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There had been a good many small benefactions of
money, of that useful kind which is not saddled with
conditions. Not Colleges only, but the Universities also
and especially the Universities find it most useful
to have money placed at their disposal for any purpose
which seems at the time most to need help.

Dr. Addenbrooke, formerly Fellow [? Dean of Lich-
field], the Founder of Addenbrooke^s Hospital, left
d^l 10 in 1719 ; Leng, formerly Fellow, Bishop of
Norwich, 20 in 1729 ; Moore, whose son is buried in
the Ante-chapel, 100 in 1730 ; Hubbard, late Master,
4>0 in 1743 ; Sir W. Bunbury, Bart., entered in
1726, 100 in 1766.

Bishop Sherlock^s benefactions deserve a place to
themselves. In 1756 he gave the College 600 to alter
and refit the Library, and in 1760 he paid the balance of
cost, 21 9s. Id. " He died soon after this, July 18,
1761, leaving to the College his books (which cost
29 Is. 2d. for packing and carriage), and leaving
lands to pay 20 a year to a Librarian-scholar and 4>
a year for his rooms, the remaining rents to be spent in
repairs of the Library and keeping the rooms sweet and
clean, and in keeping up the iron rails and painting
them. These are the iron rails in Queens 1 Lane, for
which Dr. Sherlock had long ago paid, described as
" noble palisadoes " in the language of the time.

In connection with Mrs. Ramsden^s large bequest, we
have remarked on the small stipends of the Fellows in
the middle of the eighteenth century. Dr. Philpott
worked out with much labour and minute care the



188 ST. CATHARINE'S COLLEGE

annual receipts of a Fellowship for every year from
1684 to 1853 inclusive, and the facts are of considerable
interest. A short review of them may well find place
at this point.

The sources of income have altered slightly from
time to time. For the first fifty years of the period
they were seven, Corn Money, Degrees, Beer, Bread,
Scholars' absence, Rent of a house, Fines. In 1730,
"dividend from coals" was added. In 1807 Bread
disappeared ; in 1843, Beer ; and in 1852, Scholars 1
absence.

Fines disappeared in 1832, no money on that account
having been brought to book in fourteen of the pre-
vious twenty-five years, and the total divisible amount
on this account for those twenty-five years having been
only 82 Us. %d., or an average of about 3 6s. to be
divided among the Master and Fellows. The largest
amount divisible in any of the years 1684 to 1853
fell within these twenty-five years in 1810, and was
<35 16*. Sd.

The College documents have, of course, many records
of the gradual termination of fines. The method
practised was to decline to renew a lease in a given
year ; to borrow from some College Fund the amount
which would have been received as the fine for renewing
it ; and to divide that amount among the Master and
Fellows for that year. Thus we have the entries, " A
fine of 18 15y. was borrowed from the Audit Book
and paid to the Master and Fellows " ; "A fine of
23 10s. 6d. was borrowed from the Chapel Fund and
paid, &c. " ; "A fine of ^99 6*. fid. was borrowed from
the Chapel Fund and paid, &c." The Chapel Fund and
the Audit Book were the two lenders ; in a transaction



INCOME OF FELLOWSHIPS



189



of this kindin 1775 thewords "without interest" are used,
and no doubt that was the general principle of the loans.

Corn Money, which began in 1684 at 11 %s. 9J.,
was at its very lowest in 1706 and 1707, when the
divisible amount was only 4<% 3*. lid. and 4<3 Os. 9d.
respectively ; 1745 was a very bad year, 4<9 13s. Sd. ;
it had been up to ^131 5*. in 1710. The profit on the
supply of beer and bread varied considerably, as might
be expected. It began in 1684 with 28 4s. 6d., and
for a great many years that was above the average.
About forty-five persons were in commons in 1684 ; in
1690, when the profit fell to 11 3s., about thirty-six.
In the latter year, only 5 8s. was received from
payments for Degrees ; in the former, 52 16s.

The full dividend of a Fellow, taken at intervals of
ten years, has been as follows :



s. d.
1684 24 18
1694 29 12 8
1704 17 17
1714 25 19 11
1724 34 18 1
1734 25 15 6


s. d.
1744 21 5 3
1754 31 4 1
1764 32 3
1774 37 15 9
1784 84 8 6
1794 77 16 1


s. d.
1804 108 19 11
1814 193 11 6
1824 226 4 1
1834 194 6 5
1844 207 12 9
1853 188 11 6



A few words should be said on the subject of Corn
Money, as it affected the Master and Fellows.

Before the Act 18 Eliz. c. 6, entitled " An Act for
Maintenance of the Colleges in the Universities and of
Winchester and Eaton," the farms being let on bene-
ficial leases, all the reserved (annual) rents were carried
to the College Stock, and from that Stock the fixed
stipends of the Master and Fellows were paid. Besides
this fixed payment, the fines on renewals of leases were
divided among the Master and Fellows.



190 ST. CATHARINE'S COLLEGE

Elizabeth's Act ordered that of the reserved rents
in the case of every lease, one-third part should in
future be paid in wheat or malt, reckoning wheat
at 6*. 8d. and malt at 5,9. the quarter. The effect of
this will be seen from our records of receipts from the
Hutton property. Down to and including 1581, the
reserved annual money rent was 20*. In the next
lease, 1582, the reserved money rent was 13*. 4d., and
one quarter of wheat was to be paid besides, or its
money value in Cambridge Market at the time.

A section of the Act enabled the Master and Fellows
to derive larger receipts beyond their stipends. The
wheat, malt, or money coming from the same, were to
be expended for the relief of the commons and diet of
the said Colleges only. The College thereupon com-
menced a new mode of keeping the accounts. The full
total of reserved money rents before the Act, which was
^?59 19*. Id., continued to be brought into the College
Stock and applied to the payment of the fixed stipends.
But the enhanced value of wheat and malt made the
actual receipts from the rent money and the corn or
corn money larger than ^59 19*. Id. The difference
between the old 59 19*. id. and the new and enhanced
receipts was divided among the Master and Fellows.

It is an interesting example of the natural con-
servativeness of the annual accounts of a College
that this fixed sum of 59 19*. Id., coming from
before Elizabeth's time, and all the several sums
which made it up, were carried into the College books
each year until 1799. From that time the details

were omitted, but the total, 59 19*. Id., continued

to be brought into the account until the Statutes 01

1860.



CHAPTER XIX

MRS. MARY RAMSDEN

Pedigree Great-niece of our benefactor Robert Skerne
Her marriage settlements and their result Owner of
Fockerby Purchase of Norton Conveyance of estates
for life or absolutely All that was her own left to the
College Reversion of the estates which she had held for
life Thomas Morley The whole benefaction was of
Skerne property, not Ramsden.

MRS. MARY RAMSDEX deserves a chapter to herself.
She was the younger daughter of Robert Robinson, Esq.,
of Fockerby, co. York, who was buried at Adlingfleet in
1702. Her grandmother, Mary Robinson, from whom
she was named, was the sister of Sir Edmund Skerne,
and of Mr. Robert Skerne who was so great a benefactor
to the College. It has been remarked (page 90) in con-
nection with his benefaction that he had been cognisant
of the hard treatment the College had suffered in an
earlier case, and was probably induced on that account
to give money to the College. This regard for the
College was, no doubt, handed on to his great-niece by a
fortunate tradition. He died in 1662, and she was not
born then.

Mrs. Ramsden had a brother, Thomas Robinson, who
died in 1709 ; and a sister Elizabeth, who married the
Reverend Henry Brearey, Rector of Boxworth near
Cambridge, and died without children in 1719. This
left our future benefactress sole heiress of Fockerby,
worth about <300 a year net, and of the other property



192 ST. CATHARINE'S COLLEGE

of their late father. Mr. Brearey was still living, and re-
ceiving the income of a co-heiress's widower, in 1741.
The whole story is a curious example of the dying out of
heirs and heiresses.

Robert Robinson, Mrs. Ramsden's father, was the son
of Robert Robinson and Mary Skerne. He inherited
from our benefactor, his uncle Robert Skerne, whose
sons John and Robert had died in 1651 and 1657, the
estates of Adlingfleet and Fockerby, in 1662. In 1671
he sold Adlingfleet to his brother Thomas Robinson.
We shall see that Mrs. Ramsden first inherited from her
father the price paid for Adlingfleet, and then from her
uncle had Adlingfleet itself for life, which meant thirty-
three years, a very unusual piece of family luck.

In 1711, Mary Robinson, our benefactress, married
William Ramsden, the son of John Ramsden of Norton,
co. York, and his wife Catharine, a daughter of John
Dawnay, Viscount Downe. This John Ramsden was
the son of William, a merchant of Hull, by a sister of
Sir John Boynton of Rawcliff. It was this grandfather
William who built the house at Norton ; he was at one
time the Representative of Hull in Parliament.

Mrs. Ramsden's husband, William, died six years after
his marriage, in 1717, leaving no children, and was buried
at Campsall. His father, John, lived half a year longer,
and was buried at Campsall. His mother, Catharine,
lived till 1737, and was buried at St. Martin's Coney
Street, York.

By her marriage settlement, Mrs. Ramsden was en-
titled, in case of her husband's death, to the use for life of
the Manor of Norton, and the house and lands of Nor-
ton, Campsall, Little Smeaton, Womersley, Cottingham,
and all the glebe and tithes of Bilton, Wyton, and



MRS. RAMSDEN 193

Throckleby, and certain lands in Neyton and Killing-
holme. It had not been contemplated, apparently, that
her father-in-law would survive her husband, but so it
was, and very uncomfortable conditions resulted. John
Ramsden refused to turn out. Mary, who was a person
of very decided character, had him arrested, and took
proceedings to establish her rights at law. This perhaps
may account for his speedy death.

A Yorkshireman, very familiar with a great many of
the places named, and knowing a good deal about the
families concerned, may be allowed to tell the story how a
hundred and twenty or thirty years later another Ramsden
met more than his match in Yorkshire. The whole of one
of the manufacturing towns in Yorkshire belonged to
this Ramsden, excepting one house, the property of a
Quaker. The Ramsden bid higher and higher for the
vineyard, but Naboth would not sell. At last the desire
for the house became so great that the offer was made,
tremendous in those days, " If you'll sell, Til cover the
ground-floor of the house with sovereigns ".* " Friend,
did thee say edgewise ? "f

Mrs. Ramsden was determined to make her right to
Norton permanent. Her husband had had three sisters,
one of whom died in 1682, twenty years before his
marriage, another died at some date which we do not
know, and there remained only Elizabeth, who married
Richard Roundell, Esq., of Hutton Wensley.J The
Norton property was to come to Mrs. Roundell eventu-
ally. In 1736, Mrs. Ramsden bought of her the rever-
sion for %850, and the manor and lands of Norton

* Over ^1500 the square yard, t Over ^24,000 the square yard.

J Sir D'Arcy Dawes, son of Sir William Dawes our Master,
married their co-heiress, Janet, in 1723. She afterwards married
Beilby Thompson, of Escrick.

N



194 ST. CATHARINE'S COLLEGE

became her own. Three or four years before that pur-
chase she had bought up lands in Norton, which were not
part of her late husband's property, for c1800, making
a total investment of 4*650. At the same time she was
buying up additional lands at Fockerby, Adlingfleet,
and Haldenby, to the amount of ,2820.

The mention of Adlingfleet takes us back to the sale
of that manor in 1671 by her father to his elder brother
Thomas. This Thomas died unmarried in 1710, a year
before Mrs. Ramsden's marriage. He had three nieces,
Mrs. Brearey and Mrs. Ramsden, daughters of his
brother John, and Frances Lady Ayscough, widow of
Sir William Ayscough, daughter of his sister Anne.

Thomas Robinson left his estates at Throsonby
and Newby, and the Rectory of Scalby, to Lady Ays-
cough for life, with reversion to her sons if any ; in de-
fault of sons, to Mary Robinson (Mrs. Ramsden) for her
life, with like reversion ; in default of sons, " to such son
of Thomas Morley [a Quaker] as should be brought up
in or embrace the doctrine of the Church of England. 11
Lady Ayscough died without children in 1714, and this
considerable property came to Mrs. Ramsden for life.
Throsonby, near Scarborough, was a favourite residence.

To Elizabeth Robinson, Mrs. Ramsden's elder sister,
afterwards Mrs. Brearey, he left his lands at Linton on
Wharfe and Burrowby for her life, with reversion to her
sons if any ; in default of sons, to Mary Robinson (Mrs.
Ramsden) for her life, with like reversion ; in default of
sons, to " his right heirs." On the death of Mrs. Brearey
in 1719 the estates came to Mrs. Ramsden for her life ;
and inasmuch as she was then, by the deaths of Lady
Ayscough and Mrs. Brearey, and of Peter and Frances
his brother and sister, the right heir of her uncle, the



MRS. RAMSDEN 195

estates became hers absolutely, and at her death they
came to the College.

To his niece Mary (Mrs. Ramsden) he left Adling-
fleet for her life, with reversion to her sons if any ; in
default of sons, to Lady Ayscough and her sons if any ;
in default of such sons, to such son of Thomas Morley
as should be brought up in or embrace the doctrine of
the Church of England. He also directed that his
estate at Hundridge should be sold, and the produce of
it, together with his personal property (about ! 2,000),
should be expended in the purchase of lands in York-
shire or Lincolnshire for the use of Mary Robinson in
the same way as she had the use of Adlingfleet.

Thus in one way and another everything there was in
the Robinson family came to Mrs. Ramsden for her life
or absolutely, and out of her large income she made
heavy purchases of additional lands which became her
own. Everything which was her own came to the
College, " and I would have it observed," her will says,
" that the estate I give is all my own, that I had no part
of it from my husband." Everything which was only
hers for life went, on her death in 1745, to Thomas
Morley.

It seems clear that this great benefaction, and the
College buildings which are its visible record, are more
properly described as " Skerne " than as " Ramsden."



CHAPTER XX

Francis Blackburne Christopher Wilson Neville Mask-
elyne John Hey Joseph Milner College disputes,
leading to the ruling case as to the Visitor of a College
Appeals to the Visitor Patronage Fund The case of
Philip Gardner's vacancy The case of Mr. Waterhouse
Disputed election to the Mastership Appointment of
Joseph Procter Five Masters, xxi-xxv, 1719-1845 :
Crosse, Hubbard, Prescot, Yates, Procter.

FRANCIS BLACKBURNE,* of Richmond, Yorks, entered in
1722. He was elected to the Conduct Fellowship in
February 1728. He appears to have been ordained
Deacon on the title of the Conduct Fellowship, and he
was not ordained priest till 1739, when he succeeded to
the Rectory of Richmond, a benefice which he held till
his death in 1787. Archbishop Hutton collated him
to the Archdeaconry of Cleveland and the Prebend of
Bilton in 1750, being, it is said, greatly deceived as to
his views. He was almost entirely latitudinarian. In
1752 he published an anonymous attack upon the
primary charge of Bishop Butler, who had been pro-
moted from Bristol to Durham. In this attack, pub-
lished with his name in 1767, he charged Butler with
Romanising, on the ground of his argument in favour
of the Use and Importance of External Religion.
He determined never again to subscribe the Thirty-
nine Articles. His book, named the Confessional,
claimed that no pledge of opinions should be

* Another Francis Blackburne was elected one of the first six
Yorkshire Fellows on the Skerne Foundation, Nor. 10, 1772.



BLACKBURNE, CHRISTOPHER WILSON 197

demanded of " protestant pastors," by which he meant
the clergy of the Church of England among others,
beyond a profession of belief in the Bible as the Word
of God. He was the main mover in the petition
of 1771 to the House of Commons for legislation to
relieve the clergy from subscription. The petition was
very poorly signed by the clergy, and Blackburne was
the only dignitary who signed. The Commons rejected
it in 1772. Lindsey and Disney, his sons-in-law, who
agreed with him in principle, resigned their benefices
and left the Church of England to join the Unitarians.
Disney was the father of John Disney who founded the
Professorship of Archaeology at Cambridge, and John's
daughter presented the portrait of the Archdeacon,
now in the Combination Room. This portrait bears
on one of its eyes an indention made by the walking-
stick of an orthodox and militant Fellow-Commoner
when he heard what manner of Churchman the portrait
represented.

Christopher Wilson was the third son of Richard
Wilson, Recorder of Leeds. He married Ann, daughter
of Edmund Gibson, Bishop of London. His eldest son,
Richard, married the heiress of Dean Fountayne of
York, of Melton Park, near Doncaster, and their son
became Fountayne Wilson of Melton Park. It is
interesting to find that the friendship between the
Fountaynes and Wilson began at St. Catharine's, Wilson
entering Pensioner under Mr. Hubbard in 1732, and
Thomas and John Fountayne in 1731. John Foun-
tayne, afterwards Dean of York, succeeded Simon
Patrick as Fellow in 1736, holding his Fellowship for
five years ; and Wilson succeeded William Bunbury as
Fellow in 1737, holding his Fellowship till 1745. In



198 ST. CATHARINE'S COLLEGE

that year he was made Prebendary of Finsbury in St.
Paul's, and in 1758 he became Residentiary Canon. In
1783 he became Bishop of Bristol, in 1792 he died.
The first Canonry of St. Paul's, which he held for so
many years, was held immediately before him for eight
years by Thomas Seeker, afterwards Archbishop of
Canterbury, and for ten years next before Seeker by
Joseph Butler, afterwards Bishop of Durham ; and from
1891 to 1897 by the present writer ; all of these four
became Bishops of Bristol.

Nevil Maskelyne, the Astronomer Royal, entered
Pensioner at St. Catharine's in 1749, from Westminster
School. After a time he migrated to Trinity, as Ray
had done just a hundred years before. He graduated
as Seventh Wrangler in 1754, and was elected to a
Fellowship at Trinity in 1757. Lord Clive, the son of
his sister Margaret Lady Clive, presented him to a
living in Shropshire, and in 1782 Trinity presented
him to North Runcton in Norfolk. Meanwhile, the
famous solar eclipse of his time had turned his mathe-
matical genius in the direction of astronomy, and he
was sent out to St. Helena by the Royal Society to
observe the Transit of Venus in 1761. In 1765 he
became Astronomer Royal, and we need not describe his
work in that office. He died in 1811, leaving his only
daughter the heiress to his estates in Wiltshire. She
married Mr. A. M. Story, and their son, Mr. Nevil
Story-Mask elyne, a well-known Oxford Professor, now
holds the family estates.

John Hey, Norrisian Professor of Divinity, entered
Pensioner at St. Catharine's in 1750-51, from Pudsey,
near Leeds. He was one of three able brothers.
William was the first of the great Leeds family of



JOHN HEY AND JOSEPH MILNER 199

Surgeons ; Richard was Third Wrangler and Chancellor's
Medallist, became Fellow of Sidney and of Magdalene,
and wrote well-known Essays ; John graduated at St.
Catharine's as Eighth Wrangler in 1755, and became
Conduct Fellow in 1757 ; in 1760 he became Tutor of
Sidney. In 1780 he was elected the first Norrisian
Professor of Divinity, and was re-elected in 1785 and
1790. He died in 1815, at the age of eighty-one.
William lived to be eighty-two, and Richard over
ninety.

Hey wrote some religious poetry, and obtained the
Seatonian Prize with one of his poems. His courses of
Divinity Lectures were published twenty years before
his death. Fifty years after, Turton published an
edition of them. In some respects they are still worthy
of attention ; but in one special point they were seriously
defective, Hey appearing to hold that the difference
between the best Unitarians and the Church was in fact
rather a matter of words than an impassable chasm.

Joseph Milner, the author of The History of the
Church of Christ, took his degree at St. Catharine's in
1766, when he obtained the Second Chancellor's Medal
in a traditionally strong year ; he did not obtain a Fel-
lowship, Prescot, the Eighth Junior Optime in the same
year, being preferred. He was of the artisan class, but
was too delicate as a boy to be put to work. Becoming
a schoolmaster, he provided means in 1770 to take his
brother Isaac from the loom and, literally, lead him up
to Cambridge, for the brothers walked up from Leeds.
Isaac was the well-known Senior Wrangler Incompar-
abilis, and the iron President of Queens' College. Isaac's
friendship with William Wilberforce procured a com-
petent position for Joseph Milner at Hull, but he died



200 ST. CATHARINE'S COLLEGE

immediately after at the age of fifty-three. A large
number of his works have been published and re-
published. His Church History was re-edited by his
brother Joseph. It had a decided bias towards Low
Church principles, and was strongly and successfully
assailed by Dr. Maitland, of the Dark Ages.

In 1791 an important step was taken towards the
speedy settlement of College disputes. A mandamus
had been applied for in the Court of King's Bench to
compel the Master and Fellows to declare the Fellowship
of Joshua Wood vacant. The College showed cause
against it. It was a famous case with a famous bar,
and it settled an important principle. Erskine, Law,
and Graham were for the College ; Bearcroft, Le Blanc,
and Yorke for the mandamus. Lord Kenyon, in giving
j udgment, remarked :

" That it is extremely convenient that all disputes of
this kind should be decided in foro domestico cannot be
doubted. . . . Therefore, with no decided authority or
general principle of law against us, but with the conveni-
ence of the case and general principles of law in our
favour, we shall do more substantial justice to the parties
in this particular case, and to the public in general, by
refusing to grant this writ of mandamus, and by referring
this question to the Lord Chancellor, than by entertaining
jurisdiction over it."

This is the ruling case which decides the question of
Visitor in case of doubt. Lord Mansfield had decided
in 1772 that if a Visitor had made no appointment of
Visitor, and had no heir, the Crown executed Visitatorial
powers through the King's Bench. Lord Kenyon's
counter-decision has ever since been held to be the
law, that in a Private Eleemosynary Lay Foundation




C. W. URREJfL\V^ 201



that being the description of a College in the two
Universities if no special Visitor be appointed by the
Founder, the right of Visitation, in default of his heirs,
devolves upon the Sovereign, to be exercised by the
Great Seal.

In December 1791 the Master and Fellows formulated
a scheme for a " Patronage Fund " for improving the
ecclesiastical patronage of the College. When the
attention of the Lord Chancellor was drawn to this
fund in 1802, he required a statement of the
sources of the fund and the legal ground for this
application of the money. The Master in Chancery
(Mr. Campbell) in his Report (1807) expressed his
approval of the plan in itself, but submitted to the
Lord Chancellor, as Visitor, a doubt whether the surplus
of Mrs. Ramsden's estate, which proved to be the main
source of the fund, could be thus applied in accordance
with Mrs. Ramsden's condition that all possible uses
within the College should first be exhausted before her
money was applied to any external purpose. In the
end, ^10,000 Consols, the part of the fund coming from
Mrs. Ramsden's estates, was sold and applied to immediate
needs of the College. The idea of a Patronage Fund
survived. Mr. Burrell, who had so staunchly supported
Dr. Procter against the machinations of the three
Fellows, determined that his own property should go
to this excellent purpose, and in 1824 he made a will
to that effect. He died in 1843, when the net value of
the estate, after, paying legacy duty, was found to


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