UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA.
BOARD OF LADY MANAGER'S ALAMEDA CO. WORLD'S FAIR ASSOCIATION
Accession No.(pQ Sib. 2)..- Cla^s No.
G. H. STOCKHAM, M. D.
* We love no triumph-* sprang of force,
They stain the brightest eanse."
PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR.
Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1888, by
G. H. STOOKHAM, M. D.
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress/at Washington.
ALL, RIGHTS RESERVED
PACIFIC PRESS PUBLISHING Co.,
PRINTERS, ELECTROTYPERS AND BINDERS,
Twelfth and Castro Sts, Oakland, Cal.
HAVING been a contemporary of the Rev. Theobald
Mathew during the great temperance movement originated
by him, we were deeply interested in his work. Though
but a youth at the time, the recollections of this extraor-
dinary man are still vivid in our mind. We witnessed the
wonderful enthusiasm that attended his labors in Dublin,
and being then a resident of that city were present at many
of his lectures.
We remained in Ireland long enough afterwards also to
witness the relapsing of the pSo^lfi^mto their former habits
of inebriety, and the gradual decline of the temperance
For the last three decades we have watched with con-
tinued interest the progress of the cause in America, and
have seen with regret the failure of all license and pro-
hibitory laws to crush out the leviathan of intemperance.
The contemplation of this matter in its divers bearings on
the welfare of humanity, led to our devoting what time we
could spare from professional duties during the past few
months to a closer study of the subject. Finding so much
to interest and instruct as we advanced in our investigations,
we conceived the plan of arranging certain facts and data
into articles for publication. But as the matter grew on our
hands we abandoned our first idea as being wholly inade-
quate to the setting forth of a subject that had now assumed
enlarged proportions in our own mind.
If the result of this labor be received with favor, it will
be most gratifying ; but, on the other hand, if it meet ad-
verse criticism, and thereby fail of its object, we shall at
least have the consolation of having simply fulfilled what, to
us, seemed a duty.
G. H. STOCKHAM.
Oakland, April, 1888.
CHAPTER. P AGKv
I. Origin of the Temperance Movement 7
II. Temperance Societies 11
III. The Origin and History of Wine 15
IV. The History and Properties of Beer 19
V. History and Constituents of Spirituous Liquors. 23
VI. The Adulteration of Liquors 26
VII. Comparative Effects of Fermented and Spiritu-
ous Liquors 32
VIII. 'Thysiological Action of Alcohol 36
IX. Alcohol as Food. 44
X. Alcohol as a Medicine and a Poison 50
XI. Alcohol as a Stimulant and a Narcotic 54
XII. Licensing Systems of Great Britain and America. 57
XIII. American Liquor Laws and Local Option 66
XIV. Sumptuary Laws ' 73
XV. Prohibition 79 ,
XVI. Causes of Intemperance 91
XVII. Remedies Suggested for Intemperance 97
XVIII. Advantages of an Increased Production of Wine
and Beer 106
XIX, Alcohol as a Factor in Human Progress 113
XX. -To Prohibitionists. . 121
ORIGIN OF THE TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT,
THE modern temperance movement began in the
city of Cork, Ireland, in the year 1838, by the Rev.
Theobald Mathew, commonly called "Father Mathew,
the Apostle of Temperance." The great moral ref-
ormation, principally brought about by his instru-
mentality, both in its immediate and subsequent re-
sults, was unexampled in history. He was the first
Roman Catholic clergyman who attained prominence
in Ireland as a temperance reformer. Father Ma-
thew was a man of singular purity and simplicity of
character, with an utter unselfishness that made him
dearly beloved by all the people.
A few years prior to 1838 he commenced preach-
ing in the temperance cause, and the same year
formulated a pledge which he urg ed all nis hearers to
sign. It ran as follows : " I promise to abstain from
all intoxicating drinks, except those used medicinally,
and by order of a physician ; and to discontinue the
cause and practice of intemperance."
During that year, 1838, the roads were thronged
with people hastening to declare their total abandon-
ment of drink, and before its close, one hundred and
fifty thousand signatures from Cork and its surround-
ing country, were added to the pledge. The excite-
ment was intense. Good men of all denominations
joined his heroic labors. A great improvement was
8 TEMPERANCE AND PROHIBITION.
brought about in general morals, and in a stricter OD-
servance of law and order in entire communities.
The police force had little to do. Lawyer s were with-
out briefs, and criminal judges had few cases on their
dockets. So eager were the converts to the new dis-
pensation that many traveled one h undred miles to
sign the pledge and receive the blessing of the good
Father. All classes, Catholic, Protestant, and Dis-
senter-, upheld him in his work. It was estimated
that during seven or eight days in Dublin as many
as sixty thousand persons joined this temperance
movement ; and in the short space of two days, one
hundred thousand in Galway added their names to
swell the ranks. By November, in 1844, Father
Mathew had registered upwards of 5,000,000 adher-
ents of total abstinence principles in Ireland.
After a few years' experience, it was found advis-
able to alter the wording of the pledge to the follow-
ing formula : " I solemnly promise with the divine
assistance, as long as I continue a member of the
* Teetotal Temperance Society, ' to abstain from all in-
toxicating drinks, except for medicinal and sacra-
mental purposes, and I will do everything in my power,
by advice and example, to discontinue drunkenness."
This, it will be seen, carried an essentially different
meaning than was indorsed in the former document;
anyone who found himself unable to keep the pledge
could preserve his self-respect by returning it to the
The moral regeneration brought about by Father
Mathew's work was most astonishing and gratifying
THE TEMPERANCE MOVEMENT. 9
to every philanthropic mind. It continued to increase
in popularity, and practical reforms were set up on
every hand. Coffee shops took the place of whisky
saloons and thrived as well as the latter had formerly
done. The excise revenue of Ireland was reduced
from upwards of $5,000,000 to less than half
that sum. Father Mathew extended his labors into
England and the United States, meeting with uni-
versal appreciation in both these countries, and was
hailed by all classes as a public benefactor. In all
the cities visited he left behind him temperance
lodges in a flourishing condition. To many minds
""the movement was the ushering in of a new era in the
history of man. They believed that King Alcohol
was dethroned and overpowered, and to Ireland was
accorded the honor of being more temperate than
either England or Scotland. Statistics showed that
the sale of whisky there was reduced to three-
iburths its former estimate. The work progressed
gloriously for some years, but with nations, as with in-
dividuals in any of the relations of life, undue excite-
ment cannot be perpetuated ad infinitum, but must
sooner or later be followed by a subsequent reaction
or depression. So it proved with the temperance ref-
ormation. People became less vigorous in the ob-
servance of their pledge, and many withdrew from
the societies and gradually fell back into old habits
of inebriety. It was not long before there was as
much intoxicating liquor sold and drunk as before
the noble efforts of Father Mathew. This generous
friend of humanity, assisted by faithful members of
10 TEMPERANCE AND PROHIBITION.
the temperance lodges, did all he could to stay this
downward course ; but one by one they were over-
come by the strong current of human life that finally
returned to its old channel. Thus ended the greatest
temperance movement ever inagurated, and though
it failed in its object to permanently rescue the people
from the slavery of intoxicating drinks, yet it left a
lasting influence behind, and to-day men have reason
to thank God for the existence of such a man as the
Kev. Theobald Mathew.
If the temperance reform did not cure, it un-
doubtedly palliated the evil it attempted to subvert.
The cause had become popular with all classes,
whether among the rich in their palaces, or the poor in
their lowly dwellings. It had been an almost uni-
versal practice with those who could afford it, to keep
various kinds of liquors in their houses, and it was
considered a breach of hospitality and good manners
to allow a visitor to go away without being invited to
partake of some one of these refreshments. The side-
board was never without its arrangement of glasses
and decanters of carefully selected brands of wine,
whisky and brandy, which were served according to
the taste of each guest. During the excitement this
custom was discontinued, and it has never been re-
newed to any extent down to the present day. The
banishment of a practice that extended not only over
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland,
but also that of the United States of America, was
probably the greatest good affected by this reforma-
tion of the Rev, Theobald Mathew.
AFTER a few years of inaction the cause of temper-
ance was revived. Lodges were resuscitated and new
ones organized. Able men and women, too, entered
the lecture field. The people were again interested.
The lodges worked with increased vigor, and many a
poor inebriate was, for the time being, raised from
the gutter. Much good was undoubtedly done, but
it was principally by individual exertion. The mod-
erate drinker and the habitual drunkard, however,
still took their liquors. The efforts of the most ear-
nest speakers made no lasting impression on the pub-
lic mind. Still the work progressed. Temperance
societies continued" to be established locally and spas-
modically, and everything possible was done by hon-
est enthusiasts to stop the traffic in the accursed thing.
But the sad fact remained that saloons multiplied,
and the average amount of spirituous liquors sold in
proportion to the population, was even greater than
before. The receipts of the tax collector showed that
the number of persons addicted to habits of intemper-
ance, had increased rather than diminished; that
comparatively few drunkards had been reclaimed,
thus proving the inherent weakness of the lodges.
Something wrong in their very constitution must ac-
count for this inability to successfully cope with this
hydra-headed evil, (11)
12 TEMPERANCE AND PROHIBITION.
The temperance societies commit an error in wag-
ing war equally against moderate drinkers and those
who are confirmed drunkards. The former enjoy
their glass of wine or beer at dinner, or even a little
toddy, and do not admit the justice of a law that
compels them to sacrifice this, to them, harmless prac-
tice, for the sake of the inebriate.
When a pledge is broken it implies a want of honor,
veracity, and firmness of character ; and a man who
has done this, feels at once not only his dishonor in
the eyes of the lodge, but, what is much worse, the
inevitable loss of his own self-respect. Few have
the will-power to keep, for any length of time, a
pledge that is against inclination and the sanction of
custom. The person who withdraws from the lodge
is esteemed hardly less blamable than he who has
violated the pledgee He has evinced a changeable-
ness of opinion that warrants the conclusion of weak-
ness of character and general unreliability. He is
under a sort of social ban afterwards.
Any law is bad in its tendencies w r hen it interferes
with the free agency and moral responsibility of man.
It is setting aside the divine right of conscience and
reason to guide and control the individual Every
contest of the soul determines his spiritual status.
One is either stronger or weaker after the battle,
for this eternal warfare is but a necessary devel-
opment of character, a bringing out of the pos-
sibilities of the soul. When a man voluntarily
binds himself to an oath he has surrendered his in-
dividuality. He is no longer free, for he is bound in
TEMPERANCE SOCIETIES. 13
the chains of another's forging. The question has
ceased to be open to him as a moral, rational, account-
able being. He is under restraint or authority. Af-
ter a season he begins to chafe at his loss of freedom,
and realizes with impatience that fetters are not so
easily broken as forged. He is even tempted to hy-
pocrisy and takes his dram in secret. His tempta-
tion to drink is rather increased than diminished by
this imposed bond to " touch not, taste not." He be-
comes daily more irritated because he cannot openly
take a social glass with his companions, and feels that
his business interests have suffered thereby; it is not
pleasant to one's friends to constantly refuse to drink
with them. The result is too often the breaking of
his pledge and a wretched after-feeling of having
justly lost the respect of himself and his associates.
Temperance societies will be obliged to go farther
back than the-individual to effect a reformation that
will be permanent and universal. They must begin
with a regeneration of the laws governing society.
We generally find an excuse for doing what we most
desire to do. An oath or promise, verbal or written,
does not quench insatiable thirst, destroy passion or
the internal desire for what we see no particular harm
in using. People must be educated up to a law, be-
fore it can be enforced. The convert to temperance
societies is usually gained under a temporary excite-
ment which implies the influence of passion. Now,
passion is always fatal to principle and philosophy.
Large numbers of people are seldom at the same time
inspired by principle, and a universal conversion of a
14 TEMPERANCE AND PROHIBITION.
multitude to philosophy is an impossibility. Philoso-
phers never unite in large bodies,. We must not,
however, be accused of doing an injustice to the
temperance societies, whose devotion, energy, and use-
fulness cannot be too highly extolled. They have
undoubtedly done, and are still doing, a grand work
with the young, in training them to habits of temper-
ance and a high regard for the interests of others.
The unanimity of sentiment among the members has
been a strong means of mutual aid and support, and
the rising generation have reason to be grateful for
To better comprehend the main subjects involved
in this work, it will be necessary to give a short syn-
opsis of the history of fermented and spirituous liq-
uors, and their relative effects on the human system.
THE ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF WINE.
THE manufacture of wine may be considered as al-
most coeval with the production of the grape. That
the Creator designed its use seems as evident as that
bread should be made from wheat. Nor are we without
scriptural authority for this statement. The country
given over to the Jews by divine command was dis-
tinguished by the productiveness of its vineyards; and
the wine manufactured therefrom was counted as one
of the choicest gifts bestowed on them by the Lord.
As a punishment for disobedience, wine was with-
held from the people ; while, on the other hand, an
abundance of this article was regarded as the shadow-
ing forth of a blessing, That this highly commended
drink was then as now the fermented juice of the
grape, no competent judge will deny. The scriptural
evidence of this fact, both direct and indirect, is too
strong to admit of disputation. It is recorded that
God not only legislated for the Jews in things relig-
ious, but also taught them what they should eat and
drink. The conclusion is unavoidable that if wine
was once legitimately used, it should yet be esteemed a
blessing and not a curse. The first mention in history
of this beverage is to be found in the Old Testa-
ment. That other nations beside the Jews employed
this drink, we have proof positive. All races of men
16 TEMPERANCE AND PROHIBITION.
inhabiting southern climates converted their grapes
into wine, and drank it daily in sobriety and thank-
fulness of heart. Thus from the earliest time we can
trace the production of wine down through the genera-
tions to the present day. The cultivation of the grape
is not now confined to narrow strips of country in
Asia and Africa, but has gradually extended through-
out Europe until the latter country has by far the
greatest extent of vineyards in the world. The im-
mensity of the wine industry makes it difficult to com-
prehend what becomes of such vast supplies of this
product. France stands at the head of the wine-pro-
ducing countries, and her output, before the ravages
of the phylloxera, has often exceeded 2,500,000,000
gallons, but later her average is estimated to be about
1,450,000,000. Italy's vine-clad hills furnish 700,-
000,000 gallons, while Spain follows with her 580,-
000,000; Austria and Hungary, 375,000,000; Portu-
gal, 132,000,000; Germany, 100,000,000; Russia, 53,-
000,000, and Greece, Servia, Turkey in Europe and
the other European countries, have an average of
150,000,000 gallons. Wine is also manufactured in
Asiatic Turkey, India, China, Japan, Arabia and
Africa, and in fact in every locality where the climate
and soil are favorable. Of late years it has become
an important industry in the United States, especially
in California, which will ultimately rival France as
the greatest wine-producing country of the world.
Already in the Eastern States and in Mexico, Cali-
fornia wines are displacing those of France. The ex-
traordinary growth and fruitage of the vine in this
ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF WINE. 17
State warrant us in speaking thus confidently of her
Wines are generally divided into two classes : First,
those containing the pure juice of the grape, which
are called natural wines, and second, those which have
been fortified with spirits. The pure varieties, after
having undergone a thorough fermentation, are seldom
liable to further change. Such wines are therefore
wholesome and of good keeping quality. On the
other hand, in those which have been fortified, fermen-
tation has not been allowed to run its regular course,
having been prematurely checked by the addition of
spirits. By this process its strength is brought above
the limit within which vinous fermentation is possible.
Wines have two other divisions, white wines and
red wines. Certain European districts produce the
one, and certain other districts the other. It has been
noticed as a remarkable fact that in temperance is more
prevalent in all those localities where white wine is
produced than in those that manufacture the red vari-
ety ; and yet there is the same proportion of alcohol
in each. So apparent is this that some employers im-
port the red wine rather than allow their men to use
the white product of the country. This difference is
accounted for on the hypothesis that the former is rich
in tannin, which, by its astringent properties, prevents
the rapid absorption of the liquid; while the white,
having little or no tannin, is quickly carried to the
brain. There is also a theory that those who largely
employ the uncolored wine rarely attain old age.
Owing to the phylloxera in France, certain parties
18 TEMPERANCE AND PROHIBITION.
have lately patented a process for manufacturing both
varieties of wine out of the red and white beets. The
liquor obtained therefrom is said to possess all the prop-
erties of grape juice and is treated similarly. In
England, currant, raspberry, and gooseberry wines
are extensively employed for domestic purposes, and
are highly prized as useful and beneficial adjuncts.
The relative amount of alcohol contained in wines
is estimated at from 17 to 23 per cent in port, sherry
and Madeira, 12 J per cent in champagne, and from
7 to 11 per cent in other varieties.
THE HISTORY AND PROPERTIES OF BEER.
UNDER this heading we include ale and porter,
which, like beer, is made from barley and hops, by a
process of fermentation similar to that used in the
manufacture of wines. The brewing of malt liquor
was known many hundred years before the Christian
era. It was employed by the ancient Egyptians,
Greeks, Komans and Gauls, and has an unbroken
lineage down to the present day. It was discovered
about the same time as the production of wine from
Commercial beer is chiefly made from barley,
which is first malted and ground and its fermentable
substance extracted by warm water. Afterwards it
is evaporated by boiling, and hops added to effect its
preservation. Although ale and porter come under
the general name of beer, being equally a product of
brewing, yet there is a difference in taste, color and
amount of alcohol contained in them. Small beer is
a pleasant drink and has little alcohol, not more than
1.28 per cent, while Burton and Edinburgh ales con-
tain from 6 to 8 per cent. The German brewers
make a distinction between their ale and beer on ac-
count of the different modes of fermentation employed.
In manufacturing the former, rapid fermentation is
produced, thus causing the yeast to rise to the surface ;
20 TEMPERANCE AND PROHIBITION.
while in making beer a slower process is used, which
compels the yeast to settle to the bottom of the cask.
The term " lager bier" is indiscriminately applied
in this country to any light kind of beer prepared by
this slow fermentation. Much, however, of this bev-
erage is not the genuine " lager," it not having lain a
sufficient length of time in the cellar to acquire that
title ; nor could it be preserved in casks during the
time in which lager beer is ripening. This quality is
known to the brewers as draught beer. It contains
less alcohol than is found in genuine lager, and occu-
pies less time in fermenting, though it has not the
keeping properties of German lager. In the latter,
after the liquid has attained a certain degree of fer-
mentation, it is drawn off into large casks and allowed
to remain for several months in cool cellars, winch are
kept at a temperature between 40 and 50 Fahr. A
fining process here continues and the beer becomes
perfectly transparent and free from all fermentable
matter. Enormous quantities of ice are used in these
cellars to equalize the temperature.
A few years ago a report was circulated that strych-
nine was employed in the manufacture of beer; this is
an impossibility. It cannot be introduced into ordi-
nary beer, as hops refuse to take up a single particle of
it, or, for that matter, many other noxious drugs be-
sides strychnine. They are entirely precipitated by
the infusion of that wholesome herb.
Porter was made first in England in 1730. Pre-
vious to that time the only malt liquors in Eir: 1 ; !
were ale and !>eer. A portion of the malt use 1 : !
THK HISTORY OF BEER. 21
porter is roasted to a certain degree, .thus giving a
deeper color to this liquor.
Beer is the national drink of all those coun-
tries that are too cold for the grape, England and
Germany more especially. In the former country it
is stated that the capital invested in this industry
amounts to $585,000,000 ; the number of persons em-
ployed in, and dependent upon, this traffic, 1,500,000 ;
the quantity of liquor brewed in 1869, 25,542,664
barrels, and the revenue derived by the British Gov-
In 1871 the amount of beer manufactured in Aus-
tria and Hungary was 8,549,371 barrels. The Ger-
man States, including Bavaria, Wurtenberg and' Ba-
den, produced from January to May in 1872, 3,73^.,-
769 barrels, and the year before in the same length <n
time, Bavaria alone went as high as 4,285,000 ba:-
rels. In the United States it is assuming colossal pro-
portions; in 1879 the amount brewed was estimated
at 7,179,760 barrels; in 1886, upwards of 20,000,000
barrels of thirty-one gallons each, on which the Gov-
ernment tax was in the neighborhood of $19,000,000.
It is a curious fact that the English nation do not
consume half as much beer as th ey did in the reign of
Queen Anne. The average consumption from 1740
to 1790, a period of fifty years, as compared with the
same length of time between 1821 and 1871, is as
380 for the former to 150 for the latter. It is be-