Frederick Freeman.

Yaradee: a plea for Africa, in familiar conversations on the subject of slavery and colonization online

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' YARADEE;



-m



PLEA FOR AFRICA,



IN FAMILIAR CONVERSATIONS ON THE SUBJECT OF



SLAVERY AND COLONIZATION.



BY F. FREEMAN,

Rector of St. David's Churcli, Manayunk; author of " The Pastor's Plea for
Sacred Psalmody," etc.



Homo sum, iiumani nil a me alienum i'uto." — Terence.



Philadelphia:

PUBLISHED BY J. VVHETHAM

No. 23 South Fourth street.

18 3 6.



CAGE

E

.res



25b



\2



Entered according to the Act of Congress, in the year l&LUJ, by J.
WiiETHAM, in the Oflice of ihe Clerk of the District Court of the Eastern
District of Pennsylvania.



•WIltlAM STATELY, PRINTEB,

No. 12 Pear Street.



DEDICATION.

TO
THE YOUNG MEN

OF THE

PENNSYLVANIA AND NEW-YORK COLONIZATION SOCIETIES.

WHO,

WHEX THE CAUSE OF COLONIZATION KEEDED MOST THEIR AID, AXIi
IS THE TIME OF ITS GREATEST EMERGEXCT, CAME XOBLT TO
THE RESCUE, REVIVING THE DROOPIXG SPIRITS OF
MAXT TRUE FRIENDS OF AFRICA, FILLING
THEIR HEARTS WITH GLADNESS, AND
INFUSING NEW ZEAL THROUGH
EVERY DEPARTMENT OF
THE ENTER-
PRISE,

THIS WORK IS RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED,

BY THEIR FRIEND,

THE AITHOR.



CONTENTS.



PAGE

Advertisemext, - - - - - - 11

coxtehsatiox i.

The claims of Africa worthy of consideration — Diversity of senti-
ment — The African race often traduced — Capable of moral and
intellectual distinction — Once an enlightened people — Distin-
guished men — Degrading influence of paganism and tyranny, 13-1'J

Co:ntersation" II.
Origin of the African race — Africa, by whom originally settled —
The curse against Canaan — The curse explained — The predic-
tion fulfilled — Slavery not therefore just — Canaaniles scatter-
ed — Africa not always to be oppressed, - - - 20-27

CoXTEIlSATIOJf III.

/Ethiopia shall stretch out her hands unto God — Colour of Afri-
cans — Different tribes assimilated — Tradition respecting Cush —
Early history of Africa obscure — Interior of Africa but little
known — Africa's ancient glory — Light from Africa on other
lands, ........ 28-31

Co'TERSATIOX IV.

Great reverses often in the history of nations — Much yet to admire
in Africa — Africa's distinguished ones — Prince Moro — Prince
Abduhl Rahahman — Abduhl's father and Dr. Cox — Prince and
Dr. Cox — Dr. Cox endeavours to free Prince — Prince's account
of his capture — Carried to the W. Indies and Katchez, - 35-43

Co'TEKSATIOJf V.

Remains of Africa's former glory — Destined to rise — Travellers in
Africa — Truth and fiction found together in travels — Africans not
1 *



6 CONTENTS.

naturally induleai — Causes of indolence and incentives to vice —
African bravery — Henry Diaz — Other traits— Louis Desrouleaux —
Glance at the interior of Africa — The Solima camp — Solima



44-53



COXVEIISATIOX VI.

Scripture lestnnony to African learning — Manuscripts — Tribes dis-
covered — Large cities — Colour of beauty — Domestic slavery in
Africa — Manner of capturing slaves — Horrors of the slave-
trade — Middle passage — Horrors of slavery — Slavery a reproach
to any people — An evil full of danger — The evil should be re-
moved — Something must be done— A right spirit needed. - 54-65

Conversation VIL

Self preservation, a law of nature — Change being effected — Com-
mon interest of our country — Slavery, the bane of our peace and
unity — Depresses the South — Is unprofitable — Introduced by
England — Policy of England — Retires South— Cannot be sup-
ported on barren soils — Occasions much anxiety — Great vigilance
necessary — Insurrectionary alarms — An evil to master and slave, 6G-75

Conversation VIII.

Slavery attended with anxieties — Severe enactments — Dangerous
publications — The South must be vigilant — Insurrectionary at-
tempts ruinous to the blacks — Slaves should not be kept in
ignorance — Kindly feelings at the South — Difliculties of emanci-
pation — Duty to slaves does not always require emancipation, 7G-84

Conversation IX.
Property ill human flesh a revolting thought — Sentiments of the
South — Misrepresentations— Severity of remark unwise — Wash-
ington's advice, - -... 85-98

Conversation X.

Introduction of slavery — Opposed by the colonies — The first slave-
ship — Early date of Slavery in Africa — Foreign traffic— Slaves
introduced into Hispaniola— Origin of Slavery in America — Mis-
taken Philanthropy of Las Casas — Mistaken zeal in a good cause
may lead to great error — Plea of political necessity often abused—
Advantage of one's own wrong — A consummation greatly to be
desired, ....... 99-110



CONTENTS.



CoNTEnSATION XI.

All Christendom guilty — Christianity identified by the African for-
merly with cruelty and perfidy^Classification of slaves — How
slaves are secured and sold — Horrors of the passage — The mid-
dle passage — Africa as she was — Extent of the trade — Cruel-
ties, - .... - - 111-117

CoXVERSATION XII.

Cruelties of the slave-trade — Extent of the trade in later years —
First cost— Domestic distress — Affecting case — The African
Chieftain, Stanzas, 118-125

CoXTEnSATIO^ XIII.

Change of public sentiment — Measures in Parliament — Abolition
of the trade by Congress — By other powers — Trade not sup-
pressed — Something more necessary — Colonies along the coast
— Early efforts of Virginia — Her example followed — Slavery
abolished by England — Claims of England unwarrantable and
immodest — An enlightened view of the whole suljject de-
sirable, 126-134

CoJfVERSATIOjr XIV.

The Federal government — Rights guaranteed by Constitution —
Must not be infringed — District of Columbia — South sensitive —
JXorlh censorious — All interested — Prudent measures recom-
mended — North not without sin — Appeal to JNew-England, - 135-142

CoNTERSATIOX XV.

A national debt — May be cancelled — Right of discussion — A moral
wrong — Property recognized by law — Rights guaranteed — Value
of slave property — The Federal compact — Difficulties of eman-
cipation — South tenacious of its rights — Foreign interference in-
admissible — The constitutional question — Effects of discussion —
Disunion and collision, madness — Virginia matron's appeal, - 143-148

Costehsation XVI.

Moral and religious instruction of slaves — Efforts at the South —
Religious instruction in Virginia — In Georgia — In South Caro-
lina — Colonization lends to emancipation — Anecdote of recap-
tured boy — Slavery overruled fur good — Christian colonies a
means of evangelizing the heaihen, ... - 149-169



D CONTENTS.

CoNVEnSATIOX XVII.

Freedom alone will not elevate the blacks— Their depravation not
strange — No stimulus to efTjrl — No oiiportunity for distinction —
Almost necessarily degraded — Natural consequence of their si-
tuation — Cannot rise or be happy here — Claims of the American
Colonization Society — Opens bright prospects for Africa — Preju-
dices against Africans — Distinctions on account of colour — Less
prejudice in other countries — Anecdote of Saunders, - - 170-177

COXVEUSATIOX XVIII.

Free blacks more degraded than slaves — Alarming proportion of
crime among blacks — Either colonization or slavery necessary
for the present — Colonization ameliorates the condition of the
slave — Immediate and universal emancipation ruinous — Anec-
dote — Free blacks in this country an unwelcome population —
Baltimore memorial — Embarkation of colonists, - - 178-180

CoxvEnsATiox XIX.

Africa a home for her children — Happiness and respectability pro-
moted by removal — Motives to respectability — African improve-
ment and colonization closely united — The foundation of a chris-
tian empire laid — History of the American Colonization Society
— Society organized — Originators and Patrons — First emigration
to Africa — Colonization agents visit Africa — Samuel John Mills
—Death of Mills— Tribute to his memory, - - - 187-1%

CoXTEnSATIOX XX.

Friends of Africa — Anthony Benezet — Object of the American Co-
lonization Society — Generally approved — All may unite — La-
fayette's views of the Society — Other distinguished friends —
Auxiliaries — Legislative acts approbatory — Funds — Ecclesiasti-
cal bodies approve, ...... 197-205

CoXVEnSATION XXI,

Liberia — Location and chief settlements — Monrovia— Caldwell —
New Georgia- Millsburgh — Cape Palmas — Address of the Ma-
ryland Colonists— Bassa Cove — Fertility of Liberia — Testimony
of Park — Productions — Resources — Commercial advantages —
Commerce of Liberia— Enterprise — Prosperity, - . 20G-'21a

CoNVEnSATlOX XXII.

Climate- First selection of place unfavourable— Exposures of the



CONTENTS. 9

early colonists — Discouragements at Jamestown and Plymouth
greater — Difficulties at Sierra Leone — Desolations of the slave-
trade — Humanity pleads for colonization — Honour to be pioneers
— Address of citizens of Monrovia — Delightful climate for blacks
— jN'o competition, ...... 216-223

CONVEBSATION XXIII.

Aid from the U. States — Recaptured slaves restored to Africa —
Early trials of the colony — Ashmun's defence — Ashmun's death
— His early history — Dies praying for Africa — Monument — Po-
etical tribute, -.-.... 224-230

CoXTETlSATIOX XXIV.

Government of Liberia — Literary advantages — Library — Printing
press — Testimony of Dr. Shane — Of Captain Kennedy — Of Capt.
Nicholson— Of Capt. Abels — Of a British olTicer — Of Governor
Mechlin — Of Capt. Sherman — Of colonists — Religious privi-
leges — Colonization a good cause — Good has been done, - 231-241

Co^rvEns ATinv XXV.

Voung Men's Colonization Society of Pennsylvania — First expedi-
tion — Interesting coincidences — Great success and encourage-
ment — Bassa Cove — The slavers move the natives to attack the
colony — JN'o apprehension for the futiwe — Prosperity of the co-
lony — College in Liberia proposed — Such an institution need-
ed — College necessary — Degeneracy without knowledge — A
college in Liberia full of promise — It will be sustained — Bassa
Cove a delightful country — Colonists contented and prosperous
— The colonies must succeed — Colonies should line the coast, 242-25G

CoNVEHSATIOX XXVI.

Right of search — Convention of foreign powers — Extinction of the
slave-trade — Recent facts — Slave-trade not practicable where co-
lonies are planted — Great extent of coast exposed — Our national
vessels should visit the coast — Some action of Congress desir-
able, 257-264

Co'TEBSATION' XXVII.

Colonization is practicable — Best way of redressing Africa's
wrongs — The cause of true patriotism — Its claims — Colonization
or ruin — Difference of opinion among good men — Increase of
blacks — Dangers from a mixed population, - • - 265-273



10 CONTENTS.

CoxvEnsATiojf XXVIII.

Even partial success a great blessing — Slaves of other times of the
colourof their masters — Colonization unites conflicting interests —
All are benefitted — An honourable instance — Views of an intel-
ligent coloured man — Onr honour pledged — A nation's oath —
Christian obligations — Heaven on the side of Afric — Africa and
colonization the subject of many prayers, - - - 274-283

CoXVERSATIOX XXIX.

A great and worthy enterprise — Africa's claims acknowledged — A
missionary field — Bright prospects — Fond anticipation of Mills —
What more noble cause — Emancipation not our only duly — The
country must engage in the work — Right of appropriation — True
liberty secured to Africa, ..... 284-291

CoNVEnSATIOX XXX.

Objections answered — Means of transportation — Great things usual-
ly accomplished slowly — Liberia compared with other colonies —
Room in Africa — All opposition wrong — Shall not Africa be chris-
tianized ? — Kesponsibilily of upposere — Culoiiizalion and abolition
societies not necessarily conflicting — Neither should molest or be
molested — All good associations have not the same object — glo-
rious results anticipated — If colonization fail, high hopes are
blighted— It will prosper— The cause of God, - - 292-301

Appexdix.

Early and distinguished friends of Colonization — Robert Firdey —
James Mailison — Thomas JefTerson — James Monroe — Charles
Carroll — Bushrod Washington — John Marsiiall — Bishop White —
Elias B. Caldwell— William II. Fiizluigh— Thomas S.Grimke—
Lott Carey — Dr. Randall — Dr. Anderson — Melville B. Co.x — and

others, 303-334

Pre-eminent qualifications of the pioneers in colonization — Qualifi-
cations of the colonists generally — Acknowledgment of tiie valu-
able services of others in aid of the cause, - - - 334-336
Colonization and Africa have found generous friends among the

fair se.\, ....... 336-340

Friends to the cause in England, . . . ■ 341-342

Objections of opposers, ...... 342-358

Africa a delightful climate (or blacks, ... - 359

Growth of the colony, ... - - 359

Correction, ....... 360



ADVERTISEMENT.

This little volume is thrown before the world without the
usual array of names to sustain its claims to consideration.
Its pretensions are not lofty : it refers to the importance of
its subject, and with the solemn assurance that it has been
written without any subserviency to party views, and with-
out any unkind desigias, it relies on the candour of the reader.
The writer has followed the honest convictions of his own
mind, and in connexion with facts that are indisputable, has
expressed views which are the conscientious result of much
rellection, personal observation, and a long residence and ex-
tensive acquaintance at the South. He may have formed an
erroneous judgment in some things pertaining to the subject,
for

•• to err is human,"

and he lays no claim to infallibiUty ; but he loves truth, and
has truly aimed at impartiality. If, on the one hand, he is
constrained to admit a liability to bias from " Northern pre-
judice," he can sincerely say that, on the other hand, his
warm admiration of the Southern character and his aflection
for Southern friends unite an all-sufficient counteracting in-
fluence. He is fully aware that as these pages savour none



12 ADVERTISEMENT.

of party, they will not find favour with the itltras of any
opinion ; and he conceives it more than possible that some
of opposing sentiments may each suppose that the writer
favours the views of the other : if, however, wliilst some
disapprove and condemn without cause, or are severe in
criticism, the more candid approve, the writer will not com-
plain. That these pages .may do good, is the anxious wish
of one who loves his country and sympathizes with his
brethren in whatever part of the country, and also pities
Africa and her oppressed children.

Particular acknowledgments of the aid derived in this
work from the able remarks of several distinguished advo-
cates for freedom and for human rights, are not given; for
the task would be inconvenient and useless. If any such
find their thoughts or language here employed, they will
require no apology, satisfied to have aided by their writings
this humble attempt at a plea for Africa, and will cordially
unite with that of the Avritcr, their earnest prayer that the
claims of Africa may be better understood, and that we may
all and each of us soon be able to say, without an exception
or a blush,

" UbI LIBERTAS, IBI PaTRIA."



CONVERSATIONS ON SLAVERY.



CONVERSATION I.



" Eternal nature ! when thy giant hand
ITad heaved the flood?, and fixed ihe tremblmg land,
When life sprung startling at thy plastic call,
Endless her fijrms, and man the lord of all j
Say was that lordly form, inspired by thee,
To wear eternal chains, and bow the knee ?" — Campbell.



'The subject of your discussion,' said Mr. L,, as he folded
the paper which had for some time absorbed his attention,
and turned to his children, who in the opposite part of the
parlour, whilst he was reading, had been as busily employed
in discussing the merits of the Colonization and Anti-slavery
Societies, ' is certainly one that commends itself to the heart
of humanity in either sex and among all people. Your in-
quiries, last evening, I had not time then to answer fully ;
but I shall be happy now to give you all the information in
relation to it, in my power.'

The little group which Mr. L, thus addressed, consisted
of his eldest daughter, Caroline, a lovely and interesting eirl
of sixteen ; Henry, a sprightly and intelligent boy, wlio was
next to his sister Caroline in age, and their two younger
brothers, and little sister Mary. Caroline and Henry were
conducting the debate, but all seemed deeply interested in

A



14 CONVERSATIONS ON SLAVERV.

Diversity of sentiment.

the subject, and the eyes of all glistened with pleasure when
Mr. L. proposed to gratify their wishes by assisting them
to understand a subject which they found attended with at
least some difficulty. A beloved and respected father is au-
thority to which a dutiful and aflectionate child loves to refer
for information and advice, and to which, ordinarily, an ap-
peal is made with great confidence.

Said Caroline, 'I thought from your remarks, last even-
ing, my dear father, that you supposed the views of both
Henry and myself to be somewhat incorrect ; and I think
nothing more probable than that mine are, for I confess I
know not what to believe when I notice the conflicting opin-
ions of so many good men in relation to this subject.'

'It need not surprise us,' rejoined Mr. L., 'to find pre-
vailing some diversity of sentiment on a subject which, whe-
ther presented to the mind of patriot, philanthropist, or
christian, involves considerations of so great and important
interest. Nor will it be thought strange by me, if my dear
children should find, when we come to converse freely and
fully on the subject, that they are in some respects in error,
not in matters of opinion only, but of fact. I therefore sug-
gested to you, last evening, for I had not time to say more,
that, possibly you might find yourself, in some things, la-
bouring undef mistake. The hint was given, you will recol-
lect, Caroline, in consequence of a remark of yours in re-
spect to the " obtuscness'^ of the African intellect.'

' But, Pa,' said Caroline, with some degree of surprise,
and with apparent incredulity, ' I presume you do not think
the remark unjust? The stupidity of Africans, I suppose
to be proverbial.'

A point was now touched which it was evident had inte-



CONVERSATIONS ON SLAVERY. 15

The Alrican race ofien traduced.

rested the feelings of the children in the previous conversa-
tion that had been held whilst Mr. L. was engaged in read-
ing ; for the smaller children drew closer around the table,
and Caroline and Henry looked at each other and at their
father, as if this was a matter respecting which theij had not
only agreed, but wondered that any one, and especially one
whose opinion they so much respected, could entertain a
thought different from theirs. The reply of Mr. L. engaged
their feelings still more :

' It is true, my daughter, that in defiance of all records of
antiquity, whether sacred or profane, and equally regardless
of the evidence which our own times may furnish, the Afri-
can race are often mentioned as if a distinct order of beings,
a grade between man and brute ; but —

' Pa !' interrupted C, 'I have no such idea as that.'

•I know that yo^i have not,' resumed Mr. L., 'but, my
daughter, you may not be doing ample justice to the Africans,
if you suppose them incapable of the finest sensibilities and
sympathies of our nature, and of making great advances in
all that requires strength or even brilliancy of intellect, as
any other people.'

* Is it not strange, then. Pa,' Caroline inquired, ' that none
of the African race have ever been distinguished for talent?
I can easily conceive that Africans may have warm hearts ;
but it hardly seems to me that you are serious. Pa, when
you speak of the capabilities of the African mind V

' My daughter will be quite as incredulous then, perhaps,
if told that this very people, now so degraded, and who have
been as if by common consent so long and so much traduced,
were for more than a thousand years, which is almost twenty
times longer than the government under which we live has been



16 CONVERSATIONS ON SLAVERY.

Onre an enlightened people.

in existence, the most enlightened people on the face of the
globe.'

'What, Va,ihe .Africans r

' Yes, my daughter.'

' Why, Pa, you surprise me. You certainly do not mean
to be understood that Africans have ever been distinguished
for genius and intellectual attainments?'

' I do, my daughter, as strange as it may seem. Africa,
unhappy Africa, is now degraded, and wherever are her sons
and daughters, they are reproached and trampled under foot;
but among her children stand immortalized in history a long
list of names, as honourable, for aught I know, as any na-
tion upon earth can produce.'

This, C. professed, was to her a new idea ; and Henry
who admitted that he had 'always thought the Africans a
much injured people,' and who protested that he felt 'very
little respect for those people who sometimes place the Af-
rican on a level with baboons,^ acknowledged ' that the
idea of literature and science associated with an African
name,' was as novel to hiiu, as it was to Caroline.

'You do not mean, Pa,' Henry intiuired, 'that any con-
siderable number of Africans have discovered genius, or been
distinguished for the cultivation of their minds V

Caroline declared that she did 'know a single instance,
unless it be that of Phillis Whealley, who lived in Boston,
sixty years ago, and wrote some very pretty poems.'

'You have both of you, my dear children,' said Mr. L.,
' heard of Cyprian, St. Augustine, and Tertullian, those



CONVERSATIONS ON SLAVERY. 17

Distinguished men.

Fathers of the Church; they were Africans. Terrexce, who
has been called

"As sweet a bard
As ever strung the lyre lo song,"

was an African, and was once a slave. Quintillian says that
Terrence was the most elegant and refined of all the come-
dians whose writings appeared on the Roman stage. You
have also read of Hanxo and Hannibal ; they were among
the valiant ones of Africa. It is said that the science of M-
gebra originated in Africa. And what is more, the time was
when Religion shed her rays brilliandy upon that now be-
nighted quarter of the globe, and the church was there pros-
perous. Ecclesiastical history tells us that in one council of
the church in that country assembled on a question of great
importance, two hundred and seventy-seven Bishops took
their seats.'

'Henry now inquired of Caroline if she had ever thought
of these as being Africans; confessing that he had not, al-
though it now seemed to him strange that he never had. He
thought that one would hardly suppose, looking at Africa as
she now is, that such men were her sons. And Caroline,
who also knew the fact that these were Africans, and could
tell much of the ancient history of Africa, for she was well
versed in history, both modern and ancient, but had been so
long accustomed to identify the whole of Africa with the
specimens she had seen, and to judge of the intellectual
powers of all by the present degradation of the great portion
of the Negro race in this country, that she had lost sight of
so important facts, or at least was unaccustomed to think of
them in this connexion, professed to be, ' quite ashamed' of
herself.

'I really do not know,' she said, 'which most surprises

A3



18 CONVERSATION'S ON SLAVERY.

Degrading inlluence oll^agaiiism and Tyranny.

me, my own stupidity in relation to this subject, or the inte-
resting views which open to my mind, by reason of the light
whieh Pa has thrown upon it. But, Pa,' she continued,
' the whole continent of Africa is exceeding degraded now ;
do you not think that the African intellect, generally, has
greatly deteriorated ?'

'My daughter,' said Mr. L., 'liunian nature, in whatever
situation, is w^ronged, if we judge of its capacity unfavoura-
bly, merely because we find that paganism and tyranny de-
grade those that fall under their inlluence.

' Perhaps, however, we shall pursue this whole subject to
greater advantage if, taking time for its consideration and dis-



Online LibraryFrederick FreemanYaradee: a plea for Africa, in familiar conversations on the subject of slavery and colonization → online text (page 1 of 26)