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80



WIELAND'S TRANSLATION OF SHAKESPEARE



BY



F. W. MEISNEST



iS ISL^Jd



[Fbom the modern language review, Vol, IX, No. 1, Jantjabt 1914.]



T^gKT



CAMBRIDGE
AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS



[Reprinted from the Modern Language Review.
Vol. IX. No. 1. January 1914.]

[All RigJits reserved.]



WIELAND'S TRANSLATION OF SHAKESPEARE.

Comparatively early in life did Christoph Martin Wieland become
interested in English literature. During his school-days at Kloster-
bergen (1748-50) he read Richardson's Pamela in a French translation.
His actual study of the English language, however, did not begin until
after he had entered the University of Tubingen in 1752^. One of the
first English poets in whom he was interested was James Thomson, the
influence of whose Seasons is evident on Wieland's early writings^ ; and
his friendship with Bodmer and residence in Zurich (1752-54) naturally
turned his attention to Milton. The pathetic ' letters ' of the English
poetess Elizabeth Rowe nourished his emotional nature and furnished
materials for his Briefe von Verstorhenen an hinterlassene Freunde
(1753); and still more was he captivated by the sweet melancholy
of Edward Young's Night Thoughts^. The attraction which Young
had for him was, however, of short duration. Richardson also made
a strong appeal to Wieland, and the, influence of that writer is to be
seen, not merely in the theme of his domestic tragedy, Clementina von
Porretta (1760), but also in his moral story, Araspes und Panthea
(1758)\ Another of his early dramas, Lady Johanna Gray (1758),
shows his dependence on the English dramatist Rowe. Swift does not
seem to have appealed very strongly to him^ but Prior was a particular
favourite^; and in his Der neue Amadis, he is directly indebted to
Spenser's Faerie Queene"'. A greater influence than any of these writers
was, however, that of Shaftesbury, whom Wieland accepted as his
teacher after he abandoned Young in 1756^

1 Cf. letter to Schinz, March 26, 1752 {Ausgeivcihlte Briefe, i, p. 55).

^ K. Gjerset, Ber Einfluss von Thomsons Jahreszeiten avf die deutsche Literatur des
18. Jahrlmnderts, Heidelberg, 1898, pp. 36 — 40 ; also Koberstein, Geschichte der deutschen
Nationalliteratur, 5. Aufl., in, p. 118.

^ J. Barnstorff, Youngs Nachtgedanken und ihr Einjiuss auf die deutsche Literatur,
Bamberg, 1895, pp. 58—63.

•* E. Schmidt, Richardson, Rousseau und Goethe, Jena, 1875, p. 46.

^ Cf. Schiiorr's Archiv fii.r Literaturgeschichte, xiii, p. 496.

8 Wukadinovic, Prior in Deutschland, Graz, 1895, pp. 48 — 58.

'' L. Lenz, Wielands Verhdltnis zu Spenser, Pope und Sivift, Hersfeld, 1903.

>* Allgemeine deutsche Biographic, xlii, p. 412 and Wieland's Werke (Hempel) i, p. 20.



F. W. MEISNEST 3

The first reference to Shakespeare is found in a conversation on
March 15, 1755, with Magister F. D. Ring, reported in the latter's
diary :

Am Sonntag den 15. Marz [1755] fiihrte ich nach der Predigt den Herrn Nolten
S. Min. Cand. aus Berlin zu Wieland, der von Shakespear viel schwatzte und
glaubte, er werde ewig der Englander Bewunderung bleiben, ohngeachtet er manch-
mal gigantische Vorstellungen hat und alle Teufel aus der Hblle auf's Theater
bringt^.

Most important for the purpose of showing Wieland's attitude
towards and his appreciation of Shakespeare's works is his letter of
April 24, 1758, to Zimmermann. After censuring Voltaire for his
violent denunciation of Shakespeare he writes :

Vous connoissez sans doute cet homme extraordinaire par ses ouvrages. Je I'aime
avec toutes ses fautes. II est presque unique a })eindre d'aj)rfes la nature les hommes,
les mcEurs, les passions ; il a le talent precieux d'embellir la nature sans lui faire
perdre ses proportions. Sa fecondite est inepuisable. II paroit n'avoir jamais etudic
que la nature seule. II est tantot le Michel-Ange tantot le Corrfege des poetes. Oil
trouver plus de conceptions hardies et pourtant justes de pensees nouvelles, belles,
sublimes, frappantes, et d'expressions vives, heureuses, animees, que dans les ouvrages
de ce genie incomparable ? Malheur a celui qui souhaite de la regularite a un genie
d'un tel ordre, et qui ferme les yeux ou qui n'a pas des yeux pour sentir ses beautes
uniquement parce qu'il n'a pas celle que la pifece la plus detestable de Pradon a
dans un degre plus eminent que le Gid-.

No such intelligent, enthusiastic praise had been given to Shake-
speare by any of the other prominent German critics or scholars previous
to this time, not even by Lessing, Nicolai, or Mendelssohn.

Just when and through what means Wieland first became interested
in Shakespeare cannot be definitely decided. Possibly the appreciative
remarks on Shakespeare and the potentialities of English tragedy in
Beat de Muralt's Lettres sur les Anglais (Berne, 1712; Zurich, 1725;
Cologne, 1726) may have directed his attention to the English poet-^
Other possible sources were Voltaire's works, of which Wieland con-
fessed himself a constant reader and admirer* ; and even Gottsched,
who was to him in his youth a 'magnus Apollo V may have been instru-
mental in interesting him in Shakespeare. The English periodicals,
the Taller, Spectator, and Guardian, were familiar to Wieland in his

1 Schnorr's Archiv, xiii, p. 495.

2 Ausgewcihlte Brief e, i, 271. Cf. the strikingly similar comparison by Martin Sherlock,
A Fragvient on Shakesjieai-e, 1786 : 'To say that he possessed the terrible graces of Michael
Angelo, and the amiable graces of Correggio, would be a weak encomium: he had them
and more.' (Quoted from Charles Knight, Studies of Shakspere, London, 1868.)

* Cf. Otto von Greyerz, B. L. von Muralt, Berne, 1888 ; M. Koch in Englische Studien,
XXIV, p. 317 ; also Bottiger, Literarische Zustdnde und Zeitgenossen, Leipzig, 1838, i,
p. 174.

* Cf. Wieland, Ein Wort iiber Voltaire besonders als Historiker (1773) ; (Werke, ed.
Goschen, 1839-40, xxxvi, p. 174).

^ Letter to Bodmer, March 6, 1752 (AusgewiMte Brief e, i, p. 46).



4 Wieland's Translation of Shakespeare

school-days ; while the Leipzig journal, Neue Erweiterungen der
Erkenntniss und des Vergnugens (1753), conbained a translation of
Rowe's Life of Shakespeare. Lastly, Nicolai's Brief e ilher die itzigen
Zustdnde der schonen Wissenschaften (1754) and Yotiiio-'s Essay on
Original Composition (1759; translated, 1760), with their important
references to Shakespeare, were no doubt known to him.

The immediate suggestion for translating Shakespeare was probably
derived from various sources. Gervinus believed that if it had not
been for Lessing's recommendation of a translation of Shakespeare's
masterpieces {Litteraturhriefe, No. xvir), Wieland would not have
undertaken the task\ The fact is that Wieland cared little for
Lessing's opinions at this time. When Mendelssohn subjected
Wieland's tragedy Clementina von Porr'etta, (1760) to a severe criticism
(Litteraturhriefe, Nos. cxxiii, cxxiv), Wieland remarked: 'der Miss-
achtung meiner Clementina von Lessing und Compagnie achte ich
nicht mehr als des Summens der Sommermiicken oder des Quackens
der Laubfrdsche'-.' Far more significant to Wieland must have been
the urgent demand for a translation of English stage-plays, especially
those of Shakespeare, contained in a review of Neue Prohestilcke der
englischen Schauhuhne (3 vols., Basel, 1758) in the Bihliothek der schonen
Wissenschaften (vi, 1760, pp. 60-74). The work reviewed contains
Shakespeare's Romeo and Jidiet in iambic blank verse, besides dramas
by Young, Addison, Dryden, Otway, Congreve and Rowe, all translated
from the original ' von einem Liebhaber des guten Geschmacks.' The
reviewer directs translators to Shakespeare as follows :

Wir habeii schon mehr als einmal gewiinscht, dass sich ein guter Uebersetzer an
die englische Schaubuhne wagen, und seine Landsleute hauptsachlich mit den
vortrefflichen alten Stlicken des Shakespear, Beaumont und Fletcher, Otway, und
andern bekannt machen mochte. Es wiirde vielleicht fiir die deutsche Schaubuhne
weit vortheilhafter gewesen seyn, wenn sie jenen nachgeahmt hatte, als dass sie sich
die franzosische Galanterie hinreissen lassen, und uns mit einer Menge hochst
elender, obgleich hochstregelmassiger Stucke bereichert hat.... Wir empfehleu
hauptsachlich dem Uebersetzer die Shakespeareischen Stucke : sie sind die schonsten,
aber auch die schwersten, aber um deste eher zu iibersetzen, wenn man niitzlich
seyn will 2.

1 Geschichte der deiitschen Dichtung, 5th ed., iv, p. 422, a view which is concurred in
by Dr Merscheberger (Shakespeare-Jahrbiich, xxv, p. 209).

- El. Schmidt, Eichanlson, Rousseau und Goethe, p. 48.

•' In January 1759 Nicolai surrendered the editorship of the Bihliothek to Ch. F. Weisse.
But this review with its significant reference to Shakespeare is not in accord with the views
of either of these editors. Both violently opposed entire translations of Shakespeare, as is
evident from their reviews of Wieland's translation in the Allg. deutsche Bihliothek (i, 1,
17(55, p. 300) and Bihliothek der schonen Wissenschaften (ix, 1763, p. 259). It seems
probable that Joh. Nic. Meinhard was the author of the above review, which is quite in
accord with his views and attitude (cf. Denkmal des Herrv Joh. Nik. Meinhard von Friedr.
Just Eiedel, Silmrntlichte Scliriften, Wieu, 1787, vol. v, pp. 97 — 158).



F. W. MEISNEST 5

No doubt the immediate and most direct call for translating
Shakespeare came to Wieland from his friend W. D. Sulzer, who upon
returning a volume of Wieland's copy of Shakespeare (Jan. 14, 1759),
expressed the hope that some skilful genius would translate and
analyse Shakespeare's plays in the manner of Brumoy's Theatre des
Orecs (see below, p. 15).

Furthermore the decade 1760-70 was characterised by an awaken-
ing of interest in English literature. Gottsched and his followers had
lost their prestige, and the younger writers looked to England for their
literary standards. In 1760 the Shakespeare cult, inaugurated by the
forerunners of the ' Storm and Stress ' movement — Lessing, Nicolai,
Mendelssohn, Weisse and Meinhard — was well established. The French
had their translation of Shakespeare by La Place, although it was very
imperfect and incomplete. Besides the three scenes of Richard III (I,
ii; IV, iv, 1-195 ; V, iii, 108-206, Globe ed.), which appeared in Neue
Erweiterungen de7' Erkeimtniss und des Vergnugens (Leipzig, 1755),
only two dramas had been translated into German : Jidius Caesar by
von Borck (1741) and Romeo and Jrdiet. The time was auspicious for
a complete German Shakespeare.

Soon after Wieland came to Biberach (1760) as 'Ratsherr' and
' Kanzleidirektor/ he w^as appointed director of the local theatrical
society (Jan. 7, 1761), which had existed since 1686, and was composed
of artisans and tradesmen of the town\

The successful presentation of his Lady Johanna Gray on the stage
at Winterthur, Switzerland, on July 20, 1758, by the famous Ackermann
company was heralded throughout the land, and much was expected of
him. To meet this expectation he translated and arranged the Tempest
for the stage. The performance in September, 1761, was received with
great applause, and Wieland was encouraged to continue his work. He
translated twenty-two dramas, published by Orell, Gessner and Co.,
Zurich, between 1762 and 1766, in eight volumes^

1 Dr L. F. Ofterdinger, Geschichte des Theaters in Biberach {Wiirttemhergische Viertel-
jahreshefte, vi, 1883, pp. 36 — 45), gives the most complete account.

=* Vol. I : Pope's Preface, Mids., Lear; ii: A.Y.L., Meas., Temp.; in: Merch., Tim.,
John; IV: Gaes., Ant., Err.; v: Eich. 2, 1 Hen. IV, 2 Hen. IV ; vi: Much Ado., Macb.,
Two Gent. ; vii: Rom., 0th., Ttv. N. ; viii : Haml., Wint., Eowe's Life of Shak. (abridged).
Various editions or reprints of at least some of the volumes appeared. Of the four
copies of Wieland's translation which I have seen, two contain the 'Account of the Life of
Shakespeare' in vol. i, following Pope's 'Preface,' instead of in vol. viii. In one of the
copies vol. I bears the date 1764 instead of 1762. The translation is now easily accessible
in the splendid new edition of Wieland's Vbersetzungen, Herausg. von Ernst Stadler,
3 Bde. Berlin, Weidmann, 1909-11.



6 Wieland's Translation of Shakespeare

Wieland's Sources.

In order to realize fully the immensity of the task, we must consider
that Wieland undertook the work without a Shakespeare library.
There are no indications in his translation or writings which show that
he used even the meagre critical works on Shakespeare in existence
at that time, as : Theobald's Shakespeare Restored (1726), Samuel
Johnson's Miscellaneous Observations on the Tragedy of Macbeth (1745),
Upton's Critical Observations on Shakespeare (1746), Edwards's The
Canons of Criticism and Glossary, being a Supplement to Wa.rburtons
Edition of Shakespeare (1748), Grey's Critical, Historical and Explana-
tory Notes on Shakespeare (2 vols., 1755). According to all past
investigations his working library consisted of three works : Warbur-
ton's edition of Shakespeare's Works (8 vols., Dublin, 1747), Beyer's
French- Eyiglish and English-French Dictionary (2 vols., Lyons, 1756),
and a dictionary of Shakespearean Words and Phrases, which his friend
La Roche recommended to him as indispensable, but whose author's
name Wieland had forgotten \

Johnsons Dictionary.
Although no reference is to be found in Wieland's writings to
Samuel Johnson's Dictionary of the English Language (2 vols., London,
1755), which was the most comprehensive dictionary at the time and
was well known throughout Germany, it seems quite incredible that a
translator of Shakespeare should attempt his difficult task without it.
A careful comparison discloses a few translations which point ver}^
strongly to the use of Johnson's Dictionary. It is evident that only
those passages can be considered which contain unusual words not
explained in any of the works in Wieland's possession, as Warburton's
Shakespeare, Boyer's Dictionary, Ludwig's Dictionary, or whose meaning
cannot be-readily ascertained from the contexts

' Seuffert, Prolegomena zu einer Wieland-Ausgahe, Berlin, 1905, iii 6 ; Bottiger,
LitterariHche ZusUinde, vol. i, p. 196; Stadler, Quellen undForsch., cvii, pp. 21-2. Brief
f^lossaries were appended to the editions of Eowe (1714), Hanmer (1744) and Hugh Blair
(1753) ; but I could find no work corresponding to that recommended by La Eoche.

- Boyer, The Royal Dictionary, French and English and English and French, London,
1764, as well as Ludwig, Teutsch-Englisches Lexicon, 3. Aufl. 1765, and Ludwig, English,
German and French Dictionary, 3. Aufl., Leipzig, 1763, were used in this investigation.
The Dictionary by Ludwig, which Wieland may have used, was fully as complete as
Boyer's and perhaps more extensively used in Germany. It is mentioned by Weisse in
his review of the first volume of Wieland's translation in the Bihliothek der schonen
Wisxenschaften (ix, 261, 1763): ' Jeder Leser muss so billig seyn, sich zu eriunern, dass
zur Uebersetzung eines Shakespeare mehr als Ludwigs Worterbuch vonnothen.' Unless
otherwise specified, all references to Shakespeare's works are to Tlie Globe Edition and
Wieland's Gesammelte Schriften, 2. Abt. Ubersetzungen, hersg. von Stadler, 3 Bde. Berlin,
1909-11.



F. W. MEISNEST 7

Lea7\ II, 1, 67 : ' When I dissuaded him from his intent, And found
him pight to do it.' W., i, 116: 'Als ich ihn von seineni Vorhaben
abmahnte, und ihn so entschlossen fand.' Johnson's Diet. : ' pight,
determined. I found him pight to do it. Shakesp.'

Lear, ii, 2, 167 : ' Good king, that must approve the common saw.'
W., I, 123: 'Du guter Konig must izt das alte Spi-uchwort erfahren.'
Johnson : ' saw, saying, maxim. Good king, that must approve the
common saw, etc. Shakesp.'

Lear, ii, 4, 178: 'To scant my sizes.' W., i, 128: 'Du bist nicht
f8ihig...m,ir an meinem Unterhalt abzubrechen.' Johnson: 'sizes, a
settled quantity. In the following passage it seems to signify the
allowance of the table : whence they say a sizer at Cambridge. " 'Tis
not in thee. To cut off my train, to scant my sizes, etc." Shakespeare's
King Lear.' For Wieland to have divined this rare meaning, which is
specifically Cambridge use (see N.E.D., s.v.), would have been remarkable.

Haml. II, 2, 362 : ' escoted.' W., 3, 430 : ' salariert.' Johnson : ' To
pay a man's reckoning ; to support. What, are they children ? Who
maintains them ? How are they escoted ? Shakespeare's Hamlet.'
Here Wieland may also have learned the correct interpretation from
the foot-note ' escoted, paid ' in Johnson's edition of Shakespeare's
Works.

Macb. IV, 1, 37 : 'a baboon's blood.' W. : ' eines Sauglings Blut.'
Johnson: 'baboon [bahouin, Fr. It is supposed by Skinner to be the
augmentation of babe, and to import a great babe]. A monkey of
the largest kind.' Wieland undoubtedly was misled by this curious
etymology in Johnson's Dictionary, who got it from Stephano Skinner's
Etymologicon Linguae Anglicanae (London, 1671). The same occurs
also in Nathan Bailey's An Universal Etymological English Dictionary
(London, 1740), but not in Boyer. It is quite improbable that Wieland
should have mistaken ' baboon ' for ' babe ' as Stadler {Q.F., CVii, p. 42)
supposes. Furness (Macbeth ed.) has it charged to Eschenburg : ' He
mistook baboon for baby ;.. .and, so far will a naughty deed shine in this
good world, this baby of Eschenburg's has been adopted by Schiller (of
course), Benda, Kaufmann and Ortlepp.'

SJiakespeare Editions.

Undoubtedly Wieland had no opportunity to examine the various
Shakespeare editions before selecting Warburton's : The Works of
Shakespeare (Dublin, 8 vols.), with its numerous wild conjectures, as the
basis for his translation. Being extensively advertised as superior to all



8 Wielancls Ti-anslation of ShaJcespear'e

other editions, ' furnishing the genuine text, collated with all the former
editions, with critical and explanatory notes,' etc., it was but natural
that Wieland should choose it. Even Eschenburg approved his
selection : ' Herr Hofrath Wieland bediente sich freylich nur der
Warburtonschen Ausgabe, und er hatte sehr Recht, dieser den Vorzug
zu geben^'

The most reliable text, as well as commentary, was contained in one
of the later editions of Theobald's The Works of Shakespeare (London,
7 vols., later editions in 8 vols.: 1740, 1752, 1757, 1762 and 1767)-.

While collating the passages wherein Wieland deviated from War-
burton, without any thought of his having used other editions, I noticed
that all the similarities to Johnson's edition were in Hamlet and
Winters Tale in the last volume of the translation. If these were all
accidental, then similar results might be expected from the other seven
volumes. To my surprise no definite similarities were found. When I
discovered that Johnson's The Plays of William Shakespeare (8 vols.,
London) were published in October, 1765^ and Wieland's last volume
in 1766, my suspicions were aroused*. There is then the time from
Oct. 1765 to Sept. 1766, or about ten months, when it was possible
for Wieland to have used Johnson's edition.

Very probably Wieland had only Warburton's edition in his posses-
sion. But in some way or other he must have had access to other
editions and works, either in the extensive library of his friend Graf
Stadion, who was a student of English literature, and at whose home
Wieland frequently visited while working on the translation, or in
some of the libraries adjacent to Biberach, as Ziirich or Geneva.
He no doubt borrowed books from Zurich, and now and then asked
his friend Gessner to look up references for him. Thus he writes on
Sept. 30, 1762, to his publishers at Ziirich :

A pro po, das englische Wort, dessen deutscben Aequivalent ich nichthabe findeii
koiinen, ist iiicht spider, sondern spinner ; spider ist bekannt und heisst eine Spinue.
Spinner aber bedeutet, wie ich glaube, eine Art von ungiftigen Spinuen, die einen
kleinen aschfarbnen Leib und sehr lange Beine haben und bey uns in Suhwaben

1 Shakespeares Schausplele, xiii, p. 469.

2 The Works of Shakespeare, London, 1767, in Wieland's library at his death (Seuffert,
Frolegoviena, iii, p. 6), must have been the 1767 edition of Theobald.

•^ Diet, of National B log., xxx, p. 14.

^ According to Wieland's letters he translated vol. viii between Nov. 7, 1765
(Denkwilrdige Briefe, i, 26) and May 8, 1766, when the last manuscript was sent to
the publishers. • Sept. 4, 1766 Wieland received three printed copies of vol. viii (Schnorr's
Archiv, vii, pp. 505 and 506).

Stadler (QF., cvi, pp. 13 — 19) gives a very complete collation of all references in
Wieland's letters to his translation.



^. W. MEISNEST 9

Zimmermanncheu genannt werden. Ich habe im Linneus niclits davon gefunden.
Der Hr. Canonicus Gessner aber wird Ihnen vermuthlich die Auskunft dariibei'
geben konnen^

In the numerous footnotes Wieland refers only once to other
Shakespeare editors, but this reference is significant. In a half-page
footnote Warburton attempts to justify his division of lines among
Lysander and Hermia (Mids., I, 1, 168), which Wieland properly
rejects : ' Warburton schreibt also alien alten und neuen Ausgaben
unsers Dichters zuwider diese schone Rede : Bey Amors starkstem
Bogen, u.s.w. (i, 1, 169 — 176) dem Lysander, und nur die zween letzten
Verse (177 — 8) der Hermia zu.' In Warburton's note no mention is
made of other editors. In 'alien alten und neuen Ausgaben unsers
Dichters,' Wieland must have included Theobald's (probably also
Hanmer's) edition ; furthermore, he must have examined the edition
himself, or had some one to do it for him, since his statement is true.

The following parallel passages, of which some are quite conclusive,
others more or less corroborative, are intended to prove that Wieland
used or had access to Theobald's and Johnson's editions, using the
latter only in the last volume of his translation.

Theobald's Edition.

(1) Haml., Ill, 4, 88: 'And reason panders will.' W. : 'Und Ver-
nunft die Kupplerin schnoder Liiste wird.' Theobald : ' Suffers reason
to be the Bawd to appetite I'

(2) Mach., I, 3, 21 : 'He shall live a man forbid.' W. : 'Und so soil
er in der Acht Siech und Elend sich verzehren.' Theobald : 'Forbid,
i.e., as under a curse, an interdiction.' Johnson : 'Forbid, to accurse, to
blast.'

(3) Lear, i, 4, 322 : ' The untented woundings of a father's curse.'
W. : ' Die unheilbaren Wunden des Fluchs eines Vaters.' Theobald :
' A wounding of such a sharp inveterate nature, that nothing shall be
able to tent it, or reach the bottom, and help to cure it.' Johnson :
' Untented, having no medicaments applied.'

(4) Wint, I, 2, 41 : ' To let him there a month behind the gest Pre-
fix'd for's parting.' W. : 'So will ich's euch dagegen schriftlich geben,
dass ihr ihn einen Monat liber den bestimmten Tag der Abreise

1 Schnorr's Archiv, vii, p. 492. Wieland must have inquired about ' spinners ' in
Mids., II, 2, 21 : ' Hence you long-legg'd spinners.'

^ Unless specified, Theobald's notes or readings are not found in Warburton's,
Johnson's, or Hanmer's editions, nor in Johnson's or Boyer's Dictionaries. References
to Theobald are to the 1752 edition.



lO Wieland's Translation of Shakespeare

behalten sollet.' Theobald: 'I have not ventured to alter the Text,
tho', I freely own, I can neither trace, nor understand, the phrase. I
have suspected, that the poet wrote : behind the just, i.e., the just,
precise time.' Warburton : 'Behind the gest. Mr Theobald thinks it
should be just. But the word gest is right, and signifies a stage or
journey.' Johnson's ed. contains Warburton's note, but not Theobald's,
whose conjecture has been universally rejected.

(5) ^amZ., II, 2, 354: 'An aery of children, little eyases.' W.: 'Ein
Nest voll Kinder,... kleine Kichelchen.' Theobald: 'Little eyases, i.e..
Young nestlings, creatures just out of the egg.' (The same in Johnson.)
Johnson's Diet. : Eyas, ' A young hawk just taken from the nest not
able to prey for itself Hanmer.' Beyer's Diet. : Eyess. ' A young
hawk just taken from the nest.'

Johnsons Edition.

(1) Haml., I, 4, 17 : 'This heavy-headed revel east and west makes
us traduced and tax'd of other nations.' W. : ' Diese taumelnden Trink-
Gelage machen uns in Osten und Westen verachtlich, und werden uns
von den librigen Volkern als ein National-Laster vorgeworfen.' War-
burton : ' i.e., this reveling that observes no hours, but continues from
morning to night.' Johnson : ' I construe it thus : This heavy-headed
revel makes us traduced east and west, and taxed of other nations.'


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