "gods" found such
lovely times in play that they christened it a gar-
den. These two parallel ridges of white and red
rocks extend for many miles at the foot of the
mountains, and form other curious formations at
Glen Eyrie, Monument Park and Pleasant Park,
although much less in size and impress! veness.

The Dome of the Continent Gray's
Peak. Westward fromDenver sixty-five miles,
and fourteen from Georgetown, Colorado, rises
the grandest and most beautiful of the moun-
tains of Colorado. The way thither is one of
easy approach, via the Colorado Division
Union Pacific Railway, through the magnifi-
cent and world-famous Clear Creek Canon,
past Idaho Springs, one of the most charming ( f
.summer resorts, and past all the mines of Golden,
Empire, Georgetown, and the silver mines of the
Palisades. Near to the summit are two very suc-
cessful mines, Baker and Stevens, which are dug
out of the perpendicular face of a rock fully 200
feet in height. Rising above all the ranges of the
Colorado Mountains of north Colorado, Gray's
Peaks are the grand Lookout Points, from which
to view to advantage all the vast mountain range.
In a clear day the observer can embrace in his
range of vision a distance of 100 miles, in each



direction, northward, southward and .westward,
and even eastward to over the plains east of
Denver. From this point are plainly discernible
Pike's Peak, 80 miles away, Mount Lincoln, 50
miles ; Mount of the Holy Cross, 60 miles ; Long's
Peak, 50 miles ; the City of Denver, 65 miles, and
even the summit of the Spanish Peaks, 150 miles
southward, and the higher ranges of the Uintah
Mountains, 150 miles westward. The total range
of the vision being not less than 200 to 250 miles.
Beneath them at the foot, lie the beautiful rivers
and lakes of Middle Park ; southward the vast
extended plains of South Park, and everywhere
near at hand multitudes of little grassy parks,
like valleys dotted with the groves of spruce and
pine, as if planted for a grand pleasure ground.
The height of the Peak is 14,351 feet, and is
the easiest of access of all the mountains of Colo-
rado. Travelers and pleasure tourists who desire
one grand sight, never to be regretted, must not
fail to include this in their Western visit for the
sublimity and grand exaltation as from so lofty a
height one views a sea of huge mountains, is a
thing always to live in one's memory. There is a
fine road to within three miles of the summit,
through charming verdure-clad canons and val-
leys and the rest of the way can be made over a



Online LibraryFrederick E ShearerThe Pacific tourist : J.R. Bowman's illustrated trans-continental guide of travel, from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean ... : acomplete traveler's guide of the Union and Central Pacific Railroads ... → online text (page 13 of 61)