Frederick George Afflalo.

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EVANS, EDMUND, 6 Racquet Court, Fleet Street, B.c. ; anH

16 Swan Street, Borough, s.s. {Colour.)
EYRE & SPOTTISWOODE, East Harding Street, e.c.
HARRISON AND SONS, 45, 46, & 47 St. Martin's Lane, w.c.
HAZELL. WATSON & VINEY. LIMITED. 52 Long Acre. w.c. ;

and Aylesbury.
HODGSON. C F., & SON. Newton St., Holbom, w.c.
HOPE. A. T.. & CO.. Friar Street. Carter Lane, e.g.
JOLLY. W.. Aberdeen.

JONES, G. W., St. Bride House, Dean Street, e.c.
JORDAN & SONS, LIMITED. 116, 120 Chancery Lane; 8 BeU

Yard, Temple Bar ; and Bishop's Court, Chancery Lane, B.C.
LONDON & COUNTY PRINTING WORKS. Drury Lane. w.c.

781



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782 THE LITERARY YEAR-BOOK [part ii.

M'CORQUODAX.E & CO., LIMITED, 43 Cardington Street. Euston
Square, n.w.

MXAGAN A GUMMING. Warriston Road. Edinburgh. {Colour.)

McLaren & CO., limited, 24 St. Giles's Street. Edinburgh.

MORRISON A GIBB. LIMITED. I2 NoHolk Street, Strand, w.c ;
and Edinburgh.

NEILL & CO.. LIMITED. 13A George Street, Edinburgh.

RIVERSIDE PRESS, LIMITED. Canon Street, Edinburgh.

SPOTTISWOODE & CO.. 3-8 New Street Square. E.c.

STORER, T. N.. SONS & CO., Norfolk Street, Strand, w.c. ; and
Nottingham. ( Colour. )

TRUSCOTT, JAMES, & SON. LIMITED. Suffolk Lane. b.c.;
and Tonbridge, Kent.

UNWIN BROS.. 27 Pilgrim Street, e,c, ; and Woking.

WALTERS. HYSSETT. CLATWORTHY & CO.. Weston-super-
Mare.

WATERLOW & SONS, LIMITED. 26 & 27 Great Winchester St.,B.c.

WYMAN & SONS. LIMITED. 63-67 Carter Lane ; and Fetter Lane,

B.C.



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PART II.] BOOK-PRODUCTION 783

II.— BINDERS (Loudon)

ANDERSON & FERRIER, 29 St. Mary Street, Edinburgh.
BAILEY BROS.. Ronalds Road. Highbury, n.
BAIN. A. W., St CO., I Baldwin's Place, Gray's Inn Road, B.C
BELL, MATTHEW, & CO., i8a Cursitor Street, Chancery Lane, E.a
BURN, JAMES, & CO.. LIMITED, 12. 13, A 36-43 Kirby St.. e.g.
COBDEN-SANDERSON. S. T.. 15 Upper MaU, Hammersmith, w.

{Uather.)
COCKERELL. DOUGLAS, Ivy Cottage, London Road, Ewell,

Surrey. {Leather.)
COLLINS, B., & SONS, 18, 20. * 22 Great Arthur St., B.C. {Leather.)
DE COVERLEY, ROGER, 91 Shaftesbury Avenue, w. {Leather,)
DIPROSE BROS., White rfart Street, w.c.
EGLETON A SONS, 11 and 12 Broadway, Ludgate Hill, B.C.
FISHER BOOKBINDING CO., LIMITED, 3 Broadway. Ludgate

HiU, B.C. (Uaiher.)
FORWARD. C J.. A SON. LIMITED. Hatfield Street. Golden

Lane. B.C. {Leather,)
JUDD, H. K., & CO.. Qerkenwell Cose. B.c.
KELLY AND SONS. 7 & 8 Water Street. Strand, w.c.
KITCAT. G. & J.. 50 Hatton Garden, b.c.
LEIGHTON. SON, & HODGE, 16 New Street Square, B.C.
LEIGHTON. J. & J.. 40 Brewer Street, w.
MANSELL. W. J., A CO., 5-8 Crown Court. Chancery Lane, w.c.

{Leather.)
MORRELL. W. T., & CO., 17-21 Dean Street, Soho. w.
NEVETT BROS.. 44 A 45 Kirby Street. Hatton Garden, b.c.
PATTINSON. MISS A., 29 Gilbert St.. Museum St.. w.c. {Leather.)
PECK, R.. 85 Golden Lane. b.c.
RAMAGE. JOHN, A CO., 5 Creed Lane, b.c.
RIVlfeRE A SON, 33 Heddon Street, w. {Leather.)
ROOT, W. A SON. 29-30 Eagle Street, Holbom.
SHIP BINDING WORKS. THE, 32 Great Saffron HiU. b.c.
SIMPSON, G., A CO.. LIMITED, 3. 4. A $' Warwick Square. B.c.
SMITH BROS.. 3-9 Ivy Lane. Newgate Street, b.c.
SMITH. W. H.. A SON, Goldsmith Street, Drury Lane, w.c.
STRAKER A SON, Wheatsheaf Works, Carmelite Street, B.c.
SYMMONS, E., A SONS. LIMITED, 23 Bouverie Street, B.c.
TRICKETT, WESTLEYS. A CO.. LIMITED. Hatfield Street.

Blackfriars, b.c.
TRUSCOTT, JAMES. A SON, LIMITED, Suffolk Lane, B.C.;

and Tonbndge, Kent.
WELLS. E. H.. 48 Farringdon Street. B.C. {Leather.)
WORSFOLD. W.. 12 Frith Street. Soho. w.
YARDLEY, T., S" Liverpool Road, n. {Leather.)
ZAEHNSDORF. JOSEPH, i Cambridge Circus, w.c. {Uaiher.)



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784



THE LITERARY YEAR-BOOK [part ii.



III.— PHOTOGRAPHERS (London)
nioitrattoBi for Magaiiiias and Books



Autotype Co., 74 New Oxford

. St.. w.c.
AvBRV & Co., 157 Strand, w.c.
Barrauds, 263 Oxford St., w.
Bassano, a., 25 Old Bond St.,w.

BSDFORD, LbMBRB & Co., I47

Strand, w.c.

BBR1.IN Photographic Co., 133
New Bond St., w.

BoLAKS Elsctrotypb Agency,
10 Bolt Court, E.c. Agents
for many provincial and
foreign photographers.

BoLAS. S. B., & Co., 68 Oxford
St., w.

Dixon & Son, 112 Albany St,

N.W.

Dossbter, £., 66 Mill Hill Road,

Acton (Photographer at

British Museum).
Do.WNBY, W. & D., 61 Ebury St.,

s.w.
Elliott & Fry, 55 A 56 Baker

Sti, w.
Elus & Walsry, 51 Baker St.,

w.
Fradelle St Young, 283 Regent

St., w.
Gale & Polden, Ltd., 2 Amen

Comer, • ;b.c. Speciality :

military and naval subjects,
Gregory, W., St Co., 51 Strand,

w.c.
GuNN ft Stuart, 162 Sloane St.,

s.w.; and Richmond, Surrey.
Hollybr, F.. 9 Pembroke Sq., w.
Hughes, Miss A., 52 Gower St.,

w.c
Lafayette, Ltd., 179 New

Bond St., w.



London Electrotype Agency,
31 St. Bride St.. k.c.
Agents for many London,
provincial, and for^gn
photographers. Sole agents
for the Illustrated L^tdcn
News* illustrations.

London Stereoscopic and
Photographic Co., 54
Cheapside, b.c. Agents for
many provincial photo-
graphers.

Mansell, W. a., & Co., 405
Oxford St., w.

M AULL & Fox, i 87 a Piccadilly, w.

Mayall & Co., 126 Piccadilly, w.

MoNGBR, Arthur P., $ Bream's
Buildings, e.c.

Newton & Co., 3 Fleet St.,

E,C.

Photochrom Co., 121 Cheapside,

B.C.

Press Picture Agency, 11
Tothill St., S.W. AgenU
for many foreign photo-
graphers.

Rischgitz, a.. The Studios,
Linden Gardens, Bayswater»
w.

Russell & Sons. 17 Baker St.,
w.

Speaight, F. & R., 157 New
Bond St.

Thomson, J., 70A Gxosvenor St.,
w.

Underwood & Undbrwood, 3
Heddon St., w. Foreign
stereoscopic.

Valentine & Sons, 32 Charing
Cross, s.w.



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PART II.]



BOOK-PRODUCTION



785



IV.— PHOTO-ENGRAVERS AND PROCESSBLOCK
MAKERS



Acme Tone Engraving Co.,
9 Arundel St., Strand.

Alexander, A., 15, Westmore-
land Place, City Road, n.

Allen & Co., 107 Clifton St.,
Finsbury Square, s.c.

AndrA & Sleigh, Ltd., 8 and 9
Stonecutter St.. s.c.

Art Photogravure Co.« Ltd.,
146 Strand, w.c.

Art Rbprodtjction Co., Plough
Court, Fetter Lane, e.c.

Artists* Illustrators, Ltd.,
66 Ludgate Hill, e.c

Autotype Co., 74 New Oxford
St., w.c.

Bohemian Graphic Society
" Unie," Ltd., The, Prague,
74 and 75 Watling St., e.c.

BuRSiLL & Ladyman, i6i Fleet

St., E.C.

Cattell & Son, i Dorset Build-
ings, Salisbury Square, e.c.

Cole, £., & Co., 250 Caledonian
Road, N.

Colls, W. L., The Studios,
Castlen&u Gardens, Barnes,

S.W.

Dean Engraving Co., 26 Dean

St., Fetter Lane, e.g.
Dell AG an A, B., St Co., Ltd.,

1 1 Shoe Lane, E.C.
Dent & Co., 85 Bromells Road,

Clapliam Common, s.w.
Drummomd, J. C, ft Co.. 1 1 Lower

John St., Golden Square, w.
Gainsborough Photo-etching

Co., 211 Hi^ St., Watford.

Herts.
Garratt & Walsh, Ealing, w.
Gbb & Watson, 20 and 22 St.

Bride St.. E.G.
H ALP-TONE Engraving Co.,

25 Farringdon Avenue, e.c.
Hare. G. M.. ft Co., 22 Bride

Lane, e.c.
Hentschel, Carl, ft Co., 182

Fleet St., B.c.



Hyatt, J., 70 Mortimer St.,
Cavendish Square, w.

Kleboe & Franklin, 7$ Fleet
St., E.c.

London Electrotype Agency,
Ltd., 31 St. Bride St., e.c.

London Etching Co., 3 Hol-
bom Place, w.c.

London-Scottish Engraving
Co., Ltd., 19 and i9ACursi-
tor St.

Marshall, J. A., ft Co., 12 St.
Bride St., E.C.

Meisenbach Co., Ltd., West
Norwood, s.E. ; and 173
Fleet St., E.C.

Naumann, Paul, 71 Pentonvillo
Road^ N.

Newnes; G., Ltd., i Conduit
Buildings, Floral St., w.c.

Photochrom Co., 121 Cheap-
side, E.c.

Printing Arts Co., 119, 121, 113
Shaftesbury Avenue, w.c.

Sedgwick, W. F., Ltd., 236,
237 Blackfriars Road, s.e.

Sheldon, Melloy, & Co., 280
High Holbom, w.c.

Strand Engraving Co., Ltd.,
146 Strand, w.c.

Swain, John, & Son, 58 Farring-
don St., E.C.; 266 Strand, w.c.

Swan Electric Engraving Co.,
Charing Cross Road, w.c.

Typographic Etching- Co., 4
Trafalgar Square, w.c.

Vaus & Crampton, Baldwin*!
Gardens, Gray's Inn Road.

Waddington, I. J., Ltd., 16
Henrietta Street, w.c.

Walker ft Cocksrbll, 16 Clif-
ford's Inn, E.C.

Waterlow ft Sons, Ltd., Skin-
ner St., Finsbury, e.c.

Woodbury Permanent Photo-
graphic Printing Co..
Great New St., Fetter Lane,

E.C.



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1



SIGNS USED IN CORRECTING PROOFS

to be altered throughout line by line, and a
. few words may possibly affect sever agp ages. JL
4ttufirur f^he charges made for corrections are based
^w on the time co su med in leaking them, and C^

7 are very difficult to check, even by an expert
CJ >4f it is actually a necessity that a work must y;
t ^ be corrected when in type,kh^/in3Vuiiount of At^.

flh these^terations is likely to upset the arrange-
"^ ment of the lines and pages, it is bes^ to ask fi^^fn..

W^ii^for proofs in ^^alle;^ or slip form. This
/ / means a little more trouble to the iprinter, but IL

it will probably cause less expense in the long ^
7t.L;c\m. fin marldng (^rrections for the printer v*-^-
^ certain signs and symbols are used which ex- j^
press more ccmcisely the meaning tl]|^ could Ji>4.
vj be indicate^ d by a more ordinary method of
/ m arking the alterations^
^U^'^%.mt^^^ give on the opposite page the prindp
jj ^2Et^tX(i3t% used : that page showing the corrc
^^^'^l\ioD!& as 4lu6 would be marked by a skilled
/person ; this, the facing page, the type corrected
, according to these directions ; and the pag&«
' overleaf the signs explained in detail. .

7C In n^aking a correction in a pro^ alwajrs iff
mark the wrong letter or word through, and / t f
IuTI^ insert the alteijtion in 4fa» margin, not in t^fei-
p the middle of the printed matter, as it is apt^* /rpef

^ overlooked if there is no mai^al reference
^ to the correction I Jb keep the difierent C^iJt^*
"^ co^ctions distinct, rniish each one off wit^
^^ ISstroke, thus /



786

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indpifc aXJ
correc- /



CORRECTED PROOF

to be altered throughout line by line, and a
few words may possibly affect several pages.
The charges made for corrections are basied on
the time consumed in making them, and are
very difiBicult to check, even by an expert.

If it is actually a necessity that a work must
be corrected when in tjrpe, and the amount of
these alterations is likely to upset the arrange-
ment of the lines and pages, it is best to ask
for proofs in *' galley " or slip form. This
means a little more trouble to the printer, but
it will probably cause less expense in the long
run.

In marking corrections for the printer certain
signs and symbols are used which express more
concisely the meaning than could be indicated
by a more ordinary method of marking the
alterations. We give on the opposite page the
principal characters used : that page showing
the corrections as they would be marked by a
skilled person ; this, the facing page, the t3T)e
corrected according to these directions ; and
the page overleaf the signs explained in detail.

In makiiig a correction in a proof always
mark the wrong letter or word through, aind
insert the alteration in the margin, not in
the middle of the printed matter, as it is apt
to be overlooked if there is no marginal reference
to the correction. To keep the different cor-
rections distinct, finish each one off with a
stroke, thus /. — ^From The Making and Issuing
of Books, by C. T. Jacobi.



787

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SIGNS USED m CORRECTING PROOFS

± To push down a " space " or " quadrat " standing

high.
C To bring letters or words together ; to " full

out " an indented line.
£) To reverse a letter set upside down.
□. To " indent " a line one ** em " of its own body.
its. To transpose letters, words, or sentences
H To insert a *' space."
rom. To change italic into roman letters.
Hal. To change roman into iialic,
1 To insert "inverted commas/' or to insert a
" superior " letter or figure, make this sign
and write the desired insertion above it.
L To reduce a ** space."
n.p. To commence a new paragraph.
Lc. To change a capital or small capital into a '* lower-
case " letter.
S To delete a letter, word, line, etc.
run on. To cause matter to follow on preceding matter
(without commencing a new paragraph).
^ To rectify a crooked letter, word, line, etc.
X To substitute a good letter for a battered or
broken one.
w.f. To substitute for a wrong fount letter another

letter from the correct fount.
steL To cause a letter, line, word, etc., which has
been altered by mistake to siand as it was before
alteration.
over. To move a letter or word from a crowded line
into the line succeeding it*
To insert a point.

cap. To change a lower-case letter into a capital (or
draw three lines ^ imder it).
sm. cap. To change a lower or higher case letter into a
small capital (or draw two lines = under it).
788



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SOME SIZES OF TYPE
MODERN

Canon is the

2-line Gt. Primer

Two-line English is
Two-line Pica is the

Double Pica is the size of

Great Primer. The Basutos were

EngKsh. The Basutos were declared British
Pica. The Basutos were declared British subjects
Small Pica. The Basutos were declared British subjects
Long Primer. The Basutos were declared British subjects
Bourgeois. The Basutos were declared British subjects, partly out
Brevier. The Basatos were declared British subjects, partly oat of a
Minion. The Baautos were declared British subjects, partly out of a aym-
NunparelL The Basutos were declared BritlBh snbjectBi partly oat of a tfjmpathetic
Ruby. The Basntoi were declared British sutjects, iMutly cat of a sympatheilo wish to
Pearl. The Buntoe wen decUred BriiUh tabjcett, partly oot a' a tjinpathBtie wlah to men« aod
DUnoaJ Tb« BasaiM wm «l«elan4 Bridtk M^Mtt) pwtlr mi rf s ■ynfUMUl* «lah t* i*»ttt aad ptvMct iIm«

789

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A FEW OF THE

BIBLIOGMPHICAL AND TYPOGMPHICAL TERMS

• IN MORE GENERAL USE

Books are defined respectively as folio, quarto (4to), octavo
(8vo), duodecimo (i2mo), sextodecimo (i6mo), octodecimo
(i8mo), vigesimo-quarto (24mo), trigesimo-seomdo (32mo),
etc. These definitions are arrived at by the number of
times a sheet is folded ; for instance, a folio would be two
leaves to the sheet, a quarto four leaves, and so on. Some-
times it is difficult to distinguish, say, an octavo from a
quarto ; but if it is printed on a laid paper, the water-lines
that run at intervals through the sheet (not to be confused
with the smaller and closer wire-marks of the sheet) will
determine this. The water-lines on a folio, octavo, and
octodecimo would be perpendicular ; on a quarto, duo-
decimo, and sextodecimo, horizontal. The signatures or
letters placed at the foot of the first, and sometimes the
third, page also serve as a guide to identification.

Advance sheets or copies. Printed in advance for simtd-

taneous publication elsewhere, or for preliminary

notices.
Ampersand, The abbreviation or sign for the word

" and " : thus, & (roman), * (italic), & (black-letter).
Aniiqua, A German expression for Roman types.
Bastard title. The fly- or half-title before the full title of the

work.
Black-letter, A general expression used to indicate old

English text or church type.
Block. A general term used as embracing woodcut, electro,

or zinco.

791



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792 THE LITERARY YEAR-BOOK [part ii.

Body of the work. The text or subject-matter is thus

described to distinguish it from the preliminary,

appendix, or notes.
Broadside. A sheet printed on one side only.
Calendered paper. Paper very highly rolled or glazed, much

used for printing illustrated books or magazines.
Cast off. To calculate or estimate length of copy to be

printed — a troublesome task . in uneven or badly-
written MS.
Clarendon, A bold or fat-faced type is generally thus

described. The older founts were called " Egyptian."
Clerical errors. Mistakes in copying MS.
ClicM. French term for a cast, usually applied to stereo

or electro duplicates.
CoUate, To run through the sheets of a book to see if the

signatures are in sequence.
Colophon, An inscription or tail-piece, usually a printer's

imprint, at the end of a book.
Cut edges, A book which has been cut on the three sides

is said to have cut edges.
Cut-in notes. Side-notes which are inserted within the

text at the side instead of in the margin.
Deckle. The raw rough edge of handmade paper is thus

termed.
Dummy copy, A copy generally made up of blank leaves

to represent the actual bulk of a work not quite com-
plete.
End leaves or papers. The blank fly-leaves at either end

of a book.
Fly-title, The half-title in front of the general title, or

which divides sections of a work.
Folio, A sheet of paper folded in two leaves only.
Fore-edge, The outer side of a book (distinct from the head

or tail) when folded.
Format, The bibliographical term for size and shape of a

book.
Fount, This term is applied to the whole number of letters

constituting a complete set of types of any particular

class of face or body.
Fractur. A German expression for their text or black-letter

characters.



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TYPOGRAPHICAL AND OTHER TERMS 793

Half 'bound. Books partly bound in leather, with cloth or

paper sides.
Half-title. The sub-title in front of the full title.
Heads, A term applied to the margins at the tops of the

pages.
Indent, To set a line some little distance back, as in the

case of a fresh paragraph.
Inferior figures and letters. Made to range at the bottom

of letters, thus : m.eio
Leaded matter. Types with leads between the lines, in

contradistinction to " solid " matter.
LeUerpress. Printed matter from t}^, as distinct from

lithographic or plate printing.
Lower-case letters. The small letters as used here, a, b, c.

d, etc.
Moulds. Generally understood as the preliminary stage in

stereot3^ing by paper process.
Octavo. A sheet of paper folded into eight, shortly written

thus : 8vo.
Off-set. The set-off of ink from one sheet to another, the

result of insufficient drying or bad ink.
Preliminary. Any matter coming before the text of a

work : title, preface, contents, etc.
Proof. A trial print of any forme of tj^, plates, or blocks.
Pulls. A term generally applied to proofs.
Quarto. A sheet folded into four leaves ; shortly : 4to.
Quire. Twenty-four sheets. Books in sheets, that is, not

bound, are said to be in quires.
Quotes. A printer's term for turned commas (") and apos-
trophes (*'), placed respectively at the beginning and

end of quoted matter.
Ream. Twenty quires. A printer's ream is 516 sheets;

handmade and drawing papers sometimes 472, 480, or

500 sheets.
Recto. The right-hand pages of any work.
Rubricated. Printed in red ink.
Serif, The fine line on the top and bottom of a letter, as

in H. Sanserif thus : H.
Set-off. Where the ink sets off from one sheet to another.
Shoulder notes. Marginal notes placed at the top corner of

the page.



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794 THE LITERARY YEAR-BOOK [part n.

Signature, The letter or figure at the foot of the first page

of a sheet to guide the binder in folding ; also used by

printers to identify any particular sheet.
Size copy, A thickness or dummy copy [q-v."].
Slips. Applied to matter not made up into pages, but

pulled as proofs in long slips.
SmaU capitals The smaller capitals (as distinct from the

full capitals), thus : Standing. Indicated in MS. by

two strokes (=) underneath.
Standing. Type not distributed after printing is said to

be '* standing."
Stereotypes. Casts of pages of tjrpes, etc., in metal, either

by " plaster " or " paper " process.
Superior letters and figures. Small letters cast at the top of

the shoulder of type, used for references or abbrevia-
tions, thus : 1 « « M' No.
Swash letters. Seventeenth-century italic capitals, with

tails and flourishes, thus : Jt M 3{^, etc.
Tails. The bottoms or tail ends of pages.
Turned commas. Used at the beginning of quoted matter,

thus, " — ^and followed at the end by . Sometimes

called " inverted commas."
Typography. The art or style of printing from movable

letters.
Uncut edges. Books not cut down, but not necessarily

" unopened."
Unopened edges. Applied to books the edges of which have

not been opened.
Verso. The obverse or back of a leaf, the reverse of

" recto " [q.v.].
Wrong fount. Letters of a different character or series

mixed with another fount.

[From Some Notes on Books and Printing, by C. T. Jacobi.]



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A LIST OF

TECHNICAL TERMS IN THE VARIOUS

PROCESSES OF REPRODUCTION

* ProeafSM or eiigia?ed ^tes wUeh mast be printed separately.

*Aquatini. Etching on copper or steel through grounds

of finely-powdered resinous substances.
*Autogravure. A copper-plate photo-etched from a bichro-

mated gelatine basis.
*AiUoiype. Prints reproduced by means of certain bichro-

mated gelatine processes (carbon or collotype).
*Chromogfaph, A reproduction of a coloured original by

litho, photo-litho, or photo-etched blocks.
^Collotype. A photo reproduction printed in ink from a

surface of sensitized and exposed gelatine.
Cuts. Any impression from a type block.
Electrotype. A copper-faced facsimile of a block or plate

produced from a wax mould in a depositing battery.
"^Etching, An impression from a copper or steel plate, the

lines of which have been drawn by hand and etched

with or without an acid.
^Ferro-print, Ferro-gallic and ferro-prussiate. Prints

made from salts of iron sensitizers, principally used

for plans and copying tracings in blue or black lines.
*Glyptotype. A print produced by the Woodbury-type

process transferred to plate paper.
Half 'tint blocks. See Tint blocks.
Half-tone blocks. See Tint blocks.
*Helioiype. A process of collotype printing.
India proofs. An impression on China, Japan, or India

paper, from an engraved plate.
*Intaglio, sunk or hollowed. An etched plate having sunk

lines or picture.

795



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796 THE LITERARY YEAR-BOOK [part ii.

*Lichtdruck. Collotype.
Line process. Usually applied to any photo process for

producing type blocks in relief.
^Lithography. Printing from stone with ink specially

prepared.
*LiihoHfU. An etching executed on stone.
^Mezzotint, mixed (as in Turner's Liber Studiorum). The

subject first etched on steel or copper to secure the

forms, then rocked over as in pure mezzotint, and the

subject '* scraped out."
*Mezzotint, pure. The plate, steel or copper, first roughened

by a rocking- tool till the surface partakes more or less

of the nature of a very fine file ; then the subject

** scraped out " to the various degrees of light and

shade required, and burnished where very high lights

are wanted.
Monotint, Tint printing in a single colour.
Nickelface. The coating of an engraved plate or block

with a battery-deposited surface of nickel.
*Photocrome. A process of reproducing photographs in

colours.
*PhotO'chromOtypy. Photo-etched type blocks for printing

in colours.
^Photogravure. A photo-engraved plate in lines or tones

for copper-plate printing, or impressions therefrom.
^Photo-lithography. The process of printing from stone

by means of a photographic transfer.
PhotO'Zinco. A photo-etched type block.
Process blocks. Blocks produced by a photo - etching

process.
Process work. Work produced by a photo - etching

process.
Relief printing, (a) Printing from type-blocks, (b) printing

letters or designs in relievo.
Remarque proofs. Original impressions from steel or copper

engraved plates, and which usually have a device on

the margin instead of a title.
*Silverprints. Usually defines a chloride of silver print —
l» ^ an ordinary photograph.
Stereotypes. Casts in stereotype metal (lead and zinc) from

type or type blocks.



Digitized



byGoogk



PART II.] TECHNICAL TERMS 797

*Tfiree'Colour blocks. Blocks chemically produced from
nature or pictures in colours by means of a photo pro-
cess, and which render all the colours of the original.

Tint blocks. Type blocks of wash drawings or photographs
produced by means of ruled dots or tints.

Vignettes. Usually applied to illustrations which are shaded
or softened off at the edges.
*Woodbury Prints. Prints which closely resemble ordinary
photographs, produced by a process invented by Mr.
W. B. Woodbury.

Woodcuts. Wood blocks or impressions from the same.



Online LibraryFrederick George AfflaloThe Literary year book → online text (page 79 of 83)