Frederick Perry Noble.

The redemption of Africa; a story of civilization, with maps, statistical tables and select bibliography of the literature of African missions (Volume v.2) online

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in trust for them and repaid at the end of the apprentice-
ship. None is allowed to be idle, those not apprentices
or not busy with other work engaging in manual labor
about the fields and gardens. Many whites avail them-
selves of the advantages of education at Lovedale, and
mingle freely with the Negroes. The number of stu-
dents averages about seven hundred a year, nearly all of
them boarders or residents, and spontaneous evangelistic
and intellectual activity prevails. The teachers number



570 THE EXPANSION OF MISSIONS

two ordained missionaries, one of these being a physi-
cian; a Congregational minister at the head of the theo-
logical department; six foreign masters in the educa-
tional department; and six superintendents in the
industrial division. They have trained over sixteen
ordained native pastors; forty-nine interpreters and
clerks; four hundred and twelve teachers; five hundred
and eighty-five artizans; and hundreds of whom they
afterwards received no information. The Institution has
its own church, but there is a Kafir church with a native
pastor.

The quality of native work is not high, except in a
few who have enjoyed long training, though not longer
than that usually required for making a European a good
artizan or clerk. Close supervision and constant direc-
tion are necessary. If these and considerable time be
given, fair work is produced. If the whole process be
left to natives, the general result is absence of taste,
roughness and want of exactness or thoroughness in
measurements. People emerging from barbarism, to
many of whom drawing a simple straight line is a diffi-
culty and parallel lines or a rectangle a work of art, can
not be expected to turn out remarkably efficient and in-
telligent mechanics after only five years' training.

Do the natives use their education? The Lovedale
register of native students, as significant and valuable a
publication as African missions have produced, answers
the query. Here appear over four hundred teachers,
male and female. Many receive good allowances.
Many have advanced to better positions, others supply-
ing their places. The variety of occupations accounts
for the small number in each. Passing over natives in
clerical, intellectual or religious occupations, notice the
results of industrial or technical education. Not every




Class in Carpentry — Industrial Department
Class in Wagon-making — Industrial Department

LOVEDALE INSTITUTION, SOUTH AFRICA (f.C.S.)



THE NEW MISSIONARY 5/1

one taught a trade follows it persistently after leaving
and works at nothing else, but a reasonable number do.
Many causes affect continuance at trades. For years
before 1887 blacksmiths and wagon=makers were hardly
able to find employment. Printers are always in de-
mand, but the number taught is so small as to be hardly
noticeable when scattered through South Africa. When
trade is depressed, the white man, because the better
artizan, gains the preference. It is often discovered
after trial, though sometimes too late, that applicants
for a trade make poor craftsmen. In time these drop
out, and take to such callings as that of day4aborer at
much smaller wages. Ordinarily those who continue at
trades easily earn from $5 to $7.25 a week. Of itself
this is sufficient to keep them from sinking into day=
labor at thirty^five cents a day. The frequent state-
ment that "industrial grants are simply money wasted
on the Kafir, who never takes to trade but prefers to
lead an idle life" is erroneous in its application to the
majority. It is the outcome of embittered prejudice or
of ignorance too inactive to inform itself. It pretends
that all who have for three years been subject to the dis-
cipline of school and for five years afterward to that of
daily toil are as likely as the raw native in red clay and
a blanket to lead a barbarian life the rest of their days.
The majority, even when not following and wholly occu-
pying themselves with handicrafts, are more industrious
and progressive than those receiving no training. Their
slight taste of civilized life has taught them that barbar-
ism as well as civilization possesses discomforts and
that the ne plus ultra of comfort in dress does not consist
of one blanket and a smearing of grease and red clay.

For certain tasks the raw Kafir is superior to the edu-
cated native. The man in whom has been waked no



572 THE EXPANSION OF MISSIONS

desire for another and better^paid occupation will attend
more carefully to herding cattle and sheep than one who
has received education. His barbaric thought is of cat-
tle and sheep, their markings and ways. If he make the
master's interests his, he will notice more quickly when
any stray or are sick. He uses a dozen words for kine
with daplings of skin that would not strike a white man,
our faculties being less perceptive in such matters. For
farm=laborers and herders not much instruction is
needed. But serious argument as to educating Africans
does not stop with such points. The raw native is not
better than one whose faculties have been awakened and
sharpened by manual work and school instruction.
Among the native population is growing up a small but
steadily increasing class possessing acquirements of
which the fathers did not dream. A number enjoy an
amount of mechanical skill which in former times only
one or two in a tribe had. In almost every tribe there
are now workmen capable of instructing their fellows.
The educated class through having received such training
takes to higher grades of craftsmanship. On the aver-
age the work is neither very high nor very satisfactory,
for if the mind be confused or feeble or its method de-
fective, such must be the product at every stage and in
its completed form. But graduates and pupils are im-
proving. These classes are of greater economic value
in what they consume and produce than are the un-
taught. The greater their wants, the larger their pur-
chasing power. This means that they must work more
and are a less danger than if left in ignorance and bar-
barism. Cattle=lifting and joining in rebellions have not
been traceable to Christian and educated natives as a
class.

Over two thousand have received industrial or school



THE NEW MISSIONARY 573

training. Part of these have enjoyed both. One thou-
sand more may be mentioned here, but not taken into
account in this enumeration, which also excludes reli-
gious influences and results from the present reckoning.
At least eighty per cent, of the two thousand have led in-
dustrious and useful lives. Many hold positions of re-
sponsibility, and receive salaries or wages far beyond
what they could earn if untaught, the remuneration of
some varying from $400 to $500 a year. They have been
raised above herders with $2.50 a month and a half^bag
of maize. But for their education and the previous
labors of missionaries they would have remained unable
to distinguish the top of a printed page from its bottom,
unable to use even that complicated tool, the spade, as
any one may satisfy himself if he send a raw native to
dig his garden. They have been dragged from an abyss
of ignorance and lack of manual skill. Yet the beneficial
effects do not stop with individuals. A very large pro-
portion of those now receiving instruction are the sons
and daughters of Christian Negroes whom Lovedale
taught a generation ago. Heathen parents desiring
education for their children are comparatively few.

The educational bureau of Cape Colony publishes sta-
tistics comparing Lovedale with seven hundred other in-
stitutions and schools. The comparison shows that in
the three grades forming the foundation of practical and
useful knowledge Lovedale stands first. No greater
mistake could be entertained than to believe that Love-
dale wastes time and public money in giving to a few
exotic specimens an education unfitted to native posi-
tions in after life. It is by attention, not to higher and
special subjects, but to the fundamental elements that
Lovedale won its rank. Even to friends, for they hear
objections and unfair criticisms that do not reach the



574 TH E EXPANSION OF MISSIONS

faculty, the latter constantly find themselves obliged to
state that the Lovedale studies run chiefly along primary
lines and mainly devote themselves to fundamental
objects. In the secondary and the higher grades Love-
dale occupies only the second place. The examinations
for elementary teachers' certificates independently
evince the same fact. When all grades of merit or suc-
cess are grouped together, Lovedale stands first; but in
"honors" and "competency", second; and in "honors"
alone, merely third. These are great achievements; in
academic and collegiate studies it is no small thing to
rank even third among seven hundred schools; and
though Lovedale has shared the beneficial changes intro-
duced into colonial education between 1866 and 1887 by
Dale, the superintendent of schools, the success of the
representatives of Lovedale has sprung from conscien-
tious and thorough work by the teachers.

Travelers have created a myth about Lovedale pupils
returning in considerable numbers to heathenism and
again donning the red blanket. This going back to the
former life, this reversion to type, its last state worse
than its first, is supposed to be the opprobrium of mis-
sions and the standing proof of their work wanting genu-
ineness and solidity. Books of travel, whose authors
have picked up a few current and untested opinions and
transferred them to their journals, constantly refer to
this error. In Huebner's Through the British Empire
occurs the following instance: "It is no rare thing to
see pupils who have scarcely left the excellent Protes-
tant institution at Lovedale relapse into savagery; from
want of practice forget all they have been taught; and
scoff at missionaries". A work of fiction has also been
based on the idea that in many the change produced by
the acceptance of Christianity is but skin-deep, lasting



THE NEW MISSIONARY 575

only till the older and stronger instincts of barbarism
overcome it. Both these beliefs are mistakes. They
are due to the supposition, first, that all backsliders
have been professed Christians; and, second, that the
numbers reverting to heathenism are much greater than
investigation proves them to be. Not every native who
for a time wears clothes or, as a pleasant variation in
spending his days, comes to church, becomes actually a
convert or even pretends to be a member of the congre-
gation to which he adhered. It is true that many natives
of Christian connections, including a few of the genuine
Negro Christians, fall again into some heathen ways or
pagan sins; but relapse into one or other of these habits
and vices is one thing, relapse into open or utter pagan-
ism another affair. The frequent criticism that this oc-
curs is shown upon examination to be as ill-grounded as
common. Returns to barbarism and heathendom on the
part of Lovedale graduates are extremely rare. Among
sixteen hundred young men the number of actual and
permanent relapses in thirty years and more appeared on
most careful inquiry to be fifteen, less than one per cent.
of the whole!

Not a little advice has been bestowed on missionaries,
urging them to civilize the barbarian before attempting
to Christianize him. The well-meaning profferers of
such suggestions will appreciate the following incident.
Bishop Colenso, an Anglican churchman of ability and
knowledge, believed it necessary to civilize men before
they could be converted. In order to demonstrate the
truth of his scientific hypothesis by the experimental
method, he obtained a dozen Zulu boys, pledged himself
to their families that no effort should be put forth to-
ward biasing them as to religious matters, and had them
indentured to him for a number of years. He minis-



576 THE EXPANSION OF MISSIONS

tered to their needs and had them properly taught.
They made decided progress. On the last day he told
the youths the terms of the engagement under which
they had come, reminded them of his fidelity, and ap-
pealed to them to receive the instruction which he con-
sidered of far greater importance than all they had yet
acquired. Next morning every man had gone, back to
native costume, back to native life. Their only grati-
tude was to leave behind the European clothes with
which they had been furnished. Colenso went the third
day to American Congregational missionaries, put $250
at their disposal, and said: "You are right. I was
wrong".

Lovedale has never made this mistake. Govan,
Stewart and the other wise men working with them have
agreed with Plutarch that religion contains and holds so-
ciety together and is the foundation, stay and prop of all.
They believe with Carlyle that "no nation that did not
feel that there is a great, unknown, omnipotent, all-wise,
all-virtuous being superintending all men and interests
— ever came to much, nor any man, who forgot that".
They have seen that among the reasons for the slow
progress of the Negro must be reckoned the practical
absence of religious convictions with power over conduct,
and that this involves lack of high moral forces. Among
Africans natural religion is seldom sufficient to make for
righteousness and to mold character. The mental
vacuity and aimless, indefinite life characterizing barbar-
ism are corollaries of this serious want. Heredity, too,
has to do with the slowness of the African's advance.
Those whom the influences of thousands of years are re-
tarding can not progress at the rate of other and more
favored races. Human nature is too steadfast to allow
the African simply on our recommendation to fall at




DR STEWART OF LOVEDALE



Si monumentum requiris, circumspice



THE NEW MISSIONARY 577

once into European ways and to adopt the white man's
Christianity and civilization. The record of Lovedale in
black and white shows that Christian endeavors to
benefit African barbarians and pagans are more resultful
than they have been often acknowledged to be. Doctor
Colenso's experience demonstrates the Bible to be the
missionary's chief text-book; the awakening of the
strongest influence for future guidance through planting
Scriptural beliefs to be his primary object; and spiritual
effects his most important result. What Lovedale has
by such means achieved for the native hand and heart
and head and spirit in the regions between the Cape and
Lake Tanganika is too vast for computation. Anthony
Trollope and Sir Bartle Frere testified that "nothing
would do more to prevent future Kafir wars than a mul-
tiplication of such institutions". Superintendent Dale,
judging Lovedale with twenty or more years' knowledge
of it, regarded it as undoubtedly one of the noblest and
most successful missionary agencies. In 1890 Governors
Grey and Loch, the former for New Zealand, the latter
for Cape Colony, expressed their views of Lovedale.
Grey wrote: "My heart is filled with gratitude to the
missionaries who worked out so great and noble a success.
I earnestly pray that heaven may still prosper the
labors of such true friends of mankind. The success
that has crowned your labors will secure great advan-
tages to the Christian cause in this part of the world".
Loch wrote: "The results of industrial education have
by the blessing of God transformed Kafir tribes then
wartlike into industrious, progressive, peaceful citizens".
Governor Grey was wiser than he knew. "How far that
little candle throws his beam!" The influence of Love-
dale radiates through Africa and to America and Aus-
tralia. When Govan determined that Europeans and



578 THE EXPANSION OF MISSIONS

Negroes must fellowship each other, he struck a first
blow in the struggle to decide whether blacks the world
around shall rank as men or sink to serfage. To say noth-
ing of Blythswood and other industrial institutions in
South Africa that owe their origin to Lovedale; to say
nothing of the immeasurable impulse given to the indus-
trial work of every church promoting missions there —
from Lovedale sprang the more immediate inspiration
for the industrial missions of the Anglicans and Scotch
Presbyterians at Lake Nyasa. "Through these alone,"
according to H. H. Johnston, a witness whom we have
already subpoenaed, "is growing up such civilization as
exists in Nyasaland".



CHAPTER 17

1547 = 1898

OLD FRIENDS AND MODERN METHODS: WOMAN'S
WORK FOR AFRICAN WOMEN

Wisdom hath sent forth her maidens.

Proverbs ix: 3
The women that publish the tidings are a great host.

Psalm lxviii : 11

THE BIBLE, CHRISTIANITY AND WOMAN. MODERN NEEDS

AND METHODS. CHRISTIAN, MUHAMMADAN AND PAGAN WOMEN.

WOMAN UNDER ISLAM. WOMEN UNDER PAGANISM. THE CHRIS-

TIAN NEGRESS. WOMAN IN THE CHURCH. THE KAISERSWERTH

DEACONESS. METHODS AND ORGANIZATION. KAISERSWERTH IN

AFRICA. ANGLICAN SISTERHOODS. ONE ANGLICAN WOMAN=MIS-

SIONARY. ANOTHER FEMININE TRIUMPH. SOME ANGLICAN

FEMALE MISSIONARIES. " BISHOP " MARY WHATELY. BAPTIST

WOMEN AND THE AFRICAN. FREEDMEN'S WORK OF AMERICAN

BAPTIST WOMEN. BEFORE AND AFTER: AN INSTANCE. OTHER

RESULTS. CONGREGATIONAL WOMEN: A PROPHECY. A SCOTCH

HEROINE. FIRST YEARS OF MARRIED LIFE. THE ROUTINE OF

THE MISSIONARY'S WIFE. "THEY ALSO SERVE WHO ONLY STAND

AND WAIT". REUNION AND PUBLIC RECOGNITION. A SECOND

PARTING. TILL DEATH US DO PART. WELL DONE, GOOD AND

FAITHFUL SERVANT: ENTER INTO THE JOY OF THY LORD. CON-

GREGATIONAL WOMEN FROM AMERICA IN ZULULAND. LUTHERAN

WOMEN. METHODIST WOMEN. "MORAVIAN", " QUAKER " AND

UNDENOMINATIONAL WOMEN. SOCIETY FOR PROMOTION OF FEMALE

EDUCATION. MISS HOLLIDAY. WOMAN IN METHODIST, NORTH

AFRICA, SALVATIONIST AND UNITED BRETHREN MISSIONS. PRES-

BYTERIAN WOMEN. THE ROMAN SPOUSE OF CHRIST. WOMAN'S

WORK THE NEW CRUSADE: " GOD WILLS IT, GOD WILLS IT ! "

God in His primal revelation of the divine purpose
for the redemption of man declared that He would put

579



580 THE EXPANSION OF MISSIONS

enmity between sin and woman. It should bruise the
heel of her child, but he should bruise its head. God's
creation of woman as the meet help for man had fur-
nished the divine sanction for her sharing in the world's
work; His placing hatred between evil and her origi-
nated her opposition to wickedness and her participation
in missions when the fulness of time made these a part
of human life; and the religiousness of woman as com-
pared to man and her superior susceptibility to spiritual
impressions and influences render her more loyal to
God. It was not the father of Cain but the mother that
said: I have gained a man with Yahweh, thus recognizing
her child, however erroneously, as a fulfillment of God's
pledge for man's redemption; and it was Eve again who
regarded Seth as the appointed one substituted by God.

As it was in this divinely constituted marriage, home
and family, so it has been at every crisis in spiritual his-
tory, at every development and turning=point in the king-
dom of God on earth. With Abraham Sara entered
Africa. Woman has shown herself more prompt than
man in her response to divine leadings and providential
unfoldings. Miriam and Deborah, Hannah and Esther
under the old dispensation, despite the oriental status of
woman in the Hebrew theocracy; Mary, Elizabeth and
Anna in the twilight between the old and the new; Pris-
cilla, who with Aquila taught the way of God more per-
fectly to Apollos the eloquent Alexandrine; the elect
lady to whom John the Divine wrote his second epistle;
Dorcas, Eunice, Lois, Lydia, Persis, Phebe and the
prophet^daughters of Philip in the new dispensation, —
these and the host of noble though nameless women re-
veal God's purpose as to woman's place and power in
working out the progress and salvation of the world.

In the ancient church Monica the North African won



OLD FRIENDS AND MODERN METHODS 58 I

Augustine for Christianity. In medieval Christianity
British women formed the first female missionaries;
Clara, the spiritual sister of Francis of Assisi, had her
Little Clares to match his Lesser Brethren; and the nuns
and sisterhoods accomplished little less for Christian
missions than did the brotherhoods, monks and orders.
In modern times the spiritual daughters of Vincent Paul,
with other bodies of missionary women, have prolonged
the Roman tradition of Christian womanhood conse-
crated to service for the Christ in heathen lands; and
Protestant wives, sisters and other female kin have from
the first accompanied Protestant missionaries.

Pious women were among the first Lutheran, "Mora-
vian" and Methodist missions, devout nuns amid papal
missions since 1520 to Africa and to American Negroes.
Mrs Marshman, wife of Carey's colleague, proved herself
the truest of meet helps for the missionary; and the first
ship to bear American missionaries to the pagan world
carried Ann Judson and Harriet Newell. It was a
woman, Harriet Beecher Stowe, that dealt the deadliest
blow to American slavery; a black woman, Sojourner
Truth, who revived the dying faith and courage of Doug-
lass by the awful and solemn question: "Frederic, is
God dead?"

But though woman had accomplished much for Chris-
tian missions through eighteen centuries, — more than
men dream of — and did still more during the first half
of the nineteenth century, its third quarter had nearly
expired (in America if not in Europe) before this old
friend began en masse to adopt modern methods. Ameri-
can women had as early as 1800 formed feminine mission?
societies, and in 1834 Abeel, the Dutch Reformed mis-
sionary of the American Board, had persuaded British
women of every Protestant church to found the interde-



582 THE EXPANSION OF MISSIONS

nominational Society for Female Education; but as a
class these societies were ephemeral, inadequate, lacking
in knowledge and social power, local and wasteful ; and
it required the bitter cry of heathen women to reach
Christian women's tenderness, to pierce and seize their
hearts and to rouse them to concentrated, systematic,
united action. The Christian womanhood of America
and Europe saw that, under God, only it can save the
woman of the orient. The freedman of the southern
United States, the Negro and other races of Africa can
not be raised or rescued unless the mothers, sisters and
wives are Christianized and elevated. This the man=
missionary can not do; this the woman must do.

Several classes of African women call for considera-
tion. These consist of the American Negress, the Mus-
lim woman of Africa and the pagan African. Probably
the female Muhammadan is the most unfortunate of the
three, for Negro Africa in not a few districts and in not
a few respects is a land of woman's rights and America,
n spite of the wrongs it inflicts on the Negro, gives
Negro women their largest opportunity. What does
Islam say and do for woman?

The idea that woman could or should be man's com-
panion and counsellor never occurred to Muhammad.
Sensuality lay at the root of the matter. Islam misun-
derstood the relation of the sexes. Its degradation of
woman is one of its fatal weaknesses, concubinage its
black stain. In no country where Islam prevails is
woman not in a degraded position; and her degradation
has degraded every after generation until, in the judg-
ment of Lane*Poole, "it seems almost impossible to
reach a lower level of vice". The Quran's most hope-
ful word for women is this: "Whoso doth good works
and is a believer, whether male or female, shall be ad-



OLD FRIENDS AND MODERN METHODS 583

mitted to paradise"; but woman's good works consist
in obedience to the husband. The disobedient wife can
not enter paradise. Again, "men shall have pre-emi-
nence over women . . . God preserveth them
[women] by committing them to the care and protection
of men". The Quran sanctions the beating and scourg-
ing of wives; allows four wives to every Muslim and as
many concubines as he can support, promising to the
faithful seventy-two houris in paradise; and permits the
husband to divorce or kill the wife without reason or
warning. Under Islam woman is a chattel and slave,
and the orthodox view of womanhood is unutterable.
The monument that the dead hand of Muhammadanism
raises to woman is the magnificent mausoleum of the Taj
Mahal. The Hindi Muslim pictures woman as the tablet
to be written on, man as the stylus to grave whatever
character fate wills. Since the position of woman meas-
ures the rank and value of a civilization, her place in
Islam furnishes another criterion as to the effect of this
faith on forty million Africans.

While we must guard against making hasty general-



Online LibraryFrederick Perry NobleThe redemption of Africa; a story of civilization, with maps, statistical tables and select bibliography of the literature of African missions (Volume v.2) → online text (page 8 of 31)