Copyright
Frederick James Allen.

Business employments online

. (page 1 of 14)
Online LibraryFrederick James AllenBusiness employments → online text (page 1 of 14)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


BUSINESS
EMPLOYMENTS



ALLEN



BUSINESS EMPLOYMENTS



BY



FKEDERICK J. ALLEN, A.M.

INVESTIGATOR OF OCCUPATIONS FOR THE VOCATION BUREAU OF
BOSTON, AND AUTHOR OF " THE LAW AS A VOCATION,"

"THE SHOE INDUSTRY," AND OTHER
VOCATIONAL STUDIES



GINN AND COMPANY

BOSTON NEW YORK CHICAGO LONDON
ATLANTA DALLAS COLUMBUS SAN FRANCISCO



COPYRIGHT, 1916, BY THE VOCATION BUREAU OF BOSTON

ALL BIGHTS RESERVED

116.2



J)ress



GINN AND COMPANY PRO-
PRIETORS BOSTON U.S.A.



PREFACE

~x_

When a young man faces the world and has to make
his choice of a way to earn his living, three roads open
before him, broadly speaking. The first is business,
with its many lines. The second is that of the indus-
tries, which include all skilled and unskilled labor in the
manufacturing and building trades and in agriculture.
The third is that of the professions, such as engineering,
teaching, law, medicine, journalism, and the fine arts.

This volume deals with the first of these divisions. It
discusses the opportunities for employment in business.

But business itself divides into three branches Manu-
facture, Trade, and Finance. Manufacturing has a busi-
ness side which is just as important as the actual work
of making things. Trade is buying and selling. Store-
keeping, wholesale and retail, is another name for it.
Finance is that branch of business which collects and
preserves and distributes the supply of money on which
the business world depends. We are most familiar with
it in the form of Banking.

In this book, then, is collected a large amount of
information about the business of manufacturing, the
business of trading, and the business of finance. This
has been gathered during an investigation which covered
several years and extended along many lines. It
embodies the facts about business pursuits brought

iii

355212



iv BUSINESS EMPLOYMENTS

together by the Vocation Bureau from its studies of
many occupations, from that of the machinist to that
of the lawyer.

You will find that this book presents an intensive
study of three definite business lines which include and
typify the general activities of the business world. The
business side of manufacture is treated with shoe manu-
facture as a concrete example. Modern retail trade is
illustrated by the department store. Finance, of course,
is illustrated by a study of banking institutions.

The manufacturing industries include all mechanical
or manual occupations ; retail trade is typical of mercan-
tile and commercial occupations ; banking is the center
of all pursuits whose nature is distinctly financial. Hence
the organization of business firms and corporations, the
functions and responsibilities of the various officers and
business employees, the earnings, opportunities for ad-
vancement, and requirements for success, as set forth
in these pages, are probably in large degree those found
in business employments throughout the field of human
activity.

Such is the method of this book. Its purpose is to
enable young men to choose intelligently between busi-
ness and other pursuits, to help make business em-
ployees more efficient, and so to render some service to
those who are interested in the problems of career

building.

FREDERICK J. ALLEN

THE VOCATION BUREAU, BOSTON



CONTENTS



PART ONE. EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES ON
THE BUSINESS SIDE OF MANUFACTURE

PAGE

CHAPTER I. BUSINESS ORGANIZATION IN MANU-
FACTURE : THE EXECUTIVE OFFICES 6

Choice of Vocation like Making an Investment, 5
Growth of the Manufacturing Industries, 6 Enlargement
of Attendant Business, 7 Organization in Manufacture, 8

Dissecting an Industry : the Use of Charts, 9 The Shoe
Industry, 10 Chart of Organization in Manufacture, 11
Organization in Shoe Manufacture, 12 Stockholders, 14
The Manufacturing Corporation, 14 Officers, 14 Board
of Directors, 15 Executive Committee, 15 General
Manager, 16 Mill Agent, 16 Chairman of the Board of
Directors, 17 Secretary to the President, or Secretary to
the Corporation, 17 Assistant to the President, 18
Responsibility of the Head of a Concern, 19 Efficiency
Manager, 19 Efficiency Engineer, 19 Professional Effi-
ciency Expert, 20 Line Organization and Staff Organiza-
tion, 21 Scientific Management, 21 Chart - of Staff
Organization in Manufacture, 22 Requirements for
Executive Officers, 23 Salaries of Officers, 24 Executive
Offices, 25 Employment Opportunities in Executive
Offices, 25 Employment or Labor Department, 25 Em-
ployment-Department Methods, 26 Application Forms,
26-28 Employee's Record Cards, 29, 30, 33 Typical Regu-
lations for Employees, 30-33 Training of Employees, 33

A Division of the Department, 33 A Central Employ-
ment Office, 34 Positions in Employment Department, 34

Employment Manager, 34 The Supply of Labor, 35
The Turn-Over of Labor, 36 The Employment Problem,
37 The Industrial Counselor, 38 The Industrial De-
velopment Expert, 38



vi BUSINESS EMPLOYMENTS

PAGE

CHAPTER II. THE GENERAL OFFICES 39

The General Offices, 39 The Office Manager, 39 Chart
of the General Offices of a Manufacturing Company, 40
The Order Department, 41 The Receipt and Handling of
Orders, 41 Order Form, 42 Special Schedule and the
Day Sheet, 43 A Typical Day Sheet, 43, 44 Positions in
the Order Department, 44 The Correspondence Depart-
ment, 44 Positions in the Correspondence Department,
45 The Stenographic Department, 45 The Bookkeeping
Department, 45 Positions in the Bookkeeping Depart-
ment, 46 A Typical Balance Sheet, 46, 48, 49 The
Credit and Collection Department, 46 Positions in the
Credit and Collection Department, 46 The Credit Man-
ager, 47 A Statement from an Employer, 50 The Pur-
chasing Department, 50 Positions in the Purchasing
Department, 51 The Purchasing Agent, 51 The Receiv-
ing Department, 52 The Job Room, 53 Positions in the
Receiving Department, 53 The Publicity Department, 53
General Advertising, 54 Local Advertising, 55 The
Art Department, 55 The Advertising Manager, 56 The
Display Rooms, 56 Positions in the Advertising Depart-
ment, 56 The Mailing Department, 57 Positions in the
Mailing Department, 57 The Sales Department, 58
Other Methods of Securing Business, 59 A Statistical
Division, 60 The Sample Rooms or Sample Department,
60 Positions in the Sales Department, 60 The Sales
Manager, 61 The Traveling Salesman, 61 Educational
or Other Requirement, 62 A Typical Quotation, 62 A
Salesman's Advantages, 63 A Salesman's Pay and Rou-
tine, 63 Disadvantages in a Salesman's Life, 65 The
Rise of the Modern Traveling Salesman, 66 The Other
Business Departments, 67 The Information Office, 68
Requirements for Service in the General Offices, 68 Train-
ing and Promotion in the Business Offices, 69

CHAPTER III. THE FACTORY OFFICES 71

Factory Routine, 71 The Factory Offices, 72 Chart of
the Factory Offices of a Manufacturing Company, 73 The
Department of Advance Information, 74 Positions in
the Department of Advance Information, 75 The Tag



CONTENTS vii

PAGE

Department, 75 The Foreman's Tag, 75, 76 Positions in
the Tag Department, 76 The Dispatch Department, 76
The Day-Sheet Section of the Dispatch Department, 77
The Tracing Section of the Dispatch Department, 78 Po-
sitions in the Dispatch Department, 78 The Efficiency
Department, 78 Example of a Firm Conducting Efficiency
Work, 79 A Conservative View of Efficiency Work, 79
Positions in the Efficiency Department, 80 The Raw-
Material Office or Department : Upper-Leather Office, 80
Positions in the Upper-Leather Office, 81 The Supply
Department, 81 Positions in the Supply Department, 82
A Typical Requisition Form, 82 The Schedule Depart-
ment, 82 Positions in the Schedule Department, 83 The
Checking Department, 83 Positions in the Checking De-
partment, 83 The Pay-Roll Department, 83 Employee's
Weekly Record Card, 84 Piece-Worker's Card, 85
Positions in the Pay-Roll Department, 85 The Cost
Department, 86 The Expense Department, 86 The
Messenger Service, 87 Promotions from the 'Messenger
Service, 87 Industrial Service, 88 Positions in the
Industrial-Service Department, 89 The Requirements for
Service in the Factory Offices, 90

CHAPTER IV. THE MANUFACTURING INDUSTRIES:
STATISTICS 91

The Purpose of this Chapter, 91 The Nature of Manu-
facture, 91 The Thirteenth Census, 91 Earlier Censuses,
92 The Figures for 1909, 92 The Increase from 1899 to
1909, 92 Comparison of Earnings on the Business Side
and on the Manufacturing Side, 93 The Probable Increase
since 1909, 94 Explanation of Census Statistics, 94 In-
dustrial Statistics and Business Opportunities, 96 Value
of Products, by Industries : 1909 and 1899, 97 Continental
United States and Noncontiguous Territory : 1909, 98
General Comparison for the United States : 1909, 1904, and
1899, 99 Comparison with Earlier Censuses, 100 Accom-
panying Statement, 101 Manufacturing Centers of the
United States, 102 Per Cent Distribution of Average
Number of Wage Earners, by Industries : 1909, 103 List
of the States according to Numbers of Wage Earners in



viii BUSINESS EMPLOYMENTS

PAGE

Manufacture: 1909, 104 List of Leading Cities in the
United States according to Numbers of Wage Earners in
Manufacture : 1909, 105 Distribution according to Size of
Communities, 106- Summary of Persons engaged in Man-
ufacture in the United States : 1909, 107 Comparison of
Occupational Status of 1904 and 1909, 108 Sex and Age
Distribution by Industries, 108 The Percentage of Persons
on the Business Side of Manufacture, 109



PART TWO. MODERN RETAIL TRADE AS ILLUS-
TRATED BY THE DEPARTMENT STORE

CHAPTER V. THE DEPARTMENT STORE 113

Its Nature, 113 From the Public Point of View, 114
The Rise of the Department Store, 116 Competition, 117

Future, 117 Method of Treatment, 118 Chart of
Department-Store Organization, 119 Four Major Divi-
sions,! 19 Departments of Merchandise, 120 The General
Manager, 120 The Board of Managers, 121

CHAPTER VI. MERCHANDISING OR BUYING .... 122

The Receiving Room, 122 The Marking Room, 123
The Stock Room, 123 The Division of Buying, 123 The
Buyer, 124 The Assistant Buyer, 125 The Merchandise
Manager, 125 The Assistant Merchandise Manager, 126
Diagram of the Merchandise Department, 127 The Boy
in the Merchandise Department, 127

CHAPTER VII. SUPERINTENDING AND SELLING . . 129

Divisions and Positions, 129 Employment Office, 129
Floor Superintending, 130 Selling and its Positions, 130

The Educational Department, 131 The Division of Ex-
pense, 131 The Division of Supply and Construction, 131

The Mail-Order Department, 132 The Delivery System,
132 The More Important Positions and Features of Super-
intending and Selling, 132 The Store Manager, 133
Diagram of Store Management, 133, 134 The Store Super-
intendent, 133 The Floor Manager, 135 Requirements



CONTENTS . ix

PAGE

for Successful Salesmanship, 135 Diagram of Salesman-
ship Requirements, 136 The Boy in the Selling Depart-
ment, 136 The Basis of Pay in Selling, 137

CHAPTER VIII. THE OFFICE DEPARTMENT .... 138

Its Nature, 138 Simple Office Divisions, 138 Divisions
in Office Work in the Highly Organized Store: 1. The
Credit and Collection Department, 138 ; 2. The Charge
Account Bookkeeping, 139 ; 3. The Cashier's Office or Ac-
counting Room, 139 ; 4. The C.O.D. Division, 139 ; 5. The
Auditing Department, 139 ; 6. The Purchase-Records De-
partment, 139 ; 7. The Payment Department, 139 ; 8. The
Stock-Record Department, 140 ; 9. The Statistical Depart-
ment, 140 Diagram of the Office Department, 140 Po-
sitions in the Office Department in the Highly Organized
Store, 140 The Bookkeeper, 141 An Actual Case of
Advancement, 141 The Boy in the Office Department, 142

CHAPTER IX. THE ADVERTISING DEPARTMENT . . 143

Its Nature, 143 The Modern Trend, 143 Divisions in
Store Advertising, 144 Positions, 144 The Publicity
Manager, 144 Diagram of the Advertising Department,
145 Important Assistant Positions, 145 The Boy in the
Advertising Department, 146 Work Producing Advertis-
ing Men, 147

CHAPTER X. CONDITIONS OF SERVICE 148

Hours of Employment, 148 Seasonal Increase in Trade,
148 Seasonal Increase and Decrease in the Number of
Employees, 148 Diagram of Seasonal Changes, 149
Vacation, 150 Physical Conditions, 150 Influences
Making for Fatigue, 150 Competition in Service, 151
Where the Way Divides, 151

CHAPTER XI. SOCIAL-SERVICE WORK 153

The Nature of this Work, 163 Three Lines of Oppor-
tunity, 154 Educational Training, 154 The School of
Salesmanship, 154 Administrative Training: 1. Effi-
ciency Bulletins, 155 ; 2. Merchandise Conferences, 156 ;
3. Efficiency Records, 156 ; 4. School Enrollment, 156
Social Features : 1. A Mutual- Aid Association, 157 ; 2. An



x BUSINESS EMPLOYMENTS

PAGK

Insurance or Mutual-Benefit Association, 157 ; 3. A Sav-
ings-Deposit System, 157 ; 4. A Medical Department, 157 ;
5. The Lecture Committee, 157 ; 6. The Library Com-
mittee, 157 ; 7. The Suggestion Committee, 157 ; 8. The
Entertainment Committee, 157 ; 9. The Club-House Com-
mittee, 158 ; 10. The Music Committee, 158 ; 11. A Store
Paper, 158 Workers in this Division, 158 A Sample
Daily Club Keport, 158-160

CHAPTER XII. THE EMPLOYEE, PAY, AND PRO-
MOTION 161

Suggestions from an Employer to Young Persons who
may wish to enter this Occupation, 161 Some Qualities
Required, 163 Educational Training, 164 Pay, 165
. Promotion, 167 Advice from a Store Manager, 168
Actual Cases of Advancement, 169-171 Quotation from
a Government Investigation, 171 Summary of Positions :
Members of the Firm or Corporation, or High Officials,
172 ; The Merchandise Department, 173 ; Superintend-
ing and Selling, 173 ; The Office Department, 175 ; The
Advertising Department, 175 Positions not limited to
the Department Store, 176 The Furrier, 176 The
Store Detective, 176 Additional Activities, 176 Heads
of Factories, 177 Statistics from the Thirteenth Census
of the United States: Number and Proportion of Per-
sons in the General Divisions of Occupations. Number
and Per Cent of Distribution, 1910, Table 8, 178 ; Number
and Proportion of Persons in the General Divisions of
Occupations. Number and Per Cent of Distribution by
Decades, 1880-1890, Table 9, 179 ; Distribution by General
Divisions of Persons 10 Years of Age and Over Engaged in
Gainful Occupations by Divisions and States, 1910. Trade
and Transportation, Table 10, 180, 181 ; Number of Per-
sons 10 Years of Age and Over Engaged in Specified Occu-
pations. Arranged According to the Classification of 1900,
for Both Sexes and for Each Sex separately, 1880-1910,
Table 15, 182, 183



CONTENTS xi

PAET THEEE. FINANCE AS ILLUSTEATED
BY BANKING

PAGE

CHAPTER XIII. BANKING 187

The Business : Its Nature, Divisions, and Future, 187-190

The Board of Directors, 190 Executive Officers, 190
The President and Vice President, 190 The Cashier and
Assistant Cashier, 191 Departments of Bank Work, 191

The Paying Teller, 192 The Receiving Teller, 192
Discount Clerk, 192 Collection Clerk, 193 Correspond-
ing Clerk, 193 Mail Clerk, 193 Exchange Clerk, 193
The Bookkeeping Department, 193 The Head Book-
keeper, 194 The General Bookkeeper, 194 The Auditor,
194 The Department of Advertising, 194 The Advertis-
ing Manager and his Assistants, 195 Pay, Positions, and
Opportunities, 195 The Boy; Qualities and Training
Required, 196 Suggestions from a Banker to a Boy who
wishes to enter this Occupation, 196, 197 The Annual
Report of the Comptroller of the Currency, 198 Statistics
Compiled from the Reports of the United States Comp-
troller of the Currency for 1900, 1905, and 1910 : A. Growth
in Numbers of Banks, 1900, 19Q5, and 1910, 199 ; B. Growth
of National Banks from 1900 to 1910, 199 ; C. Chief Items
of the Aggregate Resources and Liabilities of National
Banks in 1900, 1905, and 1910, 200 ; D. Chief Items of the
Aggregate Resources and Liabilities of State Banks for
1910, 200 ; E. Chief Items of the Aggregate Resources and
Liabilities of Loan and Trust Companies in 1910, 200 ;
F. Number of Savings Banks in the United States, Number
of Depositors, etc., 1900-1910, 201 Other Forms of Busi-
ness, 201

BIBLIOGRAPHY 203

BUSINESS AND TRADE JOURNALS 209

INDEX . 213



BUSINESS EMPLOYMENTS



PART ONE

EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES ON THE

BUSINESS SIDE OF MANUFACTURE



PART ONE

CHAPTER I

BUSINESS ORGANIZATION IN MANUFACTURE
THE EXECUTIVE OFFICES

Choice of Vocation like Making an Investment. Gathered
around the evening lamp, members of the family often
discuss the opportunities for employment in the neigh-
borhood. The future of the younger members appears to
their parents and themselves in the light of an invest-
ment. Mills and workshops around them may offer op-
portunities for the ambitious and serious. The boy still
in school is aware that men a few years older than he
have started from small positions in either the mechan-
ical or the business departments of local factories and
that they are now doing useful work in the world at
good wages or salaries. On the eve of graduation from
grammar school, high school, or college he naturally
wants to know where he may find his right place in life.

One of the things a good business man wants to know
about a proposed undertaking is whether it is in a
declining, a stagnant, or a developing state. Suppose,
for instance, an investment is to be made in real estate.
Few men care to buy land in a locality where values are
steadily decreasing. Nor does an investor, of preference,

5



6 Bt; SIKESS EMPLOYMENTS

buy land in a dead locality, where values through a
term of years have not increased or decreased to any
marked extent. Good sense suggests investment in a
locality where values are increasing with the steady
progress which marks natural growth.

When a young man takes up his work in the world
he brings with him something of great worth. His work-
ing life is limited to a longer or shorter period. His
abilities and his energy are in a sense his capital. His
earnings are the interest society pays him for the use of
them. He too is an investor. And, like the purchaser
of real estate, it behooves him in choosing his vocation
to consider, among other things, whether he is direct-
ing his energy and abilities into a field of declining,
stagnant, or increasing opportunities.

Growth of the Manufacturing Industries. It is not
strange if the boy or young man who has decided upon
a business career wishes to be connected with the execu-
tive offices of a mill or factory. The world has many
opportunities for people who can Direct or manage a
factory or department of a factory, and under these is an
ever-increasing number of positions to be filled by capable,
well-educated workers. The United States, as we shall
see in statistical detail in a chapter to follow, becomes
year by year more a manufacturing nation.

The manufacturing industries are a field of increasing
opportunities. Within the era of active invention, in
which we are living, their growth has been great and
rapid. In the early years of the nineteenth century
labor-saving machinery was introduced into manufacture,
and it brought about an almost universal change and



BUSINESS OKGANIZATION 7

expansion. Every year now an increasing number of
inventions carries us farther away from the days of
making things by hand. Little shops have become fac-
tories. The village tailor gives way to the retail clothier.
The rural sawmill is still busy, but it has an active
competitor in the vast works where Portland cement is
made by the millions of barrels, to reappear in concrete
houses, bridges, and factories. Fifty years ago electricity,
except for its use in telegraphy, was a motive power for
playthings only. To-day hundreds of millions of dollars
have been invested in shops that make electrical ap-
pliances of one kind and another. Only twenty years
prior to this writing not a single factory was regularly
building and selling gasoline engines, phonographs, or
piano players.

Enlargement of Attendant Business. The growth of
manufacturing has involved a corresponding growth of
the business directly connected with manufacturing.
Raw material must be secured, sometimes by shipment
from the most distant markets of the world, sometimes
by establishing subsidiary factories. An example of the
latter case is the great mills which supply wood pulp to
the paper manufacturers. The raw material must be
stored and cared for, and made to flow steadily into
the departments of manufacture ; while at the other end
the emerging stream of finished product must be distrib-
uted with equal care and economy. A factory must sell
its output, and deliver it to the buyer according to the
terms of the contract.

There are many activities on the purely monetary
side, as well. The corporation or company must be



8 BUSINESS EMPLOYMENTS

financed. Provision must be made to pay for the mate-
rials used, for the services of the workmen and the office
forces, and for the costs connected with the running of
the plant. Fuel, repairs, and insurance are among such
costs. Collections must be made for all goods sold.
Records of all business transactions must be kept ;
and the net profits must be maintained at a safe level.

The number of commercial positions in manufactur-
ing enterprises has increased so largely that we are quite
justified in describing these separately, for the benefit of
those who wish to know just what is before the young
person with an ambition for a business career.

Organization in Manufacture. The features of business
connected with modern manufacture are very numerous
and varied. To understand them, and to gain an intelli-
gent notion of the opportunities for employment which
they open, it is necessary to know something of the way
in which manufacture is organized at the present day.

A small factory may have a very simple organization.
The proprietor or owner, with a few assistants in the
office and on the road as salesmen, himself acting as
superintendent or employing a general superintendent,
may control all the business features of the establish-
ment. There are many such establishments throughout
the land; often they are in the hands of some skilled
worker who has made a market for a specialty of his
own. A good instance from the iron trade is one of a
shop where wrought and bent iron of exquisite finish
is made for architectural uses, ornamental gates and
fences, exceptionally fine hardware, and fire-flue acces-
sories. This is the plant of a craftsman manufacturer.



BUSINESS ORGANIZATION 9

Another shop is devoted to the making of a specially
clarified steel for fine instruments. The process is more
or less secret, and the business can have only a very
simple organization.

Thousands of little manufactories of this simple type
might be cited. Yet modern industry as a whole runs
more and more to big enterprises, in which hundreds of
thousands or millions of dollars have been invested, and
which employ small armies of clerks and bookkeepers
and other salaried people.

Responsibility for the management of the large man-
ufacturing plants to which we are accustomed has to
be divided among many men. A typical modern factory,
therefore, is usually highly organized; that is, it is
divided into a great many departments and subdepart-
ments, precisely as our bodies are made up of many
organs and tissues of quite different sorts and functions,
yet all working together to one end.

It requires patient study to find out how the human
body is organized, and how the different organs in it do
their work. It requires similar study to find out how
an industry is organized and what function each of the
many departments in it has. If you are trying to make
a choice of a vocation such study is worth while. Unless
you understand how a factory is organized, you cannot
hope to know what opportunities lie before you when
you seek employment on the business side of it.

Dissecting an Industry: the Use of Charts. The easiest
way to gain an understanding of something complicated
is to take it apart. That is the way botanists find out
about the structure and the working of a plant.



10 BUSINESS EMPLOYMENTS

In just the same way, in order to understand the
structure of an industrial organism, a shop or factory,
you must take it apart. You must dissect it. And
to dissect a thing like an industry you may begin by
making what is called a chart of it.

Such a chart is printed on the opposite page. It is
a typical organization for manufacture, and might repre-
sent any large industry, or even a machine shop, a
structural steel works, or an automobile factory. For
the sake of being definite, let us suppose that it repre-


1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Online LibraryFrederick James AllenBusiness employments → online text (page 1 of 14)