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G. Drysdale (George Drysdale) Dempsey.

Tubular and other iron girder bridges, particularly describing the Britannia and Conway tubular bridges; with a sketch of iron bridges and illustrations of the application of malleable iron to the art of bridge-building. With wood engravings online

. (page 13 of 13)
Online LibraryG. Drysdale (George Drysdale) DempseyTubular and other iron girder bridges, particularly describing the Britannia and Conway tubular bridges; with a sketch of iron bridges and illustrations of the application of malleable iron to the art of bridge-building. With wood engravings → online text (page 13 of 13)
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ciety was formed, the first of modem times, or of
all time, and William Carey was sent out as their
first missionary, and India was chosen as their
field.

In 1793, when the charter of the East India
Company came up for renewal, led by Wilber-
force, an effort was made to insert a resolution
permitting missionaries to live and labor in India ;
but it was so strongly opposed by the company
and its partisans that it failed. Carey went out in
1793, registering as an indigo planter in order
to gain admission to the country. In a few years
Ward and Marshman arrived, and Carey joined



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Tw^NTY-ON^ Years in India. 273

them, and, with tiie permission of the king of Den-
mark, thejr founded a mission in Serampore,
which has become historic and venerable as one
of the early landmarks of the great missionary
enterprise of modem times. They translated the
Bible into many different languages ; they under-
took to translate it into some of the languages of
China even. They opened schools and founded
a college, and did a vast amount of work, by which
they largely supported themselves. They lived
as one family and put their earnings into their
work. They merely allowed themselves a small
personal allowance over and above the cost of
their table expenses. This was for their clothes,
and it may be interesting to know just how much
they allowed themselves for this purpose. Mr.
Ward's allowance was rupees 20 per mensem,
which was equal to about $10 at that time. Mr.
Marshman^s was rupees 30. Mr. Carey's was
rupees 50 a month, as he was professor of Sans-
crit at Fort William, and had to dress a little
better than others. His salary received from
Government was rupees 1,200 per month, which
18



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274 Twenty-one Years in India.

all went into their work, with the exception of
the personal allowance before mentioned.

William Carey died on the 9th of June, 1834,
having gained high honors as a most devoted mis-
sionary and a distinguished Oriental scholar, hav-
ing been in India nearly forty years without hav-
ing once been out of it

In 18 1 3 the charter of the East India Com-
pany was again before Parliament for renewal,
and under the pressure of public opinion the coun-
try was thrown open to free and unrestricted
missionary effort.

The London Missionary Society sent out their
first missionary in 1798. The Church Mission-
ary Society began its work about the same time.
The American Board began its work about this
time or in 1813.

The Church of Scotland began in 1830, and
sent out Rev. Alexander Duff as its first mission-
ary. Dr. DufFs arrival marks an important
period in educational work in India. His special
work was to establish a missionary college. At
that time Sanscrit, Persian, and Arabic were



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TwENTY-ON^ Y^ARS IN InDIA. 275

taught in Government collies in preference to
English. Dr. Duflf held that English was "the
best and amplest channel for speedily letting in
the full stream of European knowledge on the
mind of those who were destined to direct the na-
tional intellect and heart of India."

Dr. DufFs views were ably supported by Mr.
Macaulay, then legal member of the Governor-
General's Council. They were adopted by Lord
Bentinck himself, and a resolution was adopted by
Government on the subject, which gave a great
impulse to English education. The effect of this
movement has been highly beneficial. Sanscrit
contains a great deal that is false and demoraliz-
ing in its influence. Some one had said, "The
more it is studied the more errors are acquired.
Pundits whose knowledge is confined to Sans-
crit are learned fools, the most bigoted portion of
the people and the greatest opponents of reform."

English literature is by no means without de-
fects, but it is infinitely better than the best to be
found in India. The importance of our educa-
tional work may, I think, be seen by remember-



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276 TwiSNTY-ON^ YlSARS IN InDIA.

ing the condition of Hindu and Mohammedan
homes. The women of India are particularly
superstitious and ignorant, they teach their chil-
dren the stories of their gods in all their corrup-
tion. Imagine what the effect must be upon the
mind of a child, — ^no moral instruction whatever,
everything corrupting and debasing. Now we
get these children into our schools where they
are taught Christianity with its elevating and
wholesome moral truths, can any doubt that
the effect would be elevating in every way? Our
schools are a great power for good, far greater
than one can imagine, who judges by common
standards known to us in this country.

I desire now to call attention to what has been
accomplished that may, in some measure at least,
be tabulated and shown by statistics. It should
not, however, be forgotten, that there must be
much that can not be shown by figures.

There are ordained missionaries in India
about 1,134; the wives of missionaries, 899; other
foreign helpers, mostly ladies, 1,304; thus mak-
ing a total of 3,337 foreign missionaries. Native



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TwiSNTY-ON^ Y^ARS IN India. ^^^

ordained pastors, i,ioo; native catechists and
preachers, 7,179. The native force in India,
male and female, is about 23,011. At the close
of 1900 there were 5,362 organized congrega-
tions, 6,888 Sunday-schools enrolling 274,402
scholars. There are 8,285 day-schools with 342,-
1 14 scholars. There are 376 higher schools with
24,255 students in them. There are 89 male and
III female physicians in India, with over 300
hospitals and dispensaries, and treating nearly a
million and a quarter patients annually. There
are nearly three millions of Christians in India of
all classes. Native Christians, 2,664,313; ten
years before there were 2,036,590, showing an in-
crease in the decade of 627,723. In 1891 the
Protestants numbered 474,909. In 1901 the nimi-
ber has risen to 865,985. There are now all told
2,923,241 Christians in India, against 1,976,778
ten years before, showing an increase during the
decade of 946,463. This shows remarkable prog-
ress. The general increase of the whole popula-
tion from 1891 to 1901 was 2.4 per cent. The
Mohammedans increased 9 per cent^ the Roman



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278 TwKNTY-ON« Years in India.

Catholics increased 16 per cent, while the Prot-
estants increased during this period 82 per cent

The Bible has been published in all the more
important languages and in many of the dialects.
A vast amount of Christian literature has been
published and is being circulated among the peo-
ple. There is a large educated class in India,
many of them educated in mission schools and
colleges, who know a great deal about Chris-
tianity and are now being drawn towards it. The
mass of the people know much more about Chris-
tianity than they did a few years ago. There is
a manifest improvement in the morals of the peo-
ple. They have higher conceptions of moral truth
than they did years ago. There is not as much
false swearing in the courts as there used to be.
The people seem to have a much higher concep-
tion of the sacredness of an oath than they did
in former years.

The Government has effected many important
reforms. Suttee, the burning of widows with the
dead body of their husbands, was abolished in
1829, when Lord Bentinck was Governor-General.



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Twenty-one Years in Indu. 279

Infanticide and human sacrifices have been abol-
ished, so have hook swinging and many other cruel
rites. The condition of woman has been im-
proved in many ways; widows are permitted to
remarry. The age of consent has been raised to
twelve years. Caste is no doubt gradually relax-
ing its hold in many respects. The Brahmins are
losing their power over the people, and the belief
is becoming more or less general that the country
is to become a Christian country. The masses
are more favorably disposed towards Christianity
and Christians than they were formerly. There
is less bitterness manifest in these days when a
person of standing becomes a Christian. All
these things are signs of the times, and portend a
brighter and happier day for India. Much, how-
ever, yet remains to be done. There is a vast mass
of dark and cruel heathenism to be leavened yet
with Gospel truth.

We have, as a Church, five publishing-houses,
located at Lucknow, Calcutta, Madras, Bombay,
and Singapore. From these are sent out a vast



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a8o Tw^NTY-ON^ Y^ARS IN India.

amount of literature for distribution through the
country.

Our educational system is thoroughly organ-
ized and very carefully administered. The Theo-
logical Seminary located at Bareilly for the edu-
cation of young men for the ministry. This is
indeed a noble institution, which has grown to its
present proportions under the wise and able ad-
ministration of Dr. T. J. Scott, assisted by Dr.
Dease and others. For many years Mrs. Scott
has conducted a school for the instruction of the
wives of the young men in the seminary, so that
they may be prepared to act with their husbands
as helpers in the work.

We have the Isabella Thobum Collie for
young women located in Lucknow, and Reid
Christian College for young men. Both of these
are institutions giving great promise of future
usefulness. They are already a great power for
good in the country, but their usefulness will
greatly increase as the years go by. They are
splendid institutions and have a great future be-
fore them.



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TWKNTY-ONK Y^ARS IN InDIA. z8i

The work of the Woman's Missionary So-
ciety also has assumed large proportions and is
admirably administered in every particular. Their
work is conducted in close affinity with the Parent
Society, and yet is distinct. They have their Con-
ference, and their workers are supervised by the
presiding elders and receive their appointments
from the bishop as do others. The system is in
every sense admirable and works smoothly. Much
is due for our excellent system to Bishop Tho-
burn, of course, and to Bishop Parker and Miss
Thoburn. The last named have gone to their re-
ward, but their works remain to the great advan-
tage of the Mission of which they were shining
lights. I do not forget that others now living
have had an equally honorable part in adjusting
these great interests. I greatly admire our com-
pact and thoroughly systematic organization. It
was mine to have a part in this great work from
the very beginning, and I thank God that it is
given me now to see the vast proportions to which
the work has grown.

Forty-five years ago this very month pf July



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a82 TwBNTV-ONH Years in India.

our first convert was baptized. We now have 103,-
364 communicants and a Christian commimity of
146,547. We have 2,788 Sunday-schools with
^^3>737 pupils; educational institutions of all
grades, 1,245, with 35438 scholars in attendance,
with a total of 4,320 Christian workers. We
have property to the value of nearly or quite two
millions of dollars.

If we could comprehend the full meaning of
these statistics it would fill our minds with grati-
tude for what He has done for us. But statistics
can not show all that God has wrought. They
do not show the number plucked as brands from
the burning, now shining among the angels of
God in heaven.

Nearly all who became Christians in the early
years of our Mission are now gone. Longevity
with them is not equal to what it is with us. It
is worth something to feel that we have helped
some of these redeemed souls into the kingdom,
and started them on their shining way. I hope
to meet them some day, a goodly throng, and
join them in the new song they sing, "Saying,



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TwBNTY-ONE Y^ARS IN InDIA. 283

Thou art worthy to take the Book and open the
seals thereof; for Thou wast slain, and hast re-
deemed us to God by Thy blood out of every kin-
dred, and tongue, and people, and nation; and
hast made us unto our God kings and priests; and
we shall reign on the earth."



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1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 13

Online LibraryG. Drysdale (George Drysdale) DempseyTubular and other iron girder bridges, particularly describing the Britannia and Conway tubular bridges; with a sketch of iron bridges and illustrations of the application of malleable iron to the art of bridge-building. With wood engravings → online text (page 13 of 13)