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THE LIBRARY

OF

THE UNIVERSITY
OF CALIFORNIA

PRESENTED BY

PROF. CHARLES A. KOFOID AND
MRS. PRUDENCE W. KOFOID




A SAMURAI IN OFFICIAL DRESS, WEARING HIS TWO SWORDS



THE SPIRIT OF

JAPAN



BY THE REV.

G. H. MOULE, B.A.

SOMETIME MISSIONARY IN KYUSHU, JAPAN



Xoufcon :

THE SOCIETY FOR THE PROROGATION OF THE GOSPEL

IN FOREIGN PARTS

15 TUFTON STRF.FT WESTMINSTER

S.W.



TO

E. M, M.

WITHOUT WHOSE CONSTANT HELP

AND EXPERIENCED CRITICISM
THIS BOOK COULD NOT HAVE BEEN WRITTEN



EDITOR'S PREFACE

THE aim of the Author in writing the present
volume stands self-confessed in the title.
Only those who have had some share in the
preparation of the book can know the care
and labour that he has bestowed upon it,
though all who read it will appreciate his
anxiety that they should see Japan as far
as possible through Japanese eyes. It will
be obvious that the compass of a study
text-book affords space for only a few of
the many problems presented by a country
in which such amazing changes have taken
place in little more than half a century. It
is also inevitable that where such great
issues are at stake authorities will differ in
matters of opinion as distinct from simple
fact. It may, therefore, be more than
usually necessary that reference should be
made to other books in the study of the
subject. This, however, is admittedly the
reverse of a defect in a study text-book.
At the same time the proofs have passed
through the hands of a number of repre-



Editor's Preface v

sentative people to whom the book owes
much. For criticisms and suggestions the
Editor and his committee are grateful to
Z. Goshi, Esq., and Y. Izumi, Esq., Miss
Mayers, the Rev. Canon C. H. Robinson, D.D.,
and the Revs. F. Kettlewell and Herbert
Moore, of the S.P.G., Sir Claude Macdonald,
G.C.M.G., P.C., and the Revs. R. Bulstrode,
M.A., A. R. Fuller, S. Painter, and C. Warren,
M.A., of the C.M.S. Pictures have been kindly
lent by the Author, the C.M.S., the S P.G., and
the British and Foreign Bible Society, the
Revs. F. Lenwood, M.A., S. Painter, and
J. H. Ritson, M.A., Mr Clive Holland, Messrs
Russell & Son, and the London News Agency,
while the portrait of Neesima is taken from
the Life and Letters, written by A. S. Hardy
and published by Messrs Houghton, MifHin &
Co., New York. The Editor trusts that no
copyright has been infringed.

The length of the book has necessitated the
omission of several desirable appendices. The
Editor would therefore draw the more atten-
tion to the value of The Christian Movement
in Japan, tenth issue, 1912, and the Findings
of the Tokyo conferences, particulars of which
will be found in the Bibliography.

The Topics for Discussion which the Editor
has appended to each chapter are intended by



i 0/1



vi The Spirit of Japan



way of suggestion only, aftd' Cannot ieplace
the assignments to be made by leaders of
circles. They are designed to aid leaders in
selecting salient points upon which to frame
assignments, and to supply topics for dis-
cussion classes, young people's societies and
meetings other than circles of the usual form.

The United Council for Missionary Educa-
tion has not hitherto published a book on
Japan. But though a number of Societies
represented in the Council have no mission-
aries in Japan, none of them is without a
vital interest in the progress of Christianity
there. Even apart from the intrinsic im-
portance of Japan as a nation, and of the
place in the Catholic Church which only the
Japanese Church can fill, her influence upon
China, India, and the Pacific is a factor with
which all Societies working in these fields
have to reckon.

The ill-health of the Author has of necessity
delayed the publication of the book a little,
but the Editor cannot send the sheets to
press without an expression of gratitude to
the Author for his patience and ready co-
operation in what must have proved, under
the circumstances, an exceptionally tedious
process of revision of the manuscript and
proofs.

B. A. Y.



S.P.G. SUGGESTIONS TO LEADERS,
(15, TUPTON ST., WESTMINSTER.)



AUTHOR'S PREFACE

No Englishman or other foreigner, whatever
the length of his residence in the Far East,
can hope to do full justice to such a subject
as "The Spirit of Japan." Nothing would
have induced me to attempt the ambitious
task of writing a book with this title but
the express desire of Japanese friends that
I should do something, on my enforced
return to England, to give English Christians
a better understanding of " the real Japanese."
The unexpected invitation from the United
Council for Missionary Education, that I
should write their senior text-book for this
year, has afforded me an opportunity of
fulfilling the wish of my Japanese friends in
a more far-reaching manner than they or I
ever anticipated.

Any interpretation of the national genius,
or spirit of Japan, will naturally be more
trustworthy, if it is founded mainly on
Japanese sources of information or on the
authority of those foreigners who have, by
long experience and careful research, been
able to appreciate the Japanese point of

vii



viii The Spirit of Japan

view. It will be noticed that in Chapters
I., VI., and VII., the conclusions I draw are
based almost entirely on the observations and
opinions of Japanese writers. In Chapters
II. and III., I am largely indebted to such
standard works as Professor W. G. Aston' s
"Shinto," the late Rev. A. Lloyd's "The
Creed of Half Japan," and in a less degree to
Dr W. E. Griffis' "The Religions of Japan";
while most of the material in Chapters IV.
and V. is derived from Dr Otis Gary's monu-
mental work, " A History of Christianity
in Japan" written in 1909, in celebration
of the Jubilee of Modern Christian Missions
to the Japanese Empire.

Religion and history have played an all-
important part in the formation of Yamato-
damashii, or the Japan -spirit. Hence the
prominence given in this book to the study
of Shinto and Buddhism, and the constant
reference to the historical background of
the subject. I regret that no room could
be found for a separate chapter on the
history of Japan.

It is my earnest hope that God will so use
what I have written that English sympathy
with our Far Eastern Ally may be quickened
and deepened, and that the cause of Christ's
Kingdom in Japan may be correspondingly



Author's Preface ix

advanced. A new era has opened in that
land, and, with what we may call the pro-
phetic instinct of a high-minded resolve, it
has been styled " Taisho," or Great Righteous-
ness. Shall we not pray for His Imperial
Majesty, the Emperor Yoshihito, that his
ancient throne may be " established by
righteousness," and that the righteousness
which " exalteth a nation " may lead his
people in the near future to nobler ideals and
higher achievements than ever before ?

G, H. M.

CLEOBUBY NORTH,
July 3Qth, 1913.



NOTE ON THE PRONUNCIATION OF JAPANESE WORDS.

"Japanese, when written phonetically with the
Roman alphabet, requires the same letters as English
with the exception of I, q, v and x. The letter c occurs
only in the combination ch, which is sounded nearly
like English ch in ' church/ but a little more softly.

" The vowels are sounded as in Spanish and Italian,
but are always short unless marked with the sign of
long quantity. It is impossible to express the values
of the Japanase vowels correctly in English ; but,
speaking approximately, we may say that

a resembles the a in " fatter," but is shorter.

e e "men."

* i "machine/' but is shorter.

o o " for " (not four.)

u u "bush."

o o " bone " but is a purer o.

u oo "food."

" Very great care must be taken to distinguish the
short from the long vowels. . . . When preceded by
another vowel or by n, the vowel e is sounded as ye,
i as yi, and o as wo. The dipthongs call for no remark,
each vowel retaining its own proper sound. The
consonants are pronounced approximately as in English,
subject to the following remarks :

" F is a true labial ; G never has the sound of j ;
N final is pronounced half-way between a true n and
the French nasal n ; R is the very softest of English
rs; Z, when preceding the vowel M, has the sound
of dz. Double consonants must, as in Italian, be
sharply distinguished from simple ones.

"Generally speaking, the Japanese pronunciation
both of vowels and of consonants is less broad and
heavy than that current in most European languages,
and especially in English. Tones, such as those of the
Chinese, are entirely absent. All the syllables of a
word and all the words of a sentence are pronounced
equally or nearly so."

(Condensed from Chapter II in Professor B. H.
Chamberlain's Handbook of Colloquial Japanese.)



CONTENTS

PAGE

EDITOR'S PREFACE , , . . iv

AUTHO*R'S PREFACE . . . vii

NOTE ON PRONUNCIATION . . . x

CHAP. I. THE SPIRIT OF JAPAN . . 1

II. THE RELIGIOUS FACTOR SHINTO . 33

III. THE RELIGIOUS FACTOR BUDDHISM . 72

IV. THE INTRODUCTION OF CHRISTIANITY 109

V. THE REINTRODUCTION OF CHRISTIANITY 148

3, VI. PROBLEMS : POLITICAL, INTELLECTUAL

AND SOCIAL . . .187

VII. SOME JAPANESE CHARACTERISTICS . 224

VIII. THE CHURCH IN JAPAN AND ITS

FOREIGN ALLIES . . .261

STATISTICAL TABLE .... 301

BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . 302

INDEX . . . . . . 309

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

A SAMURAI IN OFFICIAL DRESS, WEARING HIS Two

SWORDS . . . ... Frontispiece

FACING PAGE

MT. FUJI FROM LAKE HAKONE . . . . . 1

CHERRY-BLOSSOM IN UENO PARK, TOKYO . . 8

INTERIOR OF AN INN AT LAKE HAKONE ... 20
BUDDHIST SERVICE OVER THE -ASHES OF SOLDIERS

KILLED IN BATTLE 25

xi



Xll



The Spirit of Japan



FACING i'AGK

THE REV. J. IMAI 29

WORSHIP OP THE SUN-GODDESS AT SUNRISE ON THE

COAST OF JAPAN ...... 44

APPROACH TO THE SHINTO SHRINES AT ISE . . 48

A SHINTO PRIEST AND PRIESTESS .... 53

A SHINTO SHRINE .61

THE COLOSSAL IMAGE OF BUDDHA AT KAMAKURA . 76

BUDDHIST PRIESTS .84

HEADQUARTERS OF THE SHIN SECT OF BUDDHISM AT

NISHI-HONGWANJI, KYOTO 93

BUDDHIST MENDICANTS IN PILGRIM GARB, WITH PORT-
ABLE SHRINES ON THEIR BACKS .... 100
THE FEUDAL CASTLE OF KUMAMOTO . . . .108
EDICT AGAINST CHRISTIANITY (Translation} . . 117

JOSEPH HARDY NEESIMA 148

A CHRISTIAN KINDERGARTEN 157

GROUP OF DELEGATES AT THE W.S.C.F. SUB-CON-
FERENCE AT KUMAMOTO 164

His IMPERIAL MAJESTY THE EMPEROR OF JAPAN IN

JAPANESE COURT DRESS 172

A STREET PROCESSION AT A SHINTO CARNIVAL . . 181
SWORD AND PIKE FENCING MATCH BETWEEN JAPANESE

STUDENTS 189

GINZA, THE CHIEF STREET IN TOKYO . . . 204
JAPANESE CARPENTERS AT WORK . . . .212

WOMEN IN WINTER DRBSS IN A TEMPLE COURT . 221

SERVANT GIRLS AT THE WELL 236

OLD WOMAN AND CHILDREN IN A TEMPLE COURT . 253

ARCHBISHOP NICOLAI 268

A TOKYO GARDEN PARTY HELD IN HONOUR OF THE

W.S.C.F. 277

CLERICAL AND LAY DELEGATES AT THE KYU"SHIJ

SYNOD OF THE NIPPON SEI-KOKWAI . . . 285

'A DOOR OPENED" 300

MAP OF THH JAPANESE EMPIRE 312



3U 1




The Spirit of Japan.

To face page 1 of text.



NOTE



This text-book is intended primarily for use in Mission Study
Circles, and in connection with it Suggestions to Leaders con-
cerning the making of assignments, etc., have been prepared.
The Editorial Committee strongly recommend all Circles to make
use of these "Suggestions." They may be obtained by writing
to the Mission Study Secretary at any of the addresses given
below.

The following Editions of this text-book are published :

BAPTIST MISSIONARY SOCIETY, 19 Furnival Street, E.G.
CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY, Salisbury Square, E.G.
CHURCH OF SCOTLAND FOREIGN MISSION COMMITTEE,

22 Queen Street, Edinburgh.
EPISCOPAL CHURCH IN SCOTLAND MISSION STUDY COMMITTEE,

122 George Street, Edinburgh.

LONDON MISSIONARY SOCIETY, 16 New Bridge Street, E.G.
SOCIETY FOR THE PROPAGATION OF THE GOSPEL IN FOREIGN PARTS,

15 Tufton Street, S.W.

STUDENT VOLUNTEER MISSIONARY UNION, 93 Chancery Lane, W.C.
UNITED COUNCIL FOR MISSIONARY EDUCATION, 78 Fleet Street, E.G.
UNITED FREE CHURCH OF SCOTLAND MISSION STUDY COUNCIL,

121 George Street, Edinburgh.
YOUNG PEOPLE'S MISSIONARY MOVEMENT, 78 Fleet Street, E.G.






.



CHAPTER I

THE SPIRIT OF JAPAN

POINTS OF CONTACT BETWEEN JAPAN AND ENGLAND.

Charm of Japanese Art, Scenery, and People.
Russo-Japanese War a revelation of Japanese

Characteristics.

The Anglo-Japanese Alliance.
Nobility of character shown by Japanese

Soldiers.

BUSHIDO AND THE SPIRIT OF JAPAN.

Bushido denned.

Its source in Yamato-damashii.

Development under Feudalism.

Samurai code of Honour and characteristic

Virtues.
Defects of Bushido from both the Secular and

the Religious points of view.
The Problem of the place of Bushido in

modern Japan.



JAPAN has been aptly described as the " Great The "Great
Britain of the East." It is not only her
geographical position that makes her the
counterpart of the British Isles ; there is
something also in her genius or spirit
that appeals to the genius or spirit of the



2 The Spirit of Japan

POINTS OF British nation. Her art and scenery, the
BETWEEN manners and customs of her people, her
ready assimilation of the ideas of Western
civilisation, the splendid achievements of
her army and navy, and the rapid expansion
of her trade, are all subjects of real interest
to the British public. Indeed, so frequently
have these topics been dealt with in books
and magazines and newspaper articles that
another book on Japan seems almost super-
fluous. And further, the Siberian railway
has brought Tokyo within fourteen days'
journey from London, so that it is com-
paratively easy nowadays to visit Japan and
see with one's own eyes things one had previ-
ously only read in print.

The interest felt in England concerning
6c things Japanese " is very widespread.

Take for example the subject of Japanese
art, retfiembering that " the art of a nation
is the expression of its soul." What collector
of articles of vertu does not know and appreci-
ate the beauties of Kyoto or Tokyo cloisonnt,
with its exquisitely coloured fragments of
enamel overlaid on gold or silver or copper
wire ? What connoisseur in pottery would
not give much to possess a specimen of the
priceless old " Satsuma ware," with its
" crackled " yellow surface and wonderful



The Spirit of Japan 3

dull gold ornamentation? Then think of
the skill of the Japanese in damascene
work, or ivory carving, or silk embroidery,
or cut-velvet pictures, or various kinds of
lacquer. Think again of the fascination of
Japanese prints, of the slight but astonishingly
clever productions of the Japanese artist's
brush, or the quaint charm of the Japanese
landscape-gardener's art.

Take, next, the scenery of Japan. One Mt. Fuji
sometimes wonders whether the shape of
any mountain in the world is quite as familiar
as that of Mt. Fuji. This famous peak,
more than 12,000 feet high, and snow capped
for the greater part of the year, has impressed
itself on the Far Eastern mind. Its fame was
known of old to the Chinese. Japanese
pilgrims have for generations past flocked
from far and wide to climb its sacred slopes.*
The Buddhists call it " the Peak of the White
Lotus," because it rises in white unsullied
purity from the low level of the surrounding
hills, like the lotus flower whose roots lie hid
in the black mud of the stagnant pond. To
the Japanese, Mt. Fuji is the symbol of
perfection, the one spot on earth which is
altogether and absolutely satisfying to eye
and mind and soul. Thus it is that the shape
of this mountain has been constantly repro-



4 The Spirit of Japan

duced in Japan on fans and trays, on cups
and plates, on lacquer boxes and enamel
vases, on the printed page and the painted
scroll, on note-paper and envelopes, on cakes
and sweetmeats, on almost every imaginable
object, in fact, which could take the sacred
form.

The Scenery Besides Mt. Fuji there are other impressive
9 japan. features in Japanese scenery, such as the
blue Inland Sea with its numberless pine-clad
islands, or Lake Biwa fringed with green, or
the grandeur, of active volcanoes like Mt.
Asama or Mt. Aso. Then there are the old
feudal castles, the picturesque temples and
shrines, and all the glories of the plum
and cherry blossoms, of wistaria and chrys-
anthemum, so loved by the flower-loving
Japanese. Nor can anyone who has seen
them fail to be charmed with the humbler
sights the little valleys standing so thick
with corn or rice, the shallow rushing streams,
the simple homesteads, the dark woods of
cryptomeria, the winding roads leading on-
ward and upward to the mountains. Even
if we have not actually been in Japan, we feel
we know what the scenery is like from the
many books we have read and the pictures
and photographs we have seen, and we
appreciate its peculiar beauty and charm.



The Spirit of Japan 5

So it is with the people themselves. We feel The People.
we know something about them, even though
we may never have met a Japanese.

The " simple life " whieh the Japanese
practise, their neat and airy houses almost
devoid of furniture, their versatility and
ingenuity, their lively, cheerful nature and
innate courtesy, the cleanliness of their
persons, the tasteful and becoming dress
and charming manners of the women, the
loveableness of their good-tempered children
have long been known and appreciated by
an increasing number of English people.

It was not, however, till Japan had passed The Chino-
through the ordeals of her wars with China w
and Russia that England and the Western
world generally began to pay serious attention
to the characteristics of this remarkable
nation. Hitherto it had been believed that,
gifted though the Japanese were in many
ways, they lacked those deeper and more
lasting qualities which go to the making
of a great nation. It was confidently pre-
dicted, at the commencement of the Chino-
Japanese war in 1894, that China, with her
gigantic strength and vast resources, would
soon crush her puny adversary and humble
Japanese pride in the dust. We know how
these predictions were falsified. Chinese arms



ese



6 The Spirit of Japan

and the undoubted valour of many Chinese
officers and men were helpless before the
superior strategy and the impetuous attacks
of the once despised foe. The war was a
revelation of the national strength of Japan
and of the intensity of her national feelings ;
and later, the admirable conduct of the
Japanese troops, engaged with the other
allied forces in suppressing the Boxer rebel-
lion in North China, confirmed the general
opinion that Japan was fully qualified to
be admitted into the fellowship of Western
nations.

England was quick to recognise the worth
of this new world-power, and the result was
the Anglo- Japanese Alliance, which was formed
in 1902, renewed in 1909 and again in 1911,
still remaining the dominating factor in Far
Eastern politics.

The Anglo- The outbreak of the Russo-Japanese war
Alliance? m 1904 was of course regretted in Eng-
land; but it was not considered that the
Japanese were the aggressors, and their
conduct of the war greatly intensified the
existing feelings of respect and admiration
for Japan. Indeed, British enthusiasm and
sympathy were roused by the reports of
Japanese heroism and devotion to such a
pitch that for a time it almost seemed as if



The Spirit of Japan 7

nothing too good could be said or thought
about our Far Eastern Ally.

The close of the war naturally brought Reaction
some reaction of feeling. The Japanese afte^th?
nation did not appear quite so admirable S^nese
in peace as in war. The western States of War.
North America became increasingly hostile
to the Japanese ; British merchants began
to feel the effect of her keen commercial
rivalry and complaint was made of her un-
scrupulous use of British trademarks ; old
stories of the dishonesty of Japanese mer-
chants were revived ; the formation of bogus
companies was reported to be of common
occurrence, and men of good standing were
involved in the scandals that ensued ; while
the whole nation was said to be giving itself
up entirely to gross materialism and the
sordid quest of gold. Again, the Japanese
Government's handling of affairs in Korea,
and the events which led up to and followed
the annexation of that unhappy country,
were subjected to much severe criticism.
Japanese policy in China also was re-
garded as open to suspicion, and wild
rumours were afloat of her designs in the
Pacific.

On the other hand, we know something of The other
our own national defects, and we recognise Slde *



8 The Spirit of Japan

with shame that the materialistic tendencies
and ambitions of modern Japan are due
largely to the fact that she has followed only
I too faithfully the example of our Anglo-
Saxon civilisation. Making these allowances
we cling to the belief that a nation which has
acquitted itself so nobly in recent years will
continue to be worthy of our affection and
esteem.

Personal experience helps one to appreciate
the real nobility of character evinced by the
Japanese. I was stationed in a garrison
town, the headquarters of the famous Sixth
Division of the Japanese Army, during the
greater part of the war with Russia. I saw
the reservists coming in from the country
and bidding a cheerful farewell to their
The relations and friends. I watched these men

fapanese billeted in the town, helping in the house-



before the work, nursing and amusing the children,
or, like children themselves, strolling hand
in hand along the crowded streets. As far
as I remember, I never met a drunken or
disorderly soldier throughout that period.
Shortly after, the Sixth Division was ordered
to the front. Day and night the troop-trains
were being despatched, and for long hours
at a stretch men, women and children waited
to send the soldiers off with waving flags




CHERRY-BLOSSOM IN UENO PARK, TOKYO



The Spirit of Japan 9

and loud shouts of banzai! 1 One wondered
which to admire more, the cheerful, manly
bearing of the soldiers, or the patient en-
thusiasm of the waiting crowds an enthusi-
asm which hid many an aching heart and
suppressed many a tear.

Never before had a comparatively small National
Asiatic nation confronted, by itself, one of
the greatest military powers in Europe. The
stupendous nature of this conflict with the
Colossus of the North and the tremendous
importance of the issues at stake made the
spectacle of national heroism more than
usually impressive. The idea of defeat was
of course never mentioned ; but all knew,
at the bottom of their hearts, that their
country had begun a life-and-death struggle,
the outcome of which it was impossible to
foresee. And yet all smiled and cheered and
kept up a brave front to the last.

Many of these heroes I saw again, when The Spirit
they returned from the front. Some came sick^nd
as sick and wounded. I visited them in Wounded,
hospital, and found them, not brutalised by
the terrible actualities of modern warfare,
nor boastful, but full of their usual good-
natured gaiety and childlike simplicity, and

1 Literally "ten thousand yeas!" i.e., "Long live
Japan ! " the Japanese equivalent for " Hurrah ! "



io The Spirit of Japan

modest withal as to their own achievements.
Some among the number were sadly maimed
and enfeebled ; but even they were craving
to take their place again in the fighting line,
and, if needs be, lose not only health and
limb but life itself for Emperor and native
land.

Restraint in The victorious regiments returned with
victory Urof waving of flags and shouts of banzai! as
they had started, and also with brave efforts
to forget the tale of wounds and disease and
death which the thinned ranks recorded.
Throughout those days of rejoicing and ex-
citement one heard no word of scorn or
hatred of the enemy. There was no sudden
loosening of the self-restraint that the nation
had so long practised, no unseemly bragging
to stain the hour of triumph.

One day my wife, travelling alone, found
herself in a train full of returning soldiers.
She described to me afterwards their courtesy
and friendliness, though they were all in
boisterous spirits at the prospect of reunion
with their families. It was not a special train,
and so civilians and soldiers were crowded to-
gether in the long Japanese railway carriages.
" Give me your baby to hold a moment,"
said one soldier to a Japanese woman in the
same compartment ; "I have just such a one



The Spirit of Japan 1 1

waiting to welcome me home, and it is long
since I had the joy of holding a baby in my
arms." Then, Japanese-like, some of the


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