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G. F. (George Frederick) Bosworth.

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CAMBRIDGE
GEOGRAPHICAL READERS



III
THE BRITISH ISLES



Cambridge :

at the University Press

1921

57538



First Edition 1915
Reprinted 1917, 1918, 1920, 1921



Pri.tted in Grtat Britain
Ar TMntbuItca' Spears, Eainburfh






CONTENTS
PART I. THE PRINCIPLES OF GEOGRAPHY

CHAPTEB PAGE

1. THE EARTH ....... . 1

2. THE CLIMATE AND NATURAL REGIONS OF THE WORLD 6

3. THE CHIEF PLANT BELTS OF THE WOULD (Part I) . 11

4. (Part II). 16

5. How ANIMALS ARE SUITED TO THEIR SURROUNDINGS . 19

6. LIFE IN MANY LANDS . ...... 26

PART II. THE BRITISH ISLES

1. OUR NATIVE LAND AND THE SEAS AROUND IT . . 34

2. THE BUILD OF BRITAIN ...... 40

3. PRODUCTIONS OP THE BRITISH ISLES .... 46

4. BRITISH TRADE ..... ... 61

ENGLAND AND WALES

5. SURFACE AND SCENERY OF ENGLAND .... 57

6. MANUFACTURES AND GREAT TOWNS (Part I) . . 63

7. ; , (Part II) . . 68

8. LONDON .......... 72

9. THE CHIEF SEAPORTS OF ENGLAND . . 77



vi Contents
SCOTLAND

CHAPTER PAdB

10. THE BUILD OF SCOTLAND 82

11. RIVERS AND LAKES (Part I) ..... 89

12. (Part II) 92

13. ISLANDS AND LOCHS (Part I) 97

14. (Part II) 102

15. THE HIGHLANDS (Part I) 105

16. (Part II) 108

17. THE SOUTHERN UPLANDS 113

18. THE CENTRAL PLAIN (Part I) . . ... 118

19. (Part II) ... . 121

20. (Part III) 124

21. UPPER CLYDE 131

22. MIDDLE CLYDE 135

23. LOWER CLYDE 137

24. EDINBURGH 143

25. GLASGOW 148

26. RAILWAYS 153

IRELAND

27. THE BUILD OP IRELAND 158

28. THB EMERALD ISLB 165

29. IRISH INDUSTRIES 169

30. WHERE LINEN GOODS ARE MADE . . . . 175

31. DUBLIN AND THE EAST OF IRELAJW . . . . 182

32. WHERE CATTLE ARK KKPT 188

33. MOUNTAINS AND BOG-LAND 195

34. RAILWAYS AND STEAMER ROUTES . . . . 200

EXBBCISBS AND QUESTIONS 205



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS



Coast erosion at Pakefield, Suffolk ...... 4

Diagram showing the movements of the winds ... 8

Tropical vegetation A mangrove swamp . . . . 13

Pine-apple plantation, Southern Rhodesia . . . . 14

Birches in Sherwood Forest 17

Red deer in the Highlands of Scotland . . . . 21

North American bison 23

A camel postman on the shores of the Red Sea ... 27

Marine fishing village, New Guinea 32

Drawing of a horse's head belonging to the Old Stone Age 36

The bore of the Parrett at Bridgwater 38

View from the summit of Ben Lawers 43

A Worcestershire hop-garden 48

Fishing fleet going out, Aberdeen 50

Hauling logs in a Canadian timber forest .... 55

Entrance to Peak Cavern, Castleton 58

Section from Wales to London 62

The Weald, from the Devil's Dyke, Sussex .... 62

Launch of H. M. S. Queen Mary at Jarrow .... 64

Senghenydd colliery, South Wales 71

Fleet Street, looking east 74

The Tower of London 76

Avonmouth Docks 78

Fish-pontoon, Grimsby 79

Piece of rock from the Highlands . . . . . 85

Types of hills : southern upland type 87

Types of hills : lowland typo 87

Falls of Muick, Ballater 91

Melrose Abbey 95

Sketch-map of Dumbartonshire Highlands .... 98

Shetland ponies 100

Part of the Island of Lewis 101

Cuchullin Hills, Skye .103

Oban 110

Sketch-map of Central Lowlands 112

Peebles, from the west 117

Burns's cottage, Ayr 120

Stirling Castle 123

Jute warehouse, Dundee 127

Room in which Mary Stewart was born, Linlithgow Palace 130

Falls of Clyde Stonebyres Linn 134



viii List of Illustrations

PAGE

Ironworks, Coatbridge ........ 136

Brodick Bay and the Arran Hills ...... 139

Greenock, from the river ........ 142

Edinburgh Castle ......... 146

Glasgow Cathedral ......... 149

The new Tay Bridge ........ 156

On the Donegal coast ........ 160

Cliff scenery, Carrick-a-Rede, Co. Antrim . . . .163

Irish cottage and turf stack ....... 172

A field of flax .......... 174

Spreading flax ......... . 174

Dyeing wool for Donegal homespun ..... 176

Giant's Causeway ......... 177

Harland and Wolff's shipbuilding yard . . . . . 180

Glendalough .......... 184

Sackville Street, Dublin . . . . . . . .186

Waterford, from the west ....... 190

Cork, from the west ........ 192

The Rock of Cashel ........ 194

Thomond Bridge and King John's Castle, Limerick . . 197

Cutting turf in Connemara . . ..... 199

Irish Railway Map ......... 202



The illustrations on pp. 50, 87, 91, 100, 103, 110, 117, 120, 127,
130, 136, 142, 146, 149, 156, 186, 190, 192, 194, 197, and 199 are
from photographs by Messrs J. Valentine & Sons, Ltd. ; those on
pp. 160, 163, 172, 174, 176, 177, 180, and 184 from photographs by
Mr W. A. Green ; those on pp. 58, 62, 76, and 78 from photographs
by Messrs F. Frith & Co. ; and those on pp. 85, 134, and 139 from
photographs by Mr J. W. Reoch. Those on pp. 13 and 32 are from
photographs by Mr N. P. Edwards ; that on page 14 is reproduced
by permission of the British South Africa Co. ; that on page 27 is
reproduced from Grassland's Desert and Water Gardens of the Red
Sea, by kind permission of the author; that on page 55 is reproduced
by permission of the Ontario Government ; that on page 64 is from
a photograph kindly supplied by Messrs Palmers Shipbuilding Co. ;
that on page 123 is reproduced from Morris's Bannockburn, by kind
permission of the author ; and the figure on page 36 is reproduced
by kind permission of the London Geol. Soc.

The illustrations on pp. 4, 17, 21, 23, 38, 43, 48, 71, and 79 are
from photographs by Mr H. Jenkins, Messrs Henson & Co., Mr C.
Kirk, the H. a White Co., Mr D. Corder, Mr W. L. Howie. Mr L. F.
Wills, the Royal Photographic Co., and Mr F. 0. Cartledge, re-
spectively.



PAKT I. THE PRINCIPLES OF
GEOGRAPHY

1. THE EARTH

It is not easy for young people (nor for grown-up
people either) to realise that we live on the surface of
a great ball that is travelling through space at an
enormous speed spinning all the time. This huge ball,
that we call the earth, is like a cannon-ball in another
way, for although it has a stony surface, the interior is
probably composed mainly of solid iron. It is easy
enough to say that the earth measures about 25,000
miles round, but it is difficult to conceive really what
the figures mean. If we think of a big ship sailing for
day after day at fiill speed and seeing nothing but sky
and sea all round every day for a fortnight, we can get
some faint idea of the size of a great ocean.

Although the earth appears to be flat, we know that it
is not really so. One way in which you can easily prove
this is by watching a ship disappear over the horizon.
You will be able to see the masts when you can no
longer see the hull of the ship. This shows that the
surface of the sea is curved; and although there are
several slight bulges and flattenings at different parts of
the earth's surface, we may, for all practical purposes,
think of it as a round ball.

M. 1



2 The Earth

The amount of land and water on the surface of the
earth is by no means equal. The area of the water is
about two and a half times the area of the land, or,
putting it another way, two-sevenths of the earth's sur-
face is land, while the sea occupies five-sevenths of the
surface. The arrangement of the land and water is
peculiar. Look at a map of the Northern and the
Southern Hemispheres. There is plainly far more land
in the Northern Hemisphere. The Southern Hemisphere
is mainly water. Careful measurements would show that
there is actually thirteen times more land in the Northern
than in the Southern Hemisphere.

There is another very strange thing about the arrange-
ment of the land and water on the face of the earth that
you would never guess at first sight. The antipodes of
a piece of land is practically always a piece of water.
Thus on the opposite side of the globe from North
America is the Indian Ocean, Australia is the antipodes
of the North Atlantic Ocean, Europe and Africa are
exactly opposite the Pacific Ocean, there is an ocean at
the North Pole but a continent exactly opposite at the
South Pole. This curious result has not come about
merely by chance, but the explanation is too difficult
for young scholars.

The land surface of the earth is not smooth, but is
ridged and wrinkled in certain parts, and the wrinkles
are called mountain chains. The greatest mountain
system in the world stretches under many different
names from the west of Europe to the east of Asia. It
begins in the Pyrenees, and continues in the Alps, the
Caucasus, the Persian mountains, and the Himalaya,



The Earth 3

stretching thence in high ranges to the north-east of
Asia. The highest part of this mountain system is
29,000 feet, or about 5 miles above sea-level It is
interesting to note that this distance is nearly the same
as the greatest depth of the ocean below sea-level. So
far as is known the deepest part of the Pacific Ocean is
31,600 feet deep.

The Pacific Ocean is the largest expanse of water in
the world. From north to south it stretches for about
7000 miles, while from east to west it is about 10,000 miles
at its widest part. The deepest parts of the ocean floor
are found in the western Pacific. In the north-west
Pacific a long and deep hollow exists called the Challenger
Trench. The sea-floor is deeper here than in any other
part of the world. The islands of the Pacific Ocean are
of two types that differ very strongly, namely, " high "
and "low."

The " high " islands consist of rock that once flowed
white-hot and molten from volcanoes. They contain
mountains often thousands of feet in height The scenery
is magnificent and the vegetation is luxuriant, beautiful,
and varied. The " low " islands are often not ten feet
high. They have been built up by the skeletons of
millions of tiny animals, the remains of which form coral
rock. Often the coral-reefs are ring-shaped and enclose
a lagoon. The swell of the great ocean thunders on the
deserted, outside beach, while the huts of the inhabitants
cluster round the calm waters of the lagoon. The low
islands are generally poor in vegetation.

The Atlantic Ocean is neither so big nor so deep as
the Pacific. The deepest part of the Atlantic Ocean is

12



4 The Earth

found north-east of the West Indies, and is called the
Virgin Deep. The Atlantic Ocean is continuous with
the Arctic Ocean, but the boundary is usually taken
from the south of Norway to Greenland. The sea here
is comparatively shallow. This is fortunate, for the rise
of the sea-floor acts as a barrier to shut out the icy
waters of the Arctic Ocean.




Coast erosion at Pakefield, Suffolk

We must not think that the distribution of land and
sea has always been and always will be as it is now. Sea
and land are continually struggling with each other for
the mastery. In some places the sea is being silted up,
and so the land area is increasing. In other places
cliffs are being undermined and every now and then
new slices of the land are carved away by the waves.
For example, the Fen district of England has been
largely reclaimed from the sea, while not far away on



The Earth 5

the coast of Suffolk the sea is gradually encroaching
on the land.

Even on the land itself there is nothing stable.
Agents are continually at work wearing away the
mountains and filling up the valleys. In time our
country will be worn down to a low, flat plain, then it
will be upraised again into a plateau, then mountains
and valleys will be carved from the plateau, and once
again the process of wearing the mountains down to a
plain will recommence. This series of changes has taken
place many times already, and will probably occur many
times again. When we think that it takes many
thousand years to complete each series of changes we
get some idea of the immense age of the earth we
live on.

Winds, frost, ice, rain, and rivers are the chief agents
in wearing down the land. The wind is most effective
in desert lands where it uses the sand to scour away the
rocks. Frost can shatter the strongest rocks, and the
fragments are broken up, and carried away by ice or
rivers. Glaciers rub away the rocks over which they
pass like great files. Valleys are deepened by them,
and ridges are cut away.

Rivers, however, are the chief agents of destruction
in this country. They are continually at work hollowing
the land, carrying stones, sand, and mud towards the
sea, and then dropping their loads as they reach the flat
lands near their mouths. Remember, too, that rivers
are not permanent and unchanging. They are born,
increase in size, become old, and die. They are con-
stantly at war with one another, and each grows at



6 The Climate and Natural

another's expense. Of course, the changes take place so
slowly that it is only by very careful observation that
we can detect them.



2. THE CLIMATE AND NATURAL REGIONS
OF THE WORLD

By the climate of a country we mean the average
weather throughout the year. There are hot countries
and cold countries, wet countries and dry countries,
countries where the winds are strong and steady, and
countries where the winds are light and variable. In
brief, the three most important things in climate are
temperature, rainfall, and winds.

The tropics, that is, the lands about the equator, are
hot countries. There are no spring, summer, autumn,
and winter in these lands. It is hot all the year round.
The only difference throughout the year is that there is
a dry season and a wet season. Farthest away from the
equator, that is, around the poles, the climate is very
cold. There are two seasons, summer and winter, each
lasting for six months. In summer there is perpetual
daylight, for the sun never sets. In winter there is one
long night, which at the extreme poles lasts for six
months. Between the tropics and the polar regions are
the temperate lands, such as we live in, with four seasons
in the year.

Some parts of the earth are rainless. Day after day
the sun blazes down from a blue sky. Sometimes clouds
form, but they pass away without bringing the welcome



Regiom of the World 7

rain. In other parts of the world it rains heavily and
almost continuously all the year round. Most parts of
the world, of course, have climates between these two
extremes. There are wet days and sunny days in
pleasant alternation.

Lastly we must consider the winds that blow over
the surface of the earth. This subject is rather dry, but
it is very important and not difficult The diagram on
p. 8 represents roughly the directions of the winds of
the world. It is plain that there are several belts or
zones where the winds are fairly steady. There are
three belts where calms or light, variable winds prevail.
One is over the equator, one over the tropic of Cancer,
and one over the tropic of Capricorn. Between the
Doldrums (calms of the equator) and the calms of Cancer
there is a region where the winds blow steadily from the
north-east This is the belt of north-east Trade Winds.
In the Southern Hemisphere . there is a corresponding
belt of south-east Trade Winds. North of the calms of
Cancer the winds blow from the south-west Over most
of the temperate regions of the world westerly winds
prevail

In our own country, for example, westerly winds
blow during about two-thirds of all the days of the year.
In the Southern Hemisphere there is another belt of
westerly winds, coming as a rule from the north-west
In this southerly region the westerly winds are very
strong and steady, because there is very little land to
interrupt their force. They are sometimes called the
" Roaring Forties," because they are very strong south
of latitude 40 S. Antarctic explorers tell us that still



8



The Climate and Natural



farther south the winds blow nearly all the year round
with the force of a heavy gale.

Now let us start at the equator and travel north-
wards towards the pole, and see what kinds of climate
we should experience. About the equator the weather
is hot all the year round. This district is also very



Fo !<?



d re fi



Treble of



Epu.a.Tor



ic of



Afer-tA / ssf / Tr>d*e ^ trntff

/? eg eox of




Sou -fA



Diagram showing the movements of the winds over the
surface of the earth



rainy. In some parts of this belt it rains every day in
the year. In other parts there may be one or two
short, dry seasons when the only rain comes from violent
thunderstorms, but for the rest of the year the rain
will come pouring down for weeks on end. The whole
country is covered with a thick, warm mist The hot,



Regions of the World 9

damp air takes all the energy out of human beings, but
it is splendid for vegetation of every kind.

As we pass from the equator, the rainfall becomes
less and less, until when we are fairly in the trade-wind
belt there is sometimes hardly any rain at all. We have
already seen that the trade- winds of the Northern Hemi-
sphere come from the north-east, and therefore what
rain there is will fall mainly on the eastern coasts of
continents. The western parts of countries in the trade-
wind belt are very dry. The west of Mexico, the west
of North Africa, the west of Arabia, and the west of
India are all deserts.

The same is true of the trade-wind belts of the
Southern Hemisphere. The west of central South
America, the west of South Africa, and the west of
Australia are also deserts. The eastern parts of certain
countries in the trade-wind belt have a peculiar climate
called a monsoon climate. In summer time the trade-
winds cease, and steady winds blow in exactly the
opposite direction. These winds are called monsoons,
and they bring the welcome rains that make the monsoon
lands so fertile. Monsoon countries, therefore, have wet
summers and dry winters. The east of Africa, the east
of India, southern China, and north-east Australia
are good examples of areas with a monsoon type of
climate.

A little north of the tropic of Cancer, that is, where
the trade-wind belt gradually passes into the belt of
westerlies, there are certain countries on the west of
continents that enjoy a climate peculiar to themselves.
The countries round the Mediterranean Sea have this



10 The Climate and Natural

kind of climate, and therefore it is called the Mediter-
ranean type. The summers are very hot, and the
winters are mild. The rain falls mainly in winter time.
The summers are almost rainless. A peculiar type of
vegetation is found in these countries which will be
described later. In addition to the countries bordering
the Mediterranean, other countries having the same
kind of climate are California, Cape Town district, Chile,
and Southern Australia.

When we come well into the belt of westerly winds
we find a type of climate that is familiar to everybody
in Britain. There are four well-marked seasons in the
year. There is rain at intervals all the year round.
The winters are fairly cold. Indeed in places far from
the sea the winters are bitterly cold, and the summers
are very hot.

Farther north around the pole there are only two
seasons in the year, a short summer and a long, severe
winter. There is daylight all the summer, and night all
the winter. Terrible gales rage at times, and no human
being exposed to these blizzards can live very long. In
this respect the Antarctic is even worse than the Arctic.

We generally think of the world as divided into
countries owned by certain nations. But we can think
of it divided into natural regions according to certain
natural features such as vegetation, or build, or climate.
If we were to divide the world into natural regions
according to climate, we should first think of three
great divisions, namely, hot lands, temperate lands, and
cold lands. Hot lands we could subdivide into rainy
equatorial lands, dry western deserts, and eastern



Regions of the World 11

monsoon lands. The temperate regions we could again
subdivide into Mediterranean lands, cool temperate
lands (e.g. British Isles), and one or two other less
important types. In this chapter we have already
described the climates of these natural regions. It is
a good exercise to take a map of the world, and try
to arrange it in natural regions according to climate.

3. THE CHIEF PLANT BELTS OF THE WORLD

PART I

We know from looking at pictures that the vegetation
of many foreign countries is quite different from that of
our own. Certain kinds of plants are suited to hot
countries, others to cold countries, others to dry countries,
and others to wet countries. You must never forget that
plants are living things. They eat, drink, and breathe ;
they struggle with other plants and the stronger kill the
weaker ; they migrate to other countries, and, when the
conditions are favourable, they flourish and bring up
large families just as human beings do. Thus we find
that plants are adapted to their surroundings, and par-
ticularly to the climate in which they live.

Let us first very briefly look at some of the ways in
which plants adapt themselves to climate. The water
that a plant drinks is breathed into the air by its leaves.
Trees that have plenty of water to drink are tall and
have many thin leaves covered with breathing mouths.
Their bark is thin and smooth, and also breathes freely.
On the other hand the plants of dry regions have fewer
and smaller leaves. The leaves are often covered with



12 The Chief Plant

a thick, glossy skin, or with hairs, or with varnish, in
order to prevent the water in the plant from evaporating.
The bark is often thick and rough. The plant is able to
store up water either in its thick leaves or in special
water-bags. Some desert plants develop very long
roots in order to search for water far below the surface.
Plants that live in windy districts often grow umbrella-
shaped in order to present a flat edge to the wind.

We shall now describe some of the most important
types of vegetation found over the globe. We saw in
the preceding chapter that the equatorial belt is hot
and very rainy. This climate nourishes exceedingly
dense tropical forests. The foliage is so thick that
there is perpetual twilight on the ground. The trees are
tall, and of very many different kinds. Great rope-like
tangles of creepers stretch- from one trunk to another
and make it very difficult for travellers to cut a way
through the forest. There is no marked difference in
the seasons, and so at all times of the year we find some
plants budding, some bursting into flower, some bearing
fruit, and some shedding their leaves.

Hardly any animal life is to be seen on the dark and
gloomy ground, but the upper surface of the forest
teems with life. Insects of brilliant hues, birds with
gaudy plumage, tree-frogs, snakes, lizards, monkeys, and
many other tree-animals play among the large, brightly-
coloured flowers of the trees. These animals, as a rule,
never touch the ground in their lives. It is difficult for
man to live in the tropical forests. If he makes a
clearing he has to fight the plants which seem to spring
up by magic, and threaten to smother his undertaking.



Belts of the World 13

Immense forests of this kind, still unexplored, are found
in the basin of the Amazon and in the Congo. Dense
tropical forests also cover parts of Burma, Borneo, New
Guinea, and Sumatra.

As we pass from the equator, the climate becomes
less rainy, and the forests, become less dense. The
country is like a great park, with toll grass and scattered




Tropical vegetation A mangrove swamp

trees. The grass is often taller than a man, and is dry
and dusty. The trees are scattered, or cluster in woods
along hollows. Among the grass are shrubs, small trees,
and prickly bushes. This type of country is called the
savanna. It borders the tropical forests of Africa and
South America, and is found also in Australia and other
countries. It is the home of multitudes of large animals.



14



The Chief Plant



Most of the large African mammals the antelope, the
zebra, the girafle, the elephant, the rhinoceros, the lion,
and many others are inhabitants of the savanna.

The savanna gradually passes into the semi-desert
and then the desert In the previous chapter we saw
in what part of the world deserts are found. In the




Pine-apple plantation, Southern Rhodesia

semi-deserts trees disappear, and their place is taken
by thorny scrubs. Plant life becomes poorer until in
the actual desert it disappears except in oases round
wells. Naturally all desert plants must be able to with-
stand long droughts. They have few or no leaves in
order not to breathe out moisture. Instead of leaves



Belts of the World 16

we see thorns and prickles as in the cactus plants that
are sometimes seen in this country. Often the plants


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