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Frederick E Shearer.

The Pacific tourist : J.R. Bowman's illustrated trans-continental guide of travel, from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean ... : acomplete traveler's guide of the Union and Central Pacific Railroads ... online

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gardens of Archbishop Lamy.

In the Bishops gardens are delicious fruits,
including peaches, pears, figs, oranges and
lemons, and the choicest flowers.

The Indians, especially the Navajoes, make
excellent blankets, twisting the yarn and weav-
ing them entirely by hand. The finest of them
will hold water and sell for about seventy-five
dollars each.

The pottery is another object of curiosity,
but it is probably less artistic than it was in the
days of the Aztecs. The modern pottery is
kept for sale in the town.

Mexican filagree jewelry is another curious
object of interest. It is made of pure gold or



silver, because none other can be wro\|ght into
such wire as the manufacturing requires. The
wire thread is twisted and rolled, and then
wound on pins set in a frame of wire until, at
the pleasure of the skilled workman, any de-
sired figure is produced. Feathers, figures of
men and animals, all are produced, and some-
times studded with gems.

In 1861 the city was captured by the rebels
under Gen. Sibley, and occupied for a few days,
when they were obliged to flee in consequence
of defeat at Pigeon Ranch and Apache Canon.

It has now about 8,000 inhabitants, and is
supplied with water and gas. . It has a delight-
ful climate, exceedingly favorable for pulmo-
nary disease and asthma. The mean tempera-
ture for six years 1874 to 1880 was: Spring,
49.7 deg.; Summer, 70.4 deg. ; Autumn, 50.6
deg. ; Winter, 31.6 deg. Total, 50. 6 deg. For
catarrh, rheumatism and neuralgia the climate
is not favorable. In the winter snow falls at
times, and there are usually three or four snows
from six to twelve inches deep. The summer
rains fall in July and August, and "when it
rains it pours. "

The plains and mesas are covered with
gramma and other rioh nutritious grasses.
Along the streams are found cottonwood, wal-
nut, maple and mesquit trees, and on the
mountains there are nut-bearing pines (fiinus
e lulus}. The mesquit is little more than a
shrub in many places, but with tremendous
roots, making from a simple bush half a cord
of fire-wood, transported to market on burros
driven or led by Mexicans or Indians. This
has been the main dependence of the city for
fire-wood, and for the purpose it is excellent.
Besides being hard, it burns witli an aromatic
odor. The surrounding mountains are full of
minerals, gold, silver, oynx, agates, garnets and
opals.

From Santa Fe one may cross over, by stage,
twenty-seven miles to Espanola on the Bio
Grande, the southern terminus of the Denver
and Rio Grande Railway and reach the famous
Ojo Caliente Springs, or the sublime, majestic
and awful scenery of the Embudo Canon,
Tottec Gorge and Veta Pass, and proceed either
to the San Juan country via the wild Animas
Canon, or through the Grand Canon of the
Arkansas to Gunnison or Lsadville, or via
Pueblo to Maniton and Denver.

Leaving L miy Junction, a run of sixty-five
miles through beautiful valleys and amid lofty
mountains, brings one to L'is Vc^as for dinner.

Tcocalli Mountain, Col. A. peak of the
Elk range 13,113 feet above sea-level. The
strata ai*3 nearly horizontal and so broken as to
form a series of steps from the base to the
summit, and is named from its resemblance tc
the Teocalli " House of God," of the Aztecs.



365




Bancroft Library



386



Bet-ween Santa Fe and Las "Vegas, in the
tipper part of the valley of the Rio Pecos,
which the railroad crosses, and about a mile
and a quarter south of the station, are the Pecos
ruins. The old church and pueblo will repay
the time and labor of a visit. The houses were
four stories high, without opening on the
ground floor and scaled by ladders.

The railroad follows closely the old Santa Fe
trail, which for a long time was the only line of
travel from the Missouri River to the west and
southwest. The course is southeast for a time,
in order to get around the southern end of the
Santa Fe mountain.



shown by the following chemical analysis, made
by Prof/F. V. Hayden, United States geologist:



SPKING No. 1.
172

1.08



CONSTITUEKTS .

Sodium carbonate . . .
Calcium carbonate I
Magnesium " )

Sodium sulphate 14.12

Sodium chloride 27.26

Potassium Trace

Lithium Strong trace

Silicic acid 1.04

Iodine . . , Trace

Bromine Trace

Temperature 130F.



No. 2.
1.17

10.63

15.43

24.37

Trace

Sir. trace

Trace

Trace

Trace

123F.



No. 3.
5.00

11.43

16.21

27.34

Trace

Str. tract

2.51

Trace

Tra^e

123F.



The improvements are complete and mag-
nificent everything in keeping with the charm
ing scenery and delightful climate. The



,0^





Las Vegns t like Santa Fe, should not be
passed hastily. Five miles from the station are
the noted and ancient springs to which Indians
long resorted with their maladies, and for the
improvement of which a Boston Company have
wisely expended more than $100,000. The bath
house is 200 feet long and 42 feet wide. The
springs are twenty-two in number, and vary in
temperature from 110 deg. to 140 deg. All are
on the banks of the cold Gallinas Kiver, a
tributary of the Pecos.

7 he character of the waters is similar to that
of the famous Hot Springs of Arkansas, as



elevation of Las Vegas (6, 400 feet) and Colorado
Springs is about the same, but Las Vegas being
on the great elevated plateau, with its slope to
the sunny south, is much drier and more favor-
able for pulmonary disease. It has long been
considered the great sanitorium of the country.

Las Vegas town has a population of about
2,000, and is situated in one corner of the San
Carlos mining district. It is the county town
of Miguel county.

From Las Vegas the general course is north-
east, and then north to and across the Raton
mountains, ascending to the Raton Pass along
Willow Creek to a tunnel of 2,000 feet, and
emerging to follow Raton Creek, crossing the
Pargaterie River and continuing northeast to
the Arkansas.

The Raton mountains afford some of the
finest scenery on the line of the road, and here
are some of the greatest triumphs of engineer-
ing. Before the tunnel was completed the cars
ascended the mountain on a "switch-back,"
*. t. , after climbing as far as possible the train
would be backed as on a " Y," there being no
room for curves, and so it would zig-zag up the
mountain on a grade of 317 feet to the mile.



367



Tliis pass was the memorable battle-ground of
the railroad war between, the Denver and Bio
Grande Railway and the Atchison, Topeka and
Santa Fe companies each one claiming the
right to the pass to the exclusion of the other.
Eight miles north of Raton station, where pas-
senger trains stop for breakfast and supper, the
line is crossed between New Mexico and Colo-
rado, 667 miles from Kansas City. After pass-
ing through the Baton tunnel we are on the
water-shed drained by the Missouri Biver and
its tributaries, and reach Trinidad in about an
hour and a half. It is a compact city of coal
mines, fire-clay, stone quarries, coke-ovens and
cattle trade. It is only five miles from Fl Mo* o,
the southern terminus of a branch of the
D. & B. G. Bailway, and is connected with it
by stage. El Moro is almost directly south of
Denver, and like Trinidad is noted for its coal
and coke ovens.

The Arkansas Biver is reached at L i "Junta,
and followed hundreds of miles to Emporia.
The valley varies from four to forty miles in
width, and irrigation is soen here and there.
La Junta is 1,775. 7 miles from San Francisco,
and 571 from Kansas City, and is the junction
of the "New Mexico Extension " with the main
line. The main line extends west to Peublo,
63.5 miles, there connecting with the Denver
and Bio Grande Bailway for Colorado Springs,
Manitou, Denver and southwestern Colorado.

La Junta is the first point in going east from
which there are two passenger trains a day
to Kansas City. The plains appear unproduc-
tive, but they afford fine pasturage, as is evi-
denced by the cattle along the road.

Las Animas5^S miles from Kansas City,
is one of the important centres of this vast
trade. Just before breakfasting the train will
cross the State line, 486.7 miles from Kansas
City, and 2.4 miles from Conl'dg", the eating
station, when the Western division ends and
the Middle division begins. From this point
the road traverses the great State of Kansas
until it enters Missouri, near Kansas City. The
whole day will be spent along the Arkansas
Biver, with dinner at Lamed, 308 miles from
Kansas City.

At Ellinwood, 275. 7 miles from Kansas City,
there is a branch road or cut-off, uniting again
with the main line at Florence. The through
trains follow the longer line, making a detour
to the south and passing through Newton, one
of the most flourishing sections in the centre of
the State.

At Hutchinson, 234.1 miles from Kansas
City, the railroad leaves the Arkansas Biver,
which it has followed from La Junta, and takes
a course east, crosses the Little Arkansas Biver
a short distance east of Burrton to
Newton, a city of 4,000 people, in the midst



of the prosperous Mennonites, whose farms
and schools are not excelled in this enterprising
State. Here are mulberry hedges, busy silk-
worms, refuse manure burning in the houses
in large ovens for fuel, corn, wheat, live-stock
of all kinds, and, in short, whatever products
are common to a good farm. From Newton
there is a branch road directly, 80.4 miles to
Caldwell, on the boundary of the Indian Ter-
ritory, waiting for permission to cross to the
Gulf of Mexico. From this branch there are
two other branches, one southeast to Arkansas
City, and the other west to Harper.

From Newton the general course is north-east
to Kansas City. At

Florence^ an eating-station for all passenger
trains, and the supper-station for the Atlantic
Express going east, every sportsman should
spend a few days. No place in the State excels
this for prairie chickens (t'trao cupido] or
grouse shooting. In autumn McPherson Lake,
on the short line, or McPkersnn. Branch, about
midway between Florence and Ellinwood, is
covered with ducks and geese that afford pleas-
ant shooting from a stand among reeds on the
shore.

From Florence there is another the Eldorado
Branch extending directly south about thirty
miles. After leaving Florence, the Cottonwool
Biver, on which it is situated, is followed to
Emporia. The country resembles in cultivation
the well-farmed prairies of Illinois or Ohio.
Farmers live comfortably. Towns are numer-
ous and prosperous.

Cotionwood Falls, on the main line, is the
county -seat of Chase County, and derives much
importance from its water-power, coal and
ochre beds, and numerous quarries of an ex-
ceedingly handsome magnesian limestone. This
stone was used for the State buildings at Topeka,
and is transported throughout all the State.

Emporia is at the crossing of the Neosho
Biver, 127.8 miles from Kansas City, and 2, 218. 7
from San Francisco, is a town of 10,000 people,
the seat of the State Normal School, and has
business houses that would do credit to Kansas
City itself. It was settled in 1857. To see this
charming part of the State, between Florence
and Kansas City, one going east should take a
day train, spending the night at Newton or
Florence. From Emporia the Hmvird Branch
extends directly south, 76 miles to Howard.

Osatje City, Burlingame and Carbon-
dale are all in the centre of a vast coal region,
tapped by the Missouri Pacific, as well as the
Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Bailroad. This
great coal body is 208 miles long and 107 wide.
There are two beds of bituminous coal in the
strata, one of which is thirteen feet thick, about
300 f9et below the surface, and the other 9j4
feet thick about 400 feet down. Burlingame



368



has a branch north to Manhattan on the Kaw
River, and uniting there with the Kansas
Pacific Division of the Union Pacific Railway.
Pagosa Springs. These Springs are situ-
ated near the base of the San Juan Mountains,
in southeastern Colorado, and is one of the most
noted hot springs on the continent. It has long
been famous among Indian tribes. It is in a
beautiful valley three miles long by one mile



there is a copious deposit, which has built up
the rim of various hues, generally white tint, but
sometimes green or pink in color. The rim
is largely chloride of sodium, but silicates are
also found. The flow has gradually pushed over
the walls or rim of the basin until it has cov-
ered an area of ten or twenty acres to a deplh
of twenty f oet or more.

Topeka is the capital of the State, and also




PAGOSA SPRINGS, COLORADO.



wide, surrounded by lofty pine-clad mountains,
over-topped by bold-craggy peaks. It is a
great basin about 150 feet in circumference, and
of depth unknown as yet. Its waters are con-
tinually seething and emitting clouds of car-
bonic acid and sulphuretted hydrogen gas that
resembles the vapor of steam. The taste of
the water is decidedly mineral, and from it



the headquarters for the Atchison, Topeka and
Santa FQ Railroad. It is 50. 5 miles from Atchi-
son, and 66.6 from Kansas City. Its name
means "potatoes" in the Indian tongue, and
both are familiar in American history. Its
population is nearly 20,000. Its public build-
ings, colleges and seminaries, and railroad and
machine shops, give it physical, intellectual



369




GRAND CANON OF THE ARKANSAS, ON DENVER AND KIO GRANDE RAILWAY,

COLOBADO.



political and moral provinces in the State.
From Topeka to Kansas City, the road fol-
lows the south bank of the Kaw or Kansas
river. On the north bank of the river, at
Topeka, is the Kansas Pacific division of the
Union Pacific Railway. The depot of this road
is in North Topeka.



From Topeka the main line of the A. T. & S. F.
road extends to Afchison, 50.5 miles, and there
forms close connection for all points in the
east. It is beautifully situated on the west bank
of the Missouri river, at the extreme western
point of the " Great Bend." The Missouri is
bridged at this point, and in the Union depot



371



there are to bo found the trains of the Hannibal
& St. Joe, and Chicago, Burlington & Quincy
roads, and those of the Chicago, Eock Island &
Pacific, and the Missouri Pacific roads, all of
which have eastern connections.

The Overland Express leaves the main line at
Topeka, and takes the Kansas City branch to
Kansas City. It follows the right or south
bank of the Kansas or Kaw river, and the
Kansas Pacific runs parallel on the north bank.
Both of these roads pass through Lfcompton
and Lawrencr. Lecompton was the capital in
the stormy days of the slavery agitation, and
Lawrence the head-quarters of John Brown,
Lane, Robinson, Con way and other noted anti-
slavery leaders. It was named in honor of
Amos Lawrence, of Boston. In 1863, it was
burned during the Quantrell raid, but it has
been rebuilt, and is the prettiest c - ty in Kansas.
It is an important centre for railroads. The
Union Pacific have a branch to Leavenworth
in the north, and Carbondale in the south,
and the Kansas City, Lawrence & Southern
Kansas R. R. , from Kansas City and Lawrence
south to the Neosho valley and southern Kan-
sas. It is also the ssat of the State University.
and the second city of the State in s'ze.

Pleasant Hill Branch leaves the main line at
Cedar Junction, 23 miles from Kansas City,
and forms a connection with the Missouri
Pacific at Pleasant Hill, 44 miles distant.

Kansas City is on the right bank of the
Missouri river, just over the Kansas line in
Missouri. It is the greatest railroad centre
west oi' Chicago and St. Louis, and one of the
most important commercial cities of the Union.
It boasts of being the geographical centre, and
expects to receive the national capital when it
is moved from Washington. Here the river
bends to the east and is spanned by an elegant
bridge. The city is mainly situated on more
than " seven hills," while the great and com-
modious Union depot is under the bluff. The
hills have been levelled, and the valleys filled,
water and street railways introduced. There
are nearly a score of banks, two medical col-
leges, besides numerous wholesale houses, some
of which claim to be the largest west of New
York city. The stock yards are extensive, and
in beef and pork packing the people expect to
soon distance Cincinnati, St. Louis and Chicago.

The Union depot is large and commodious,
and the bridge across the Missouri river solid
and substantial. Street cars run from the
depot to the business centre and chief parts of
the city.

From Kansas City eastward there are seven
trunk lines, and each of these has numerous
variations of the route, with different forms of
ticket. 1. There is the Chicago, Burlington &
Quincy. 2. The Chicago, Rock Island & Paci-



fic. 3. The Missouri Pacific to St. Louis. 4
and 5. The Chicago & Alton to both Chicago
and St. Louis; and 6 and 7. The Wabash to
both Chicago, St. Louis and Toledo. For fur-
ther information about these routes see pages
9 and 10.



THE TRIPLE PACIFIC LINE.

The third great trans-continental railway was
opened in January, 1882, between St. Louis
and New Orleans and San Francisco -via Dem-
ing. It is composed of three roads between
the Missouri river and Pacific ocean, viz. : The
Southern Pacific, as leased totheCantral Paci-
fic, the Texas -Pacific and the St. Louis and
Iron Mountain & Southern Railway, and is
eleven miles longer to St. Louis than the route
vi'i Topeka and Kansas City. Doming is th9
only point between St. Louis and San Francisco
at which cars must be changed. The routa
from Deming east, being south of the Atchison,
Topeka & Sante Fe, avoids the Rocky Moun-
tains and passes through a country almost frea
from snow. At Deming, close connection is
made with the trains of the Southern Pacific
Railroad.

The Southern Pacific extends westward from
Deming, and will have its terminus at New
Orleans. At El Paso it forms a junction with
the Texas Pacific. Going eastward, then over
this triple route from Deming, the course is
south of east to Messilla (Mess-See- Ya), and
then east of south to El Paso.

Mesilla is on the Rio Grande, in the Mesilla
valley, a valley fertile in soil and delightful in
climate. Across the river is the Atchison,
Topeka & Santa Fe branch from Rincon. East
of the river are the Organ mountains. Fort
Bliss is in Texas a short distance north of El
Paw.

El Paso (the Pass) is on the American side
of the Rio Grande river, opposite El Paso del
Norte (the north pass) in Mexico. The name
arises from the river passing through a gorge
in the mountains, which has bean the chief
thoroughfare between Mexico and New Mexico.
Just before reaching the American town, the
monument marking the boundary line between
Mexico and the United States may be seen
across the river on the top of one of the peaks
in the low mountain range. The town is a mix-
ture of Mexican and American civilization,
with. the latter fast overcoming the former.

The Mexican Central R. R., a continuation
of the A. T. &S. F., which enters El Paso
from Rincon, running parallel with the S. P.
for some distance west of the town, is carrying
American ideas toward the capital of our sister
republic, and bringing back all the wealth the
Americans can get. Eastward the route is over



372




GRAND CANON OF THE ARKANSAS, ON DENVER AND RIO GRANDE RAILWAY,

COLORADO.



a grazing country across the northern por-
tion of the great State.

At Fort Worth, passengers for St. Louis have
a choice of routes. One is -via the Missouri
Pacific through the Indian territory to Fort
Scott, Kansas, and Sedalia, Mo. For this route
a change of cars must be made at Fort Worth
to the through Pullman sleeper from San



Antonio to St. Louis. The other requires no
change of cars after leaving Deming and passes
Marshall, Texas.

Texarkann, in the southeast corner of
Arkansas, and Little J?oc6vrith its Hot Springs.
The time and fare by this route are the same to
St. Louis as via the Atchison, Topeka and
Santa Fe Bailroad.



INDEX.



PAGE.


PAGE.


PAGE.


PAGK.


Acambo, 309


Benson, 358, 359


Cape Horn Mills, 252


Cozad, 38


Acton, 341


Beowawe, 202


Carbon, 91


Creston, Cal., 314


Adams, 61


Berenda, 336


Carbondale, 367


Creston, Wy., 94


Agnew's, 318


Berlin, 317


Carlin, 196


Cressey, 335


Alameda.


Bernal, 329


Carnadero, 332


Cross Creek, 336


Albuquerque, 363


Bethany, 334


Carriages, 302


Cucamonga, 345


Alda, 31


Big Bonanza Mines, 235


Carson City, 221,222


Curiosities of History, 12


Alida, 33T


Big Horn, 94


Carson & Colorado R.R., 222


Curtis, 316


Alkali, 47


Big Spring, 48


Carter, 105




Alma, 318


Big Trees, 299


Carter Hills and Mud


Dale Creek Bridge 81


Alpha, 199


Biggs, 325


Volcano, 168


Dana, 91


Alpine, 341


Bitter Creek, 95-97


Casa Grande, 352


Davisville 263


Alta, 247


Bishop's, 193


Cascade, 244


Decoto, 313


Altamont, 311


Black Buttes, 97


Castle. 309


Deep Wells, 199


Alvarado, 318


Black Hills of 'Wyom-


Castroville, 333


Deer Lodge Springs, 158


Alviso, 318


ing, 68, 87


Cedar, 199


Deeth, 193


Amndor Branch R. R., 308


Black Rock, 148


Centerville, 131


Delano, 337


Ames. 26


Blue Canon, 247


Central City, 29


Delavan, 317


American Artists and


Blue Creek, . 181


Central Pacific R. R., 177


Deming, 362, 363


Explorers, 32


Boca, 238


Ceres, Turlock, Cressey,


Denver. 75


American Fork, 140


Bodega X Roads, 321


& Atwater, 335


Denver Junction. 48


American Fork Canon, 143-7


Bonneville, 180


Cerritos, 343


Denver & Rio Grande


Anaheim, 343


Borden, 336


Chapman, 29


R. R., 75


Analysis, 154


Boulder, 73


Chappell, 67


Desert, 214


Anderson, 325


Bovine, 190


Cheyenne Div. U. P. R.R., 73


Devil's Gate on the


Andrews, 341


Bowie, 360


Cliico, 326


Sweetwater, 108


Anita, 325


Box Springs, 197, 199


Chimney Rock, 43


Devil's Gate, "Weber


Antelope, Neb., 59


Bozeman. 158


Chinese in San Fran-


Canon, 124


Antelope, Cal., 258
Antioch. 334


Brady Island, 39
Brentwood, 334


cisco, 279
China Ranch, 247


Devil's Slide, 122
1 >exter, 47


A r buckle, 317


Bridger, 105


Church Buttes, 103


Dix. 59


Arcade, 258


Brigham, 180


Chualar, 333


Dixon, 264


Archer, 62


Brighton, 308


Cicero, 308


Dominpuez, 343


ArgentH, 202


Bronco, 238


Cisco, 245


Donahue, 322


Army Point, 264


Brooklyn, 314


Clark, 29


Dos Palmos, 346


Artesian Wells, 113


Brown s, C. P. R. R.. 213


Clear Creek, 325


Dougherty's Mill, 318


Aspen, 106
Atkins, 61


Brown's, V. & T. R. R., 221
Brown's Hole, 100


Clear Creek Canon, 79
Climate of Cali-


Downey, 343
Dragon Summit, 359


Atmosphere, 156


Brownson, 59


fornia, 277-8, 293-7


Draperville, 139,140


Atwater, 335


Brule, 48


Clipper Gap, 255


Driving the last Spike,


Avon, 334


Bryan, 102


Cloud Kffects, 58


180-184


Australia, 327


Budda, 33


Cloverdale, 323


Duncan, 29


Auburn, 255


Buffaloes, 63


Cluro, 199, 201


Duncan's Mills, 321


Aurora, 89


Buffalo Grass, 47


Coalville, 118


Durham, 325




Buffalo Robes, 27


Coin, 205


Dutch Flat, 249


Baden, 329


Buckeye, 325


Colfax, 253




Baggage, 8


Bufonl, 80


Colma, 329


Early Times, 84-86


Banning, * 345


Bullion, 197


Colorado Div. IT. P. R. R., 73


Eastern Trunk Lines, 9-1 1


Bantas, 31 1


Bull whackers, 56, 57


Colorado Junction, 80


Echo, 117


Barton, 48


Burlingame, 367


Colorado Plains, 60


Echo Canon, 113,114


Batavia, 264


Burns, 61


Colorado Steam Naviga-


Economy, 282


Battle Creek, 158


Bushnell, 61


tion Co., 349


Eden Vale, 331


Battle with the Indians


Byron, 334


Colton, 57, 345


Edson, 92


at Plum Creek, 34-37




Columbia River, 326


Egbert, 61


Battle Mountain, 203


Cabazon, 345


Columbus, 27


Elkhorn, 21


Baxter, 98


Cachise, 359


Compton, 343


Elko, 194


Bay of San Francisco,267, 268
Bay Point, 234


Cactus, 348
Caliente, 338


Cooper's Lake, 89
Cordelia, 314


Elm Creek, 34
Ellis, 311


Bealeville, 339


California Pacific R. R., 314


Corinne, 180, 181


Elk Grove, 308


Bear River City, 108


Calistoga, 316


Cornwall, 334


Ellinwood, 367


Beet Sugar, 261


Cameron, 339


Cottonwood, 325


Elmira, 264


Belmout, 329


Cana, 325


Cottonwood Falls, 367


El Paso, 371, 372


Benlcia, 264


Candelaria, 222


Coyote, Cal., 331


Emerald Bay, 231, 232


Benton, 26



Online LibraryFrederick E ShearerThe Pacific tourist : J.R. Bowman's illustrated trans-continental guide of travel, from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean ... : acomplete traveler's guide of the Union and Central Pacific Railroads ... → online text (page 60 of 61)