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Frederick James Allen.

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employment at the option of either the or myself.

JLalso agree to join the Mutual Aid Association, after the

expiration of three months, and agree to abide by the rules and regula-
tions as set forth in its articles of government, and hereby authorize
said company to deduct from my salary any assessments which may
be levied by said Association.



Name in full

Address City or itown _

Give name and grade, also address of last school attended



Name of last teacher

When did you leave school ?

Have you ever been employed ?

Have you any defects in sight, hearing, speech, or limb ?
Do you smoke cigarettes ?



Age Date of birth Month Year

Are both parents living ? If not, which one ?

Do you live with parents ?

Do you live with relatives ?

Do you board out ?



Is anyone dependent on you for support ?
If so, who ? _



How much do you have to contribute to their support ?
Are you in good health ? .



What is your father's business ?
With whom is he employed ?



Were you ever in our employ ? When ? Where ?

What salary did you receive in your last position ? '.

Weight Height Complexion



28



BUSINESS EMPLOYMENTS



Give the name and address of every employer you have worked for.
Commence with the last and give all back in rotation to the first.



Name,


Date Employed


Address,


MONTH YEAR
Date of Leaving


Wliat kind of business ?


Reason for leaving,


MONTH YEAR


Name,


Date Employed


Address,


MONTH YEAR
Date of Leaving


What kind of business ?


Reason for leaving,


MONTH YEAR


Name,


Date Employed


Address,


MONTH YEAR
Date of Leaving


What kind of business ?


Reason for leaving,


MONTH YEAR


Name,


Date Employed


Address,


MONTH YEAR
Date of Leaving


What kind of business ?


Reason for leaving,


MONTH YEAR


Name,


Date Employed


Address,


MONTH YEAR
Date of Leaving


What kind of business ?


Reason for leaning,


MONTH YEAR




Have you had any employers other thai
If sr, givf> particulars.


i tb nsfi pivfvn a,hovp, ?







Below, give us the names and addresses of three people who have
known you more than one year, and who ARE NOT former employ-
ers, relatives, or persons with whom you have boarded.

Name,

Address, . .

Name, _ .

Address,

Name,

Address,



(Reverse)



BUSINESS OBGANIZATION



29



Employee's Record Cards. By the use of some filing
system this department keeps, also, a record of the en-
gagement, kind of work done, efficiency, and discharge
of each employee, as indicated by the following forms:



DEPT CARD No

EMPLOYEE'S RECORD CARD

NAME APPLICANT'S NO

ADDRESS

POSITION .WORK

DATE FIRST EMPLOYED CHECK OR CLOCK No

C MARRIED.
NATIONALITY U. S. CITIZEN AGE <

(^ SINGLE...

TRADE RATE PER

CHANGE DATE

OF
WAGES RATE

DATE QUIT CAUSE

DATE DISCHARGED CAUSE

TRNSF'D DEPT

TO DATE

WHERE LAST EMPLOY ED

ADDRESS

NAME OF PERSON IN CHARGE

CAUSE OF LEAVING

LENGTH OF TIME EMPLOYED

DATE LEFT

THE ABOVE SPACE TO BE USED BY FOREMAN IN MAKING RECORD OF EMPLOYEE'S SERVICE AT TIME OF LEAVING



(Reverse)



30 BUSINESS EMPLOYMENTS



TRANSFER BLANK



Old check No Date transferred.

Name



Address.



Old rate wages

Transferred from Dept..
Kind of work



Foreman must sign here.



New check No..



Transferred to Dept..
Kind of work



New rate of wages

Foreman must sign here.
Approved by



TYPICAL REGULATIONS FOR EMPLOYEES

To prevent, so far as possible, the happening of misunder-
standings between employer and employees in the business of
the Company, and to arrange for a fair settle-
ment of questions that may from time to time arise, it is

mutually agreed between the Company and

each of its employees as follows :

1. It is the right of every employee to bring his grievances to
his employer at the proper time and in a proper manner, and to
fully state his reasons for them. The fact that he does so shall
not be in any manner prejudicial to him.

2. Any grievance affecting three or more employees of the
Company, doing the same kind of work, and



BUSINESS OKGANIZATION 31

not satisfactorily adjusted with the head foreman of the depart-
ment in which they work, shall, upon request of any three of the
employees affected, be brought before the superintendent.

3. In case they are not able to settle the matter after an
honest endeavor to do so, it shall be referred to the manager or
officer of the Company.

4. In case the Company or its employees are unable thus to
affect an amicable settlement, both parties to the difference shall
sign an application to the State Board of Arbitration and Con-
ciliation to make a decision, and this decision shall be accepted
as final and binding on both parties to this agreement.

5. When an agreement is about to be presented or pending
settlement of any grievance, we and each of us agree that there
will be no strike or lockout, and the employees will continue to
fill their positions as if said grievance did not exist.

6. Should three or more employees cease work with the evi-
dent intention of enforcing any demand, then said employees shall
not be considered employees of the Company.

7. Subject to the provisions of Section 5, the Company re-
serves the right to hire and discharge any one at any time.

8. Should the employer fail to keep his part of the agreement,
then the employee shall be entitled to and shall receive payment
of double the amount of wages due him at the time the agree-
ment is broken.

9. On the other hand, should the employee fail to keep his
part of the agreement, then the employer shall have the right to
retain the full amount of wages due the employee at the time
the agreement is broken.

COMPANY

, President

Signed

Date



32 BUSINESS EMPLOYMENTS

RULES FOR BOYS
Superintendents will mark in ink opposite the rule violated

1. Keep your Record Card clean and whole, and
where you can produce it whenever called for. Bring it
with you to inspection. Commit these Rules to memory.

2. Stick to your post. Do not leave unless sent on
business or with permission of your Supt.

3. Be watchful and quick to answer calls. Don't

let people call twice.

4. Walk briskly, but do not run. Never slide on

the stair railings or floor.

5. In going from your post go promptly and come
back promptly.

6. Be honest and truthful. Take nothing, large or
small, which is not strictly your own. Don't lie, what-
ever happens.

7. Be quiet. Don't call loudly for people unless really
necessary. Never shout or whistle about the offices.

8. Be businesslike. Leave all play outdoors. Don't
slouch down or lounge about in lazy fashion. Read-
ing and eating in the business parts of the building

are forbidden.

9. Be polite. Say " Excuse me," if you accidentally
brush against anyone or have to disturb anyone in
passing. ,

10. Never use profane or foul language.

11. Be clean and neat. A patch won't hurt you, but
rags or dirt will. Come with shoes blacked.

12. Do not handle the stock except as you must in
your work.

13. Do not mark or deface in any way the counters,
walls, or any part of the store or fixtures. ,

14. Irregular attendance will greatly decrease the
value of your services. Always come to work, and come
promptly, unless you have permission to be absent, or
are kept by a really serious cause ; then send word by
messenger or mail to Mr.



BUSINESS ORGANIZATION 33



DISCHARGED OR LEFT EMPLOY BLANK

Check No Locker No. Amt. Due

Name Date 19

Address

Trade Dept

Age Married Children

Kate Wages Nationality

Date employed Left employ



Record



QUALITY ATTENDANCE CLEANLINESS AND
DEPORTMENT



Cause



Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday



Approved by..
Foreman



Training of Employees. In the more progressive firms,
employees are trained in their duties by managers and
others in office departments, by foremen in the factory,
and by instructors in the industrial service of the com-
pany, all of which will be described under these several
divisions later in the book.

A Division of the Department. In a large, highly or-
ganized firm there are sometimes two employment de-
partments, one dealing with the securing and transfer of
office employees and the other with factory employees.
As the requirements and conditions on the business side
and on the manufacturing side are so different, and the



34 BUSINESS EMPLOYMENTS

numbers of persons employed so great, with the changes
in personnel constantly going on, this division is found
to be an advantage and is likely to become more com-
mon in the future.

A Central Employment Office. There may be a central
employment or labor office serving several factories. In
such a case applicants are selected and sent, upon
requisition, to the various plants for the approval of
superintendents and foremen in each.

On the other hand, plants under a single ownership
but situated in widely separated communities usually
have separate labor departments, each drawing employees
mainly from its immediate neighborhood. The smaller
the community the greater is found to be the solidarity
of its workers in most lines of industry. Great manu-
facturing corporations, therefore, are constantly opening
factories in small towns where comparatively permanent
bodies of employees may be obtained, even with the
attendant dangers of decentralization and the added
costs of management and freight on raw materials.

Positions in Employment Department. The positions
in a well-organized employment department in a modern
factory are the employment manager, assistant employ-
ment manager, employment agent for men, employment
agent for women, secretary, stenographer, the recording
or filing clerks for employees and for applicants kept on
a waiting list, office assistant, and messenger boys.

Employment Manager. The position of employment
manager has a peculiar and growing importance in
modern industry. It is no longer practicable in indus-
tries of considerable magnitude to allow foremen and



BUSINESS OKGANIZATION 35

heads of departments to hire help for their rooms or
departments, as was formerly the prevailing custom,
though they must still have large or decisive influence
in the matter of dismissal. The increasing numbers of
persons to be employed ; the fact that practically nearly
all training must be secured in the office, shop, or fac-
tory itself; the nature of many kinds of manufacture
that demand employees having some adaptability to
their processes ; the restlessness of labor and the float-
ing element that seeks immediate employment ; and the
more and more exacting demands for production at least
cost, and for efficiency all along the line, these and
social causes make it imperative that the large establish-
ment should have a man of the best ability and knowl-
edge of human nature to supervise the selection, transfer,
promotion, and discharge of employees. He may be
called employment manager, supervisor of employment,
or supervisor or director of personnel. He may hold
some other high official position in a company, but he
must give close attention to the problem of employment
and have assistants of experience and ability in his
department.

The Supply of Labor. The manufacturer generally
has a labor problem that needs much of his best care
and thought. When a simple little factory, however,
is started in a rural neighborhood there is no especial
trouble about getting employees. Sons and daughters
of farmers are glad enough, for the sake of a regular
wage, to take whatever positions the new mill owner
has to offer. Those who incline naturally to mechanical
work are hired to manipulate the machines. Others who



36 BUSINESS EMPLOYMENTS

have clerical ability may be taken in the offices of the
company. While the enterprise is small, and the sur-
rounding country is still filled with young people anx-
ious for chances to earn a little money, the securing
of workers is not a matter of great difficulty for the
manufacturer.

But presently we find a thriving manufacturing city
where a short time before a single busy little factory
was seen. Various shops are now competing for the serv-
ices of such young men and women as will leave the
farms of the surrounding country. Immigrants of many
nationalities, speaking different languages, have come to
the expanding city in search of work. Competition by
workers for employment and by employers for the most
efficient service is very keen. We see great numbers of
persons constantly passing in and out of employment,
especially in the large communities.

The Turn-Over of Labor. The turn-over of labor -
that is, the percentage of employees changing in an
establishment each year varies greatly in different in-
dustries and localities, according to the magnitude and
nature of manufacture and to factory and labor condi-
tions. The change is greater on the factory side than on
the business side. In a small, well-conducted factory, or
in a manufacture whose processes require considerable
skill and training, such as musical-instrument manufac-
ture or bookbinding, the turn-over may be as low as
twenty per cent. From this it runs up to one hundred
per cent and sometimes even higher, in the indus-
tries whose work may be unpleasant and require little
or no skill or be done largely by juvenile labor. As a



BUSINESS OKGANIZATION 37

conservative estimate, the average change of labor annu-
ally in the manufacturing industries is probably about one
fourth to one half the total number employed. In other
words, to keep one hundred employees at work in many
a factory two hundred must be hired each year. While
the change is greatest in the least skilled work, in " floor
people," and in the messenger service, this condition as
a whole imposes upon manufacture its most difficult
problem at the present time.

The Employment Problem. Wise management, then,
calls for the most skillful treatment of the employment
problem. The cost of manufacture, the quality of the
finished product, and its sale are all dependent upon the
quality and permanence of the labor secured. The em-
ployment manager should know clearly the main fea-
tures and processes of the industry for which he must
select workers. He should be familiar with the labor
market, locally and in places at a distance from which
he may have to obtain help. He should have an intelli-
gent sympathy with workers, and should maintain, as
far as possible, a helpful interest in individual cases.
Above all he should see to it that justice is done to all
employees. He should have such judgment of persons^
and abilities as to place the largest number possible, at
the beginning or by transfer, where their work will re-
sult in the highest efficiency, vocational advancement,
and personal growth and contentment.

The employment manager must maintain the closest
cooperation with the various offices and departments of
a concern, and his work includes industrial service when
that has no separate organization.



38 BUSINESS EMPLOYMENTS

The Industrial Counselor. Industrial counseling is a
new function in the business world, and rises clearly
into the professions. The industrial counselor is one
who advises a concern in regard to its labor problems.
He deals with questions of organization ; of the per-
sonnel of employees, their selection, training, and dis-
cipline ; of rates and methods of pay; of labor unions
and labor laws ; of public standards and the relation of
a concern to the public, especially in matters of safety,
sanitation, health, and regularity of employment. He
studies and makes an audit upon the human relations
in industry.

The industrial counselor works in close cooperation
with the employment manager, and he must be in active
touch with the economic, industrial, social, and political
forces of the day. His work marks an important step
in the increasing demand on the part of the public and
of the business man to know the industrial status of a
business or manufacturing concern. He should serve
equally the employer, the employee, and the public.

The Industrial Development Exjfert. The industrial
development expert is one who makes a study of trade
and manufacturing opportunities, both domestic and
foreign, and advises capitalists, business men, or com-
missions upon expansion into new fields. He must learn
local conditions and be able to estimate probable
business and industrial changes along particular lines.



CHAPTER II
THE GENERAL OFFICES

The General Offices. Office divisions, executive, gen-
eral, and factory, have already been indicated. The
general offices are those in which are conducted the
purely business features connected with manufacture.
They comprise the following departments: Order, cor-
respondence, bookkeeping, credit and collection, purchas-
ing, receiving, advertising, mailing, and sales departments.
They are here treated in the sequence in which business
usually passes through them when an order is received
for an article to be manufactured.

The offices for employment, sales, and shipping are
usually found on the first floor of a factory ; other offices
on the second or third floor, convenient to one another
and to factory departments, for the expediting of busi-
ness and of manufacture. Some of the large companies
have a separate administration building for the offices.

The Office Manager. In factories employing several
hundreds or thousands of people there are so many
found in the business offices that supervision of these
offices becomes necessary, just as in the factory itself.
The term most used for the head or superintendent of
the offices is office manager. This person must know
thoroughly the duties of each office, their interrelations,
and the special systems of doing business that are used

39



THE GENEKAL OFFICES 41

in each. He must see that each office has the right num-
ber of employees, that their work is satisfactory, that
the methods of the office are efficient, and that business
goes through on schedule time. He must make office
system as exact and efficient as factory system. The
office manager has usually served an apprenticeship in
some or many of the offices, and may have studied in a
school of business administration. He may be a director
of the company. He ranks close to the executive officers,
and receives a salary nearly as high as theirs. Some of
the most progressive shoe companies are now using the
term " efficiency manager " for the person in charge of
the business offices.

The Order Department. The order department takes
charge of all orders for articles to be made in the fac-
tory. Orders may come directly through the sales
department, or indirectly through the cost department,
which estimates all points of expense to be met in mak-
ing the article called for in each order. The credit de-
partment, also, passes on credit in case of need, before
orders can be acted upon. All other matters connected
with the written order are handled by the order depart-
ment, and every order must be approved by the manager
of the department. These features are shown on the
order form here reproduced. From this form are printed
the tags by which articles are actually made.

The Receipt and Handling of Orders. Twice a year in
most factories, in the spring and fall when the salesmen
are on the road, orders may accumulate far beyond fac-
tory capacity. For instance, in a factory capable of turn-
ing out 15,000 pairs of shoes a day, the excess orders



42



BUSINESS EMPLOYMENTS







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THE GENERAL OFFICES 43

may reach half a million pairs. There follow, accord-
ingly, two busy seasons of manufacture, in general from
four to six months each. The more highly organized
the factory, the better the excess orders are distributed
and the more continuous is the employment.

Exact records are kept of the receipt of orders, of
their totals, and of their disbursements or sending on
to the factory each day, and an order report is issued
every week. The department keeps, also, a record of
shoes cut, so that it may know the exact conditions or
progress of manufacture. It decides when orders shall
start on their routine course through the factory and
sends them on their way.

Special Schedule and the Day Sheet. All orders are
transferred carefully to cards which are filed in geo-
graphic divisions, usually in two sections, as rush orders
and regular orders. The rush orders are placed on a
special time schedule, allowing to each department of
the factory a given length of time for the work to be
done there. Regular orders are put on the day sheet
and take a general course through the factory. The
day sheet is a very important feature in shoemaking
and is used in nearly all factories. It includes all
particulars to be followed by factory departments in
making each lot of shoes.

A Typical Day Sheet. The cutting-room portion of
a typical day sheet is printed on page 44. You can
readily see that the preparation of it involves much
time and care and an accurate knowledge of the
meaning of the terms and numbers appearing in its
columns,



44



BUSINESS EMPLOYMENTS



REGULAR CUTTING SHEET, APRIL 3, 1913



4/3/13
Office
St'k Sort
Cutting
Skiving



10.304/3
5.304/4

11.00 4/7
8.00 4/9



To St'ch R'm 9.30 4/9
Closing 9.30 4/11



Lin. Mak. 12.004/12

Fox St'ch 3.004/13

Box Toes 3.004/11

Tip St'ch 5.30 4/ 1 4

Top St'ch 1st R'm 3.00 4 / 15
Pumps ID. Later 3.00 4 /15



B't'nholes
Pumps D. Later
Tags off at V'ping
Pumps 2D. Earlier
St'ch 2d R'm
Dispatch Dept.



3.00 4/16
9.30 4/17
9.30 4/17
9.30 4/15
5.30 4/17
4/23 .



Dispatch Dept. Hustles 4/21



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5033GB


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213 36 B


28136


336 36 B


391 36 B


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392 36 B


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216 36 B


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341 36 B


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Online LibraryFrederick James AllenBusiness employments → online text (page 3 of 14)