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HISTORY OF GERMANY;



FROM THE



EARLIEST PERIOD TO THE PRESENT TIME.



BY FREDERICK KOHLRAUSCH.



LONDON:

CHAPMAN AND HALL, 186, STRAND.
1844.



G. WHITING, BEAUFORT HOUSE, STRAND.



TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE.



THE high merits and distinguished character of the
original German work by Professor Kohlrausch, of which
this is a translation, have long been acknowledged. A work
which during a period of thirty years has enjoyed so much
popularity as to have gone through several editions, em-
bracing a circulation of many thousands of copies ; a pro-
duction which has extended and established its good repute,
even in its original form, far beyond its native clime, to
England, France, Belgium, Italy, America, &c. (in several of
which countries it has been reprinted in German), and has
thus become a standard book of reference in almost all the
universities and principal public, as well as private edu-
cational institutions such a publication possesses ample
testimony proving it able to create a lasting interest, and
confirming its claims to consideration and esteem.

The aim of the distinguished author in this valuable
history is thus simply but distinctly expressed by him-
self: " My sole object," he says, " has been to produce a
succinct and connected development of the vivid and
eventful course of our country's history, written in a style
calculated to excite the interest and sympathy of my
readers, and of such especially who, not seeking to enter
upon a very profound study of the sources and more ela-
borate works connected with the annals of our empire, are
nevertheless anxious to have presented to them the means
of acquiring an accurate knowledge of the records of our
Fatherland, in such a form as to leave upon the mind and
heart an enduring, indelible impression.''

384622



IV PREFACE.



That our industrious historian has attained his object,
the intelligent reader will find in the interest excited, the
clear views imparted, and the deep impression effected by
his animated portrayals of both events and individuals.
This has been the original and acknowledged characteris-
tic of Herr Kohlrausch's work throughout its entire ex-
istence ; but in the new edition from which this translation
has been rendered, he has endeavoured to make it as
perfect as possible, both in matter and style, and besides
this has enriched it with many valuable notes not con-
tained in the former editions; thus making it in reality
a concise, yet, in every respect, a complete history of Ger-
many.

It is important to remark, that Professor Kohlrausch is
a Protestant, and one distinguished not less for his freedom
from prejudice and partiality, than for the comprehensive-
ness of his views and the high tone of his philosophy. The
general adoption of the work alike by Protestant and Eo-
manist is proof sufficiently convincing of the impartiality
of his statements, and of the justice of his reflections and
sentiments.

JAMES D. HAAS.



London, 1844.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



INTRODUCTION.

ANCIENT GERMANY AND ITS INHABITANTS.

PAGE.

The Sources of the most ancient German History The Nature of the Country
The Natives The Germanic Races Manners and Customs Civil Insti-
tutionsWar Regulations , and Arms Religion Arts and Manufactures
The Germanic Tribes 1-41

THE MORE ANCIENT GERMAN HISTORY.
FIRST PERIOD.

FROM THE MOST ANCIENT TIMES TO THE CONQUESTS OF THE FRANKS UNDER CLOVIS,

486 A.D.

CHAPTER I.

B.C. 113 6 A.D.

The Cimbri and Teutoni, 113-101 B.C. Caesar and Ariovistus, 58 B.C. Julius
Cassar on the Rhine Commencement of the Great German Wars Drusus in
Germany Marbodius, King of the Marcomanni 42-58

CHAPTER II.

7374

Arminius or Hermann Arminius and Varus Arminius and Germanicus
The Death of Arminius, 21 A.D. Further Wars between the Germans and
Romans War with the Marcomanni, 167-180 The Germanic Confederations
The Alemanni The Franks The Saxon Confederation The Goths
The Decline of the Roman Empire 58-78

CHAPTER III.

375-47G.

The Hunns Commencement of the Great Migration, 375 Irruption of the
Western Goths, Vandals, Suevi, Burgundians, and other Tribes into the
Western Roman Empire Alaric Attila, God's Scourge, 451 The Fall of
the Roman Empire in the West, 476 79-92

CHAPTER IV.
SECOND PERIOD.

FROM THE CONQUESTS OF CLOVIS TO CHARLEMAGNE, 486-768.

Clovis, King of the Franks, 482-511 Theodoric, surnamed Dieterich of Berne,
488-526 The Longobardi in Italy, 568 Changes in the Customs and Insti-
tutions of the Germans The Language Constitution Feudal System
Laws Pastimes Christianity in Germany The Grand Chamberlains
Charles Martel against the Arabs, 732 Pepin the Little The Carlo-

vingians 94-111

b



vi CONTENTS.

CHAPTER V.

THIRD PERIOD.

PAGE.
THE CARLOVINGIANS FROM CHARLEMAGNE TO HENRY I., 768-919.

768-814.

Charlemagne, 768-814 The State in which Charlemagne found the Empire
The East-Roman, or Grecian Empire England The North of Europe The
Spanish Peninsula Italy Austria and Hungary Germany The Wars of
Charlemagne The Saxons The Longobardi The Arabs The Bavarians
The Empire of Charlemagne Charlemagne, Emperor of Rome, 800 The
Death of Charlemagne, 814 His Portraiture 113-137

CHAPTER VI.

814-918.

Louis the Pious, 814-840 Division of the Empire among his Sons, Louis,
Lothaire, and Charles the Bald, 843 The German Sovereigns of the Race of
the Carlovingians, 843-911 Louis, or Ludwig, the German Charles the Fat
Arnulf Louis the Child The later and concluding Period of the Carlo-
vingians Conrad I., of Franconia, 911-918 138-151

CHAPTER VII.
FOURTH PERIOD.

FROM HENRY I. TO RUDOLPHUS OF HAPSBURG, 919-1273.

919-1024.

Henry I., 919-936 His Wars The Hungarians The Sclavonians New Insti-
tutions Otho I., 936-973 The Hungarians Battle of the Lechfeld The
Western Empire renewed, 962 Greece Otho II., 973-983 Otho HI., 983-
1003 His Religious Devotion His Partiality for Roman and Grecian Man-
ners and Customs Henry H., 1003-1024 Italy Pavia Bamburg His
Death, 1024 End of the Saxon Dynasty 155-185

CHAPTER VIII.

THE SALIC OR FRANCONIAN HOUSE, 1024-1125, TO LOTHAIRE THE SAXON, 1137.

Assemblage of the Ducal States The Election Conrad H., 1024-1039
Re-establishes Internal Peace Italy Canute, King of England and Den-
markBurgundy Ernest, Duke of Swabia The Faust-Recht Conrad's
Death, 1039 Henry HI., 1039-1056 The Popes Henry's Zeal for the
Church His Death, 1056 Henry IV., 1056, 1106 His Minority The
Archbishops Albert of Bremen Henry and the Saxons Their Hostility
Henry's Revenge Pope Gregory VII. His Ambition The Right of In-
vestiture Rupture with the Emperor Henry Excommunicated The Em-
peror a Fugitive The Rival Emperors and Popes Rudolphus of Swabia
and Pope Clement III. Henry's Death, 1106 Henry V., 1106-1125 Rome
Pope Pascal II. The Investiture Contest Sanguinary Battle Henry
Crowned Emperor His Death, 1125 The First Crusade, 1096-1099 Lo-
thaire the Saxon, 1125-1137 185-216

CHAPTER IX.

THE SWABIAN OR HOHENSTAUFEN HOUSE, 1138-1254.
11381190.

Conrad HI., 1138-1152 The Guelphsand Ghibelines Weinsberg The Faith-
ful Wives Conrad's Crusade Disastrous ResultSr-His Death, 1152 Fre-
derick I., or Barbarossa, 1152-1190 His Noble Character and Distinguished
Qualities Extends his Dominions The Cities of Lombardy and Milan
Pavia Pope Adrian IV. The Emperor's Homage Otho of Wittelsbach
Dispute between the Pope and the Emperor Milan Taken and Razed The
Confederation of the Lombardian Towns The Battle of Lignano Frederick
Defeated Pope Alexander and Frederick Venice Henry, the Lion of
Brunswick His Rise and Fall Reconciliation and Peace Lombardy
Frederick's Crusade and Death in Palestine, 1190 , 216-233



CONTENTS. Vll

PAGE.

CHAPTER X.

FROM 1190 TO THE INTERREGNUM, 1273.

Henry VI., 1190-1197 His Mercenary and Cruel Character Richard I. of
England Is Seized and Imprisoned by Henry Naples and Sicily The
Grandees Their Barbarous Treatment by the Emperor His Death, 1197
The Rival Sovereigns Phillip of Swabia, 1197-1208, and Otho IV., 1197-
1215 Their Death Frederick IL, 1215-1250 His Noble Qualities Love
for the Arts and Sciences His Sarcastic Poetry Preference for Italy Dis-
putes with the Popes Is Excommunicated His Crusade to the Holy Land
Crowned King of Jerusalem Marries a Princess of England Italy
Pope Gregory IX. Frederick Denounced and Deposed Dissensions in Ger-
many The Rival Kings Death of Frederick II., 1250 His extraordinary
Genius and Talents His Zeal for Science and Education A Glance at the
East and North-Eastern Parts of Germany Progress in Civilisation
William of Holland, 1247-1256 Conrad IV., 1250-1254 Their Death
The Interregnum, 1256-1273 Progress of the Germanic Constitution ... 234-252

CHAPTER XL

THE MIDDLE AGES.

Chivalry The Cities The Peasantry The Arts and Sciences The Clergy
and Ecclesiastical Institutions The Monasteries and Convents The Faust-
Recht The Administration of Justice The Vehm-Gericht, or Secret
Tribunal 253-285

CHAPTER XII.
FIFTH PERIOD.

PROM RTJDOLPHUS I., OF HAPSBURG, TO CHARLES V., 1273-1520. EMPERORS
OF DIFFERENT HOUSES.

1273-1347.

Rudolphus I., of Hapsburg, 1273-1291 Adolphus I., of Nassau, 1292-1298
Albert I., of Austria, 1298-1308 Switzerland Confederation of the Swiss
Gessler William Tell Henry VII., of Luxemburg, 1308-1313 Frederick
of Austria, 1314-1330, and Lewis of Bavaria, 1314-1347 Switzerland The
Battle of Morgarten, 1315 The Battle of Muhldorf, 1322 The First Elec-
toral Alliance, 1338 Death of Lewis, 1347 288-304

CHAPTER XIII.

EMPERORS OF DIFFERENT HOUSES.

1347-1437.

Charles IV., 1347-1378 Wenceslas, 1378-1400 Switzerland The Battle of
Sempach, 1386 Leopold of Austria Arnold of Winkelried His Heroism
and Self-devotion Wenceslas Deposed Rupert of the Palatinate, 1400-
1410 Sigismund, 1410-1437 Grand Council of Constance John Huss,
and the Hussite Wars Death of Sigismund, 1437 305-320

CHAPTER XIV.

THE HOUSE OF AUSTRIA.

Albert H.. 1438-1439 His Death Frederick IH., 1440-1493 The Council of
Basle, 1448 ./Eneas Sylvius The Turks Belgrade Defeat of the Turks
The Diets The Emperor besieged in Vienna His Resolution His Bro-
ther, Duke Albert The Count Palatine of the Rhine His Hostility-
Defeats the Imperialists Albert of Brandenburg, the Achilles of Germany
Feuds of the Nobles and Cities Nuremberg The Nobles Defeated
Austria and Burgundy Charles the Rash His Ambition Attacks the
Swiss Defeated at Murten The Battle of Nancy His Death Mary of



Vlll CONTENTS.

PAGE.

Burgundy Marries Maximilian of Austria Her Death The Emperor
Frederick a Fugitive His Return Maximilian, Roman King The Laws
Their Improvement Frederick's Obstinacy and Refusal Maximilian Ap-
pealed to The Swabian League Death of Frederick III., 1493 Prussia
The Teutonic Knights Their Decline and Fall Prussia under Polish
Sway, 1466 321323

CHAPTER XV.

Maximilian I., 1493-1519 His Mental Acquirements and Chivalric Character
His Government Italy Charles VIII. and Louis XII. of France Switzer-
land The Venetian Republic The League of Cambray Maximilian's Ho-
nourable and Consistent Conduct The Battle of the Spurs Union of Hun-
gary and Bohemia Internal Administration of Affairs Perpetual Peace of
the Land End of the Faust-Recht The Imperial Chamber and Aulic
Council Opposition of the States The Emperor Triumphant State of the
Country The Nobles, Cities, and Peasantry Gotz von Berlichingen, &c.
Death of the Emperor Maximilian, 1519 Events of his Reign, and End of
the Middle Ages Discovery and Use of Gunpowder Artillery and Fire-
Arms Invention of Printing, 1457 332-350

CHAPTER XVI.
SIXTH PERIOD.

FROM CHARLES V. TO THE PEACE OF WESTPHALIA, 1520-1648.

State of the Empire Internal Anarchy Charles V. of Spain, and Francis I. of
France Frederick the Wise, Elector of Saxony Charles V. elected Emperor
of Germany His Character Jealousy and Discontent of the Spaniards
Try to dissuade Charles from accepting the Imperial Crown New Spain
Discovery of Mexico Arrival of Charles in Germany His Coronation, 1520
Schism in the Church Causes which produced it Ignorance of the\
Clergy Their Vices Murmurs and Discontent of the People A Reforma- )
tion in the Church universally demanded Scholastic Wisdom Theology/
Enlightenment of Science John ReuchHn 354-362

CHAPTER XVII.

Outbreak of the Reformation, 1517 Abuses in the Church Letters of Indul-
gence Martin Luther, the Reformer His Exposure and Condemnation of
these Proceedings Is summoned to appear in Rome Withheld from going
by the Elector of Saxony The Pope's Nuncio, Cardinal Cajetan and Luther at
the Diet of Augsburg, 15 18 Refusal of Luther to retract Luther's Appeal to
the Pope for a fair Hearing Controversial Discussion between Luther and
Dr. Eck Luther maintains his Ground The Pope's Bull against Luther
The Reformer burns the Bull, with the Canon Law and Eck's Writings-
Propagation of the New Doctrine Luther addresses the People Ulric of
Hutten, and Francis of Sickingen Frederick the Wise of Saxony and the
Princes in favour of Reform The Grand Diet at Worms, 1521 Charles V.
The Pope's Legate, Cardinal Alexander Luther's Appearance and Exami-
nation there Solemn Refusal not to retract The Emperor's Declaration
Luther Excommunicated and his Writings burnt Conveyed by the Elector
of Saxony for Safety to the Castle of Wartburg His Translation of the New
Testament Tumults and Revolutions of the Peasantry Miinzer the Fanatic
Battle of Frankenhausen Miinzer's Death Tranquillity Restored.... 363-377

CHAPTER XVIII.

Foreign Relations of Charles V. Francis I. of France War between these two
rival Monarchs -Italy Milan The Duke of Bourbon The Chevalier
Bayard The Battle of Pavia, 1525 Defeat of the French Francis I. taken
Prisoner Madrid The King of France liberated His dishonourable Breach
of Stipulation The Imperialists in Rome The Pope a Prisoner His Ran-
som War with France resumed Andrew Doria Peace of Cambray, 1529



CONTENTS. IX

PAGE.

Charles V. crowned Emperor and King of Lombardy in Bologna His Ge-
nerosity Keturn to Germany First League of the Protestant Princes, 1526
The Augsburg Confession, 1530 Melancthon His Character of Charles
V. John, Elector of Saxony His Determination The Imperial Council
The Emperor's Declaration Reply of the Protestant Princes Ferdinand,
King of Rome, 1531 Religious Peace The Turks in Hungary Their
Defeat Ulric, Duke of Wurtemberg Restored to his Possessions by Philip
of Hesse Insurrection of the Anabaptists Their Defeat The Emperor in
Africa Tunis His Triumph and Liberation of 22,000 Christian Slaves
Francis I. attacks Italy Charles V. enters France Suspension of Arms-
Interview between the two Monarchs at Aigues-Martes Revolt in Ghent
Progress of Charles V. through France and Ghent Hospitality received
Peace restored in Ghent The Diet at Ratisbon, 1541 Charles V. in Al-
giers Disastrous Expedition His Fortitude Return to Italy Francis I.
resumes Hostilities His Ill-success Charles V. on the Rhine Attacks the
Duke of Cleves Overcomes and Pardons him Marches into France Ad-
vance upon Paris The Peace ofCrepi, 1544 378-397

CHAPTER XIX.

State of Religious Affairs in Germany, from 1534 to 1546 Vain Attempts at
Reconciliation Rapid Propagation of the New Doctrine Henry, Duke of
BrunsAvick Death of Martin Luther, 1546 Charles V. and the Pope Their
Alliance Preparations for War The League of Schmalkald The Elector
of Saxony and the Landgrave of Hesse Their Characters contrasted
Maurice, Duke of Saxony His extraordinary Genius His Adherence to
the Emperor The Pope's Bull The Holy War The Schmalkaldian Army,
1546-1547 General Schartlin Division among the Protestant Leaders
Inglorious Results The Imperial Camp besieged Charles triumphant
Duke Maurice and the Elector of Saxony Treachery of Duke Maurice
The Emperor in Upper Germany Conquers the Imperial Free Cities
Saxony The Battle of Muhlberg The Saxons cefeated The Elector taken
Prisoner Deposed and condemned to Death The Game of Chess The
Elector's Firmness and Resignation His Life spared Duke Maurice made
Elector of Saxony Wittenberg Charles V. and Philip of Hesse The Land-
grave's Submission and Humiliation Detained a Prisoner, and his Lands
seized by the Emperor The Elector Maurice His Mortification and Projects
against the Emperor The Spanish Troops in Germany Their Insolence and
Oppression 397-421

CHAPTER XX.

The Council of Trent Rupture between the Emperor and the Pope The
Interim or Temporary Code of Doctrines Its Condemnation by both Parties
The Captive Elector of Saxony Refuses to adhere to the Interim His
Declaration Shameful Treatment in consequence The Elector Maurice
Magdeburg Maurice marches against that City The Emperor and Maurice
Maurice deserts the Emperor, and with Albert of Brandenburg joins the
Protestants Their Declaration against the Emperor His Reply Albert's
Depredations Maurice's Separation from him Charles V. at Inspruck Pur-
sued, by Maurice The Emperor a Fugitive in the Mountains of the Tyrol His
Desolate and Forlorn Condition His Return to Augsburg Release of the
Elector John Frederick His Welcome Home Jena Treaty of Passau
Liberation of Philip of Hesse Charles V. in France Metz Unsuccessful
Campaign Albert of Brandenburg Defeated at Liineburg by Maurice
Death of Maurice and Albert Religious Peace of Augsburg Final Sepa-
ration of the Two Religious Parties Abdication of Charles V. Retreat to a
Hermit's Cell Rehearsal of his Funeral Procession His Death, 1558... 422-437

CHAPTER XXI.

Ferdinand I., 1556-1564 His industrious Habits Moderation and Tolerance
The Calvinists and Lutherans Their Hostility towards each other Ferdi-
nand and Protestantism The Foundation of the Order of Jesuits by Igna-
tius Loyola, 1540 Its rapid and universal Dissemination The Council of



X CONTENTS.

PAGE.

Trent Ferdinand's Ambassadors Their Propositions refused Their Letter
to the Emperor Death of Ferdinand I., 1564 Maximilian II., 1564-1576
His Qualifications and Good Character Bohemia Poland State of Tran-
quillity William of Grumbach in Franconia His Revolt and Excommuni-
cation Gotha The Young Prince of Saxony Joins Grumbach His per-
petual Captivity and Death in Styria Grumbach's Execution The mer-
cenary Troops Evils they produce German Soldiers in Foreign Service
Death of Maximilian II., 1576 Rudolphus H., 1576-1612 His Indolence
and Irresolution Bad Councillors Religious Excitement renewed The
Netherlands The Duke of Alba The Elector Gebhard of Cologne and
Agnes of Mansfeld, Canoness of Gerresheim Gebhard excommunicated
John Casimir, the Count Palatine Calvinism Donauwerth Austria Ru-
dolphus against the Protestants Deprives them of their Churches Hungary
Revolt of Stephen Botschkai The Emperor an Astrologist and Alchymist
Neglects his Government more and more Tycho Brahe and Keppler
Rudolphus resigns Hungary to his Brother Matthias Bohemia The Letter
of Majesty The Palatinate The Evangelical Union Juliers Henry IV.
of France joins the Union The Catholic League Prague Revolt The
Emperor a Prisoner His Death, 1612 437-450

CHAPTER XXII.

Matthias L, 1612-1619 His Coronation Its Pomp and Splendour deceptive
The Protestants Increase of general Discontent Austria Aix-la-Chapelle
Cologne The Prince Palatine Wolfgang William, and the Elector of
Brandenburg Their Quarrel Box on the Ear Baneful Consequences
Foreign Allies The Young Archduke Ferdinand Elected King of Bohemia
His Character His Devotion to Catholicism and Hatred of the Protestants
Banishes the New Faith from his Lands The Electoral Princes Ferdinand
warned against his Proceedings by the Elector of Saxony Bohemia The
Letter of Majesty shamefully infringed The Protestant Churches destroyed
Indignation and Revolt of the Protestants Their Defender, Count Mat-
thias, of Thurn Counts Martinitz and Slavata Their Hostility to the Pro-
testants Prague The Council Hall Martinitz and Slavata thrown out of
the Window General Revolution The Emperor's Alarm and Desire for
Peace Ferdinand's Declaration in reply Commencement of the Thirty
Years' War Count Ernest of Mansfeld, the Leader of the Protestants His
great military Genius and heroic Character Death of Matthias L, 1619
Ferdinand H., 1619-1637 Count Thurn and the Bohemians in Vienna
Surround the Emperor in his Palace Ferdinand unexpectedly rescued The
Bohemians depose him The Elector Palatine, Frederick V., Son-in-Law of
James L of England, King of Bohemia, 1619 His Irresolution and Pusilla-
nimity Ferdinand and Maximilian of Bavaria Their Alliance Superiority
of the Imperialists over the Bohemians Battle of Weissenberg, near Prague,
1620 The Bohemians defeated and their King put to FlightHis Abdi-
cationPrague capitulates Bohemia severely punished by Ferdinand
Thirty thousand Families banished the Country 451-464

CHAPTER XXIII.

Military Expeditions in Germany, 1621-1624 Generals Mansfeld and Tilly
Successes of Mansfeld Joined by the Margrave of Baden Durlach and
Christian Duke of Brunswick Tilly The Palatinate The Heidelberg
Library Ferdinand resolves to continue the War The Duke of Bavaria
made Elector Palatine Tilly defeats the Duke of Brunswick in Minister
War with Denmark, 1624-1629 The Protestant Forces under Christian IV.
of Denmark The Duke of Brunswick and Mansfeld The Emperor without
a Leader Count Wallenstein His extraordinary Character Ambition
Astrological Studies Faith in Destiny His Bravery Weissenberg Wal-
lenstein, Duke [of Friedland His stately Palace and regal Style of living
Raises an Imperial Army His Appearance Pursues Mansfeld Death of
Mansfeld, 1626 Death of the Duke of Brunswick Christian IV. of Denmark
His Flight Dukes Adolphus and John of Mecklenburg banished Their
Estates seized by Walleustein Created Duke of Mecklenburg and a Prince




CONTENTS. Xi

PAGE

of the Empire, 1628 Pomerania Stralsund Besieged by Wallenstein Its
brave Resistance Forces Wallenstein to retire Peace between the Bang of
Denmark and the Emperor, 1629 The Edict of Restitution, 1639 Its Effect
Augsburg The Catholic League Tyranny and Cruelty of Wallenstein
and his Army Complaints of the Catholics and Protestants against Wallen-
stein to the Emperor The Princes and the Nation insist upon his Dismissal
His Resignation 464-474

CHAPTER XXIV.

Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, in Germany, 1630-1632 His Character
Motives and Plans in favour of Protestantism Stralsund Gustavus de-
clares War against Ferdinand Lands with Ms Army in Pomerania Stettin
The Protestant Princes hesitate to join Gustavus Ciistrin and Spandau
The Elector of Brandenburg The Elector of Saxony Siege of Magdeburg
Count Tilly Conquers and burns the City Dreadful Massacre Gustavus
and Tilly Battle of Leipsic Defeat of the Imperialists Glorious Results to
Gustavus Surrender of the Cities Ingolstadt Tilly wounded His Death
Munich Prague Ferdinand and Walleustein Regal splendour of Wal-
lenstein His Palace Re-assembles an Army for the Emperor Extravagant
Conditions Appointed Generalissimo The Camp of Nuremberg The Swe-
dish and Imperial Armies Gustavus in Saxony Battle of Liitzen, 1632
Gustavus killed His Death revenged by the Swedes Total Defeat of
Wallenstein Portraiture of Gustavus Adolphus 47 5 -49 1

CHAPTER XXV.

Continuation of the War, 1632-1635 Chancellor Oxenstiern Wallenstein's
Inaction Court Martial over his Officers Military Executions Count of
Thurn taken Prisoner and released by Wallenstein The Emperor's Remon-
strance and Wallenstein's Reply The Swedes in Bavaria Wallenstein
withholds Assistance Prohibits his Officers from obeying the Imperial Com-
mands Pilsen Military Council, and Compact between Wallenstein and
his Officers Counts Terzka, Hlo, and Piccolomini The Emperor divests
Wallenstein of all Command Italian-Spanish Conspiracy against Wallen-
stein Piccolomini marches against Wallenstein Wallenstein negotiates with
France and Sweden for his Services The Crown of Bohemia offered to him
Retreats to Eger The Supper in the Citadel Murder of Counts Terzka,
Illo, and Kinsky, by Deveroux and Geraldin Assassination of Wallenstein,
1634 His Estates confiscated Succeeded in Command by Ferdinand, King
of Rome The Battle of Nordlingen The Elector of Saxony Peace of
Prague, 1635 Dreadful Condition of Germany Cardinal Richelieu and
Chancellor Oxenstiern French and Swedish Alliance against the Emperor
Inglorious Character of the War Death of Ferdinand II., 1637 492-498

CHAPTER XXVI.

Ferdinand m., 1637-1657 Continuation of the War Duke Bernard of
Weimar on the Rhine His Death Cardinal Richelieu The Swedish Gene-
ralsBanner Torstenson Wrangel Negotiations for Peace Tedious Pro-
gress French and Swedish Claims of Indemnification Humiliation and
Dismemberment of the Empire Territorial Sovereignty of the Princes-



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