Frederick George Afflalo.

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Sunday and Monday, July 14, August 15, November i, and Christ-
mas Day.

BERLHI

K5iilgUolie BIbUothek

(Platz am Opxrnhaus.)

Founded in 166 1, this Library has about 1,228,000 volumes and
33,600 manuscripts. Maps not counted.

Admission. — ^This is freely granted on application, though the
Director has to be satisfied as to the appUcanrs credentials. Cards
for the Reading-Room only do not include the use of the Lending
Library ; but a card for the latter gives access to every department.

Application for Books. — Order-forms are sold at the Libtary
at the rate of twenty-five for 10 pfennig. They are in the natnre of
a receipt for the book required, of which the applicant has to fill in
all the usual jparticulars as to title, date, size. &c, which are to be
got from the Alphabetic Catalogue.

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PART II.] LIBRARIES 773

A book ( Vonmerkbuch) is kept in the Lending Library for the use
of those desiring to secure any book as soon as returned by another
borrower.

The Rbading-Room {Lesesaal)» — ^The reader can take down all
books available on the shelves, but must return them, when done
with, to the shelves. The same ax>plication-forms (see above) are
available, but are marked " Lesesaal."

Books Kept. — Books can be kept from day to day for not longer
than three weeks. Should the reader stay away for three consecutive
days, the book is returned to the shell Those desiring to keep
books in this way place in them a slip on which is written their
name and the date.

The Library is open on week-days (with the exception of the
customary public holidays, the Saturday before Easter, the
Saturday before Whitsun, and December 24) from (i) Lending
Branch, 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. ; (2) Reading-Room, 9 a.m. to 9 p.m.

Staff. — 71 officials, 42 assistants and 39 subordinate officials.

Expenditure. — 649,474 marks per annum, of which 409,700
marks are for establishment and 146,400 marks for increasing and
maintaining the collection of books.

HOLLAND '

Royal Ubrary (Konlnklijke BlUlotheek)

(The Hague.)

This Library, founded in 1798, has a large number of incunabula,
codices and illuminated medieval manuscripts. Religion, History,
Literature, Art, Law, and Politics are well represented. The Library
also contains 30,000 pamphlets illustrating the history of the
Netherlands, 700 volumes of publications by Elsevier and works
by Aldine, Estienne, and Plantyn in great number. Of the 6.000
manuscripts, 600 relate to theology and the history of the Church.
There is a " Book of Hours " which belonged to Philip the Good
(fifteenth century), containing 178 miniatures. The oldest illumi-
nated manuscript, a copy of the Gospels, dates from the ninth
century. The Library also possesses a copy oi the third Shake-
speare folio. Nearly all recent works published in Holland are
received by the Library, as well as important foreign books. The
annual budget for the acquisition of books, etc., is nearly ;i3,ooo.
The Reading-Room is open from 10 to 4. Books are lent on per-
sonal application, or sent by post to applicants who are well known
or recommended.

Librarian, Dr. W. G. C Byvanck.

AMSTERDAM

Library of the Munleipal University

Founded 1578. Number of volumes, 500.000, including pamphlets.
An increase of 12,000 volumes is made annually. Study and
Reading-Rooms open every week-day from 9.30 a.m. to 5 p.m., and



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774 THE LITERARY YEAR-BOOK [part n.

from 7 p.m. to lo p.in. Amonff the special collections in this
libra^ may be mentioned : (i) Bimiotheca Rosenthaliana (Hebraica
and Judaica) ; (2) the Vondel Museum, consisting of manuscripts,
editions and translations of VondePs works, paintings* engravings,
&c.» relating to or iUustmting Vondel's works, his history, rela-
tions, friends, or to feasts celebrated in his honour ; (3) the Hilman
Library, a rare collection of old and modem Dutch plays, drawings.

Slates and designs of costumes, theatrical performances and tiie
ke, and of manuscripts relative to the history of the Dutch drama
and dramatic art.
Libranan, Dr. C P. BusoBR.

GROHINQEN

Library of the Royal Unlverstty

This Library, founded in 161 4, has 141,600 volumes ; its visitors



number 15,774 per annum, and the number of volumes lent out are
about I3>865. The catalogue. Diet. MS. on cards, is brought np to
date. The Ubrary has six male assistants and one caretaker. The



annual income is ;£ 12,000, apportioned as follows : Books fl$,5oo.
Bind. fl700. Period. fl3,6so. Salaries, etc., fl6,500. The Study and
Reading-Rooms are open every weekday from 10 to 4, and in the
evening from 7 to 10. Books are lent on personal appUcation. or
sent by book-post to persons introduced or weU known.

Librarian, Dr. A. G. Roos. Official tiUe : Director of the library
of the Groningen University.

LETDEN
library of th« Royal University

Founded in 1575. Number of volumes, 210,00a The manu-
scripts number 6,400, of which 3,400 are OrientaL

Librarian, Dr. S. G. de Vbres (Director of the Library of the
Leyden University)

Conservator of the Manuscripts : Louis D. Pbtit.

To this Library is annexed the famous Library of the Moat'
sehappif roor Nederlandsche Leiterkunds (founded in 1757). con-
taimng an immense number of German and Dutch books and
manuscripts dating from the remotest times, together with manu-
scripts of some of the famous authors of the mneteenth century.
Study and Reading-Rooms open from xo to 4. Books are lent or
forwarded by book-post to persons introduced or well known.

Librarian, Louis D. Petit.

OOPEMHAOEN

This Library contains some 650,000 volumes. The annual
expenditure on books is ;£2.20o, on binding £900, and ^2,900 are
expended in salaries. There are oB male assistants, 1 female, and
8 cleaners and caretakers, etc

Librarian, Mr. H. O. Langb,



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THE NOBEL FOUNDATION AND
THE NOBEL PRIZES

(Reprinted from The Author with the kind permission
of the Incorporated Society of Authors.)

A1.FRBD Bbrnhard Nobbl, the inventor of dynamite, died in 1896,
leaving the residue of his great fortune, estimated at about
^2,000,000 sterling, for the foundation of five annual prizes, to be
awarded for the most important discoveries in physics, chemistry,
and physiology or medicme, for the most remarkable work of an
idealist tendency, and for the greatest service rendered to the cause
of peace during the year. The value of each prize is about ^£8,000.

An official French translation of the statutes and regulations
relating to the Nobel Foundation has been issued. The original
documents received the sanction of the King of Sweden on June 29,
1900.

It will be seen that the text of the will has received a liberal
interpretation. In addition to the prizes, provision is made for the
establishment of Nobel institutes where researches may be carried
on, and of special funds from which grants may be given to promote
the objects which the founder had at heart ; and both institutes
and special funds are likely, to say the least, to be quite as productive
of good as the great prizes.

it will be noticed that the benefits of the foundation are to be
open to all nationalities without distinction. No restriction of sex
is mentioned in the statutes.

The Nobel Foundation is based on the will of Dr. Alfred Bemhard
Nobel, dated November 27, 1895, of which the following passage
contains the stipulations with regard to the foundation : " The
residue of my realizable property left after my death shall be disposed
of as follows: The capital, invested in ssife investments by the
executors of my will, shall constitute a fund of which the interest
shall be distributed annually as a reward to such persons as have
rendered to humanity the greatest services during the preceding
year. The total amount shall be divided into five equal parts,
and allotted, one [part] to the person who has made the most
important discovery or invention m the physical sciences ; another
[part] to the person who has made the most important discovery
or the greatest improvement in chemistry ; the third to the author
of the most important discovery in the domain of physiology or
medicine ; the fourth to the person who has produced the most
remarkable literary work of an idealist tendency ; and, finally, the
fifth to the person who has done most, or laboured best, for the
cause of fraternity among different peoples, for the suppression or
reduction of standing armies, or for me formation and promotion of
peace congresses.

" The prizes shall be awarded as follows : For physics and
chemistry by the Swedish Academy of Sciences ; for work in physi-

775



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776 THE LITERARY YEAR-BOOK [part n

ology and medicine by the Caroline Institute of Stockholm ; for
literature by the Stockholm Academy ; and, finally, for the cause of
peace, by a commission of five members elected by the Norwegian
Storthing. It is my express desire that in the award of the prizes
no account shall be taken of nationality, so that each prize may go
to the most worthy, whether he be Scandinavian or not."

An agreement was made with certain heirs to a smaller portion
of Dr. Nobel's property, by which they renounced the inheritance
for themselves and their heirs, on the express condition that —

(a) The general statutes regulating the award of the prizes by the
competent authorities should be drawn up in concert with a
delegate representing the Robert Nobel family, and sub-
mitted for approval to the King of Sweden.

(&) That certain permanent regulations, stated below, should t>e
passed with regard to the award of the prizes.

I. — ^Thb Statutes.
(i) The General Fund,

1 . The General Fund is to be controlled by a coundl of administra-
tion, composed of five members, of Swedish nationality, sitting at
Stockholm. The president is to be nominated by the King of
Sweden. The four other members are to be elected by a body of
fifteen representatives, chosen by the corporate bodies named in the
will. (See 2, below.)

A deputy is also to be elected to act in the absence of the president,
and two deputies are to be elected for each of the other members of
the council.

The members and deputies will be elected in future for a period of
two years, the term of ofiice beginning on May i. But two of the
members of the first council, selected by lot, will retire, after a single
year of ofiice, so that in future two may retire annually.

The council will elect one of its members as " director and adminis-
trator " (directeur^gSrant),

2. Of the fifteen representatives, six are to be chosen by the
Academy of Sciences (for the two sections of physics and chemistry),
and three are to be chosen by each of the other corporate bodies..
In addition, the Academy of Sciences will nominate four deputy-
representatives, and each of the other corporate bodies two, to act
for representatives prevented from so doing.

The representatives will hold office for two years. They will elect
a president from among their number. Nine representatives will
form a quorum.

In certain cases the representatives may be called on to control
the management of the foundation by the council.

3. The functions of the council include the payment of the money
value of prizes to the prize-winners and the payment on requisition
of all expenses incurred in the award of prizes, the payment of sums
due to the Nobel Institutes, and of sums required for all other
purposes.



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PART II.] THE NOBEL PRIZES 777

4. One-tenth of the net annual revenue from the General Fund
is to be added to the capital ; and the interest on sums for prizes
not awarded is also to be added to the capital till such sums have
been returned to the General Fund or transferred to a special fund.

(2) The Nobel Prizes,

1 . The prizes are to be awarded as a rule annually.

2. For a work to be admitted to compete for a prize it must have
been printed and published.

3. In order to be admitted to the competition, each work must be
proposed in writing by some person or body of persons qualified to
do so. Regulations defining the categories of persons qualified to
pro|>ose works for the competitions are given below under the
special regulations for the various sections. No person may propose
his own work.

4. Each proposal must be accompanied by the written works and
documents on which the proposal is based, and by a written state-
ment in support of the proposal. The corporate body with whom
the award of a prize lies shall be dispensed from proceeding to a
detailed examination of any proposal in the following cases : (i) If
the proposal or works presented are not written either in one of the
Scandinavian languages, or in English, French, German, or Latin ;
(2) if the majority of the corporate body in question would be
required, in order to appreciate the proposed work, to acquaint
themselves with a memoir written in a lan^age of which the
interpretation would entail special difficulties or considerable
expense.

5. The proposals received from the previous ist of February to
the ist of February in each year shall be considered together. The
will prescribes that prizes shall be awarded for work done *' in the
preceding year," but this expression is to be taken to mean " that
the object of the awards shall be [as a rule] the most recent fruit of
efforts in the fields designated in the will, but [that it may be] older
work in [exceptional] cases where its importance has only recently
been demonstrated."

6. If no work be regarded as deserving of a prize in any section
the amount of the prize is to be held over until the next year ; if
the prize be not awarded then, the money may be either returned to
the General Fund by the corporate body concerned or invested to
form a special fund for the section, the income from which is to be
used to promote the chief objects of the founder, otherwise than by
the award of a prize. (See also under special funds, below.) In
accordance with an agreement made with certain heirs of Nobel,
referred to above, it is stipulated, for all future time, that in each
section a prize shall be awarded at least once in each consecutive
period of five years ; and that the value of the prize given shall not
be less than sixty per cent. (60 %) of the total amount available of
the prize, and that it shall not be divided into more than three
prizes. The present statutes provide that the amount of the prize
may be equeJly divided between tAvo works, both being judged
worthy of the prize.



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778 THE LITERARY YEAR-BOOK [part ii.

A prize may be awarded to the joint work of two or more o^abo-
rators.

The corporate bodies are allowed to decide ii prizes within their
respective jurisdictions may or may not be awarded to an institution
or a society.

7. The four prizes for physics, chemistry, literature, and medicine
wul be awarded by the corporate bodies named in the will, after
receiving a report in each case from a special committee, to be called
a Nobel committee, and consisting of three or five members elected
by the corporate body concern^. The " Peace " prize will be
awarded by a commissoin of the Norwegian Storthing m accordance
with the terms of the will. Members of the Nobel committees and
of the commission of the Storthing may be of foreign nationality.
In special cases the corporate bodies concerned may add to the
Nobel committees additional members possessing special competence.

Members of the Nobel conmuttees may receive a suitable re-
muneration for their work, to be fixed by the corporate body
concerned.

8. Against the decisions with regard to the award of prizes no
appeal can be made.

if in the deliberations with re^d to the award any difference of
opinion should arise, it shall neither be mentioned in the minutes
of the proceedings nor otherwise revealed in any way.

9. A solemn assembly will be held on the loth of December in each
year, the anniversary of the death of the founder, at which the
corporate bodies charged with the award of the prizes will publicly
announce their decisions, and will present to each successfm candi-
date an order for the amount of his prize, a diploma, and a gold
medal bearing the ef^gy of the donor, and an appropriate inscription.

ID. Each prizeman is bound, unless he is prevented from doing so
{d moins d'etnpUhetnent), to deUver a pubUc lecture on the subject of
the work for which the prize was awarded. The lecture in the case
of the first four prizes is to be delivered at Stockholm, in the case of
the " Peace " prize at Chris tiania.

II. — Special Regulations for the Section or Litbratorx.

1, The corporate body for the section is the Swedish Academy.
Acootding to the statutes, the term " titerature " in the wul is

intended to apply not only to pui^y Uteraxy works, but to all other
works possessmg from their form and style nterary value.

The Nobel PrtMe in Literature.

2. The following institutions and persons are to be entitled to
nominate competitors for the prizes, in accordance with the statutes :

(i.) Members of the Swedish Academy (referred to hereafter as

" the Academy ") and members of the French Academy

and the Spanish Academy, which resemble this Academy

in their organization and aims.

(ii.) Members of the literary sections of other Academies and

members of literary societies similar to Academies.
(iiL) University professors of aesthetics, literature, and history.



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PART n.] THE NOBEL PRIZES 779

This regulation is to be'publidied at least onoe every five yeaxe in
a& official journal or in one of the newspapers most widely read in
the three Scandinavian coontries and the principal countries of the
civilized world.

The Nobel Literary Institute.

3. The institute will include an important library devoted chiefly
to modem literature. The Academy will nominate a librarian, with
one or more assistant librarians, and also a number of qualified
literary assistants, titular add supernumerary, whose duty it will be
to draw up reports on questions relating to the prize and on recent
foreign literature, and to execute such translations of foreign works
as may be required.

The institute will be placed under the supervision of an inspector
nominated by the King of Sweden, and under the immediate direc-
tion of one of the members of the Academy nominated specially by
this body.

The Special Fund for Literature.

4. The Academy has power to use the special fund to encourage,
in accordance with the chief objects of the founder, all literary
activity, in Sweden and abroad, of such land as may be regarded
as of importance to civilization, especially in the intellectual domain
to which it is the duty of the Academy to devote its attention and
care. (See below.)

III. — ^Thb Corporate Bodies Mentioned in the Will of the

Founder.

The Royal Academy of Sciences {Kongl. Vetenshaps Ahademien) of
Stockholm was founded in 1739. Its present statutes bear the date
July 13, 1850. Its object is to encourage the sciences, to aid in their
development, and to spread scientific knowledge by means of
printed publications.

The lung of Sweden is the patron of the Academy, which includes
a hundred Swedish and riorwegian and seventy-five foreign
members. The national members are divided into nine sections, as
follows :

I. Pure Mathematics.
II. Applied Mathematics.

III. Applied Mechanics.

IV. Physical Sciences.

V. Chemistry, Geology, and Mineralogy.
VI. Botany and Zoology.
VII. The Medical Sciences.
VIII. Technology, Economics, and Statistics.
IX. The Sciences and Scientific Professions generally.

The president of the Academy is elected annually, and there are
several other officers, including a perpetual secretary, whose especial
business it is to manage the affairs of the Academy.



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780 THE LITERARY YEAR-BOOK [part ii.

The Swedish Academy {Svenska Ahad&mien) of Stockholm, was
founded on March 20, 1786, by Gustavus III., and at the same time
received its statutes, which are still in force. It is devoted to litera-
ture, including both prose and poetry ; and the chief object ol the
Academy is to labour for the purity, the vigour, and the elevation
of the Swedish language, in scientific works, and especially in the
various branches of poebry and prose, including those which serve
for the interpretation of religious truths. It is the duty of the
Academy to compile a dictionary and a grammar of the Swedish
language, and to publish treatises tending to strengthen and develop
literary taste {h bon goiit). The Academy awards annual prizes for
competitions in prose and poetry. The King is the patron of the
Academy. The Academy includes eighteen members, who must be
of Swedish nationality. The officers include a director, a chancellor,
and a perpetual secretary.

The Royal CaroUne institute of Medicine and Surgery {KongL
Karolinska Medico-Kirurgiska Instittiet) of Stockholm dates from
the year 1 8 1 5 . The statutes at present in force received the sanction
of the King of Sweden on April 29, 1886. The Academy corresponds
to a Faculty of Medicine, and has the same powers as the Faculties
of Medicine in the Universities of Upsala and Lund. The institute
carries on the theoretical and practical teaching of the medical
sciences, and awards diplomas to medical students by examination.

The direction and administration of the institute are in the hands
of a Rector, elected by the College of Professors from among the
members. The present number of professors is thirty- three.

The Norwegian Storthing is the Legislative Assembly of Norway.
It is elected indirectly by universal suffrage triennially. It consists
of 1 14 members.

The first prize awarded for Literature under the above conditions
¥ras given, in 1901, to M. Sully Prudhomme. It was not until
January, 1902, that steps were taken, on the invitation of the Swedish
Academy, for the due representation of English letters. A Com-
mittee was then appointed by the Incorporated Society of Authors,
and is composed of the following eentlemen : Chairman : The Right
Hon. The Lord Avebury, P.C., D.C.L., LL.D., F.R.S. Members :
Arthur Christopher Benson, M.A., F.R.H.S. ; Austin Dobson, LL.D. ;
Sir Robert Giffen, K.C.B., F.R.S. ; Edmund Gosse, M.A„ LL.D. ;
Mrs. John Richard Green ; The Right Hon. R. B. Haldane, M.P.,
LL.D., K.C. ; Thomas Hardy. Secretary : G. Herbert Thring. This
Committee, acting in concert with all other persons and bodies in
Great Britain quanfied to vote, awarded the prise in 1902 to Theodor
Mommsen, for his great work in connection with Roman Hist<»y.
The award in respect of the year 1903 was made to Bjomsteme
Bjdmson; and in 1904 was divided between Fr6d6rique Mistral,
the Provencal poet, and Jos6 Echegaray, the Spanish dramatist
The award for 1905 was made to Henry Sienkiewies. The award
for 1906 went to Signor Carducci. The award for 1907 was not
announced at the time of going to press (November 30), though
Mr. Kipling's name is mentioned.



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BOOK-PRODUCTION

I.— PRINTERS (London and Provincbs)

ALEXANDER & 9HEPHEARD, 21 & 22 Fnrmval St., Holbom, B.c.
BALLANTYNE, HANSON & CO., 13 & 14 Tavistock Street.

Covent Garden ; and Edinburgh.
BEMROSE & SONS. LIMITED, 4 Snow HiU. E.c. ; and Derby.
BILLING & SONS, LIMITED, Guildford.
BLADES, EAST & BLADES, 23 Abchurch Lane, e.c.
BRADBURY, AGNEW & CO.. LIMITED. 8-10 Bouverie Street,

B.C. ; and Tonbridge.
BRENDON, W., & SON. We«t Hoe, Plymouth.
BUTLER & TANNER. 40 St. Andrew's Hill. B.C. ; and Frome.
CAUSTON. SIR J., & SONS, LIMITED, 9 Eastcheap. B.c.
CHISWICK PRESS, THE (Whittingham & Co.). 20 & 21 Took's

Court, Cursitor Street, e.c.
CLARK, R. &. R., LIMITED, 191 Fleet Street. B.C. ; and Edinburgh.
CLAY. J. & C. F., Ave Maria Lane. e.c.
CLAY. R.. & SONS. LIMITED. 6-8 Bread Street Hill. B.C. ; and

Bungay.
CLOWES. W., & SONS. LIMITED (incorporating Messrs. Gilbert

& Rivington. Limited). Duke Street. Stamford Street, s.B. ;

and ^^ccclcs
COLSTON & CO., LIMITED, 11 Henrietta Street, w.c. ; and Edin-
burgh.
CONSTABLE. T. & A.. 14 Cockspur Street. Charing Cross, s.w. ;

and Edinburgh.
COWAN & CO., LIMITED, Perth.
CRANFORD PRESS. Chiswick.
CURTIS. A. C. High Street. Guildford.

DALZIEL & CO., LIMITED, 108 & 1 10 High St., Camden Town, N.w.
DE LA MORE PRESS. LIMITED. 32 George Street. Hanover

Square, w.
EDINBURGH PRESS. THE (Frank Murray). Young Street.

Edinburgh.



Online LibraryFrederick George AfflaloThe Literary year book → online text (page 78 of 83)