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39) ; the angels are His, and subject to Him (Matt xiii 41, cf.
49, xvi 27, XXV. 31, cf Eph. i 21, 22). He regards Himself on
earth, as the One who fulfils the law and the prophets, and who
forgives sins in the name of the Father, so as to be able to do
away with the consequences of sin (Matt ix. 4-7), and as the
One who sheds His blood for its forgiveness (Matt xxvi 28).
He also claims to be the One who imparts the Spirit, exerdsts
judgmsvU, and, having all power in heaven and earth given unto
Him, perfects His kingdom in glory.

Strauss is so far right in acbK>wledging (i 483) that the
Synoptists also ascribe to Jesus, both for the present and
fature, the highest human dignity, and also the most exalted
relation to the Ckdhead But he does not go far enough ;
tcfr what Jesus claims to Himself surpasses aU human measure.
And even in the Synoptists He is represented as the One
who ransoms from sin, and fulfils the two undoubtedly divine
operations of judgment and redemption. There is, indeed, this
important difference, that the Synoptists record no assertions of
the pre-existence; but this decides nothing, since they imdoubtedly
report sayings in which our Lord's unity of being with GoA. is
Tinmistakeably involved. We have also in the Synoptists a rich
store of sayings concerning His glorification, announced as being
close at hand ; and these are by no means lower in character than
those on the same subject recorded by St John. The same, too,
may be said as to the functions which He ascribes to Himself as the
glorified One. He is declared to be the Judge of all the world, of
all nations, not merely m the later discourses (Matt xvi 27, etc.),
but even in the Sermon on the Mount (vii 21-23). Let us



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140 THE TEACHING OF JESUS. [PART I.

now consider what, from the point of view taken both in the Old
Testament, and in the Old and New together, is involved in the
idea of a judge of the moral worth of mankind, in which an
absolutely infallible decision is included, referring not only to the
most secret acts of commission or omission, but also to the inner-
most grounds of the heart. From the biblical standpoint, Christ
cannot be a judge without truly divine qualities, such as omni-
science, holiness, righteousness, and omnipotence to carry His
sentences into effect And how earnestly other attributes are
intended, which are ascribed to Jesus in the S)aioptists, may be
inferred from the fact that not only everything is giveji over to
Him, but also all e^ovaia in heaven and earth is delegated to Him
by the Father (Matt xxviiL 18, c£ xi. 27 ; Luke x. 22), as He
also says to the high priest, *' Hereafter ye shall see the Son of
man sitting on the right hand of power," that is, as it is else-
where expressed by the apostles, at the right hand of God (cf. also
Mark xvi 19). In this expression the first verse of Ps. ex. is
applied to Christ, and that in His relation to God the Father ;
and consequently no less than full participation in the divine Lord-
ship, just as in the divine action and blessedness, is ascribed to
Him, with the effect that all enemies of His cause and person, who
are necessarily also the enemies of Grod, shall be finally overcome,
as is further set forth dogmatically by St. Paul (1 Cor. xv. 24-28),
resting on our Lord's own assertion (Msit xxvi 64). It is, how-
ever, not only to His position of future glory and exaltation that
these predicates apply, for it was before His exaltation that our Lord
used the expressions of Matt xxviii 18 ; and even during His
humiliation He spoke the words of Matt xi 27 (cf Luke x. 22),
wherein reference is made to His knowledge. Now this is one of
the most forcible utterances of Jesus respecting His person ; for
although His knowledge only is mentioned, yet whatever applies
to it is applicable also to the capability and action of His whole
life and personality, to which His knowledge must of necessity be
conformable. In this passage He sets forth the amity in know-
ledge subsisting between Himself and the Father, saying ex-
pressly that no one but Himself knows the Father, and no one
knows the Son save the Father ; therefore His relation to the
Father is here said to be of that kind which results in perfect
unity of knowledge. We must not, therefore, be surprised at our
Lord in one place grouping Himself, as the Son, with the Father



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DIV. a § 22.3 THE SON. 141

and the Spirit, in order to declare that the apostles were to
baptize in the name of all three persons (Matt, xxviii 19), almost
as if it were one Svofia. There is the less cause for wonder, when
we recoUect that He says in the sjmoptical gospels that He will
bestow upon His own the Spirit, the strength from on high pro-
mised by the Father, giving power and wisdom to speak aright ;
and that thus they wiU be baptized with the Holy Ghost. All
these assertions and statements of our Lord's self-testimony show,
however, how untenable the position is, that in the sjmoptical
accounts Jesus appears merely as a man endowed with the Divine
Spirit We find a peculiar harmony between the Sjoioptists and
John's Gospel, if we compare the accounts of the trial before the
Sanhedrim with that of the hostility directed against Jesus, accord-
ing to John X 31-33. Here the Jews wished to stone Him, not
because He declared Himself to be the Messiah, but because He
claimed to be one with the Father ; and the ground of His con-
denmation in His trial was not merely that He claimed to be the
Messiah, but that He did so in the high sense which was imusual
with the Jews, which, in the high priest's opinion, involved the
crime of blasphemy against God. So little, therefore, do the synoptic
sayings about the person of Jesus detract from His dignity, that
they lead to nothing less than the essential unity in life, knowledge,
and power which He has with the Father, being at the same time
made very man. The sayings about His pre-existence recorded
by John add a retrospective glance at Jesus yet unmanifested, as
He existed before the foundation of the world, distinct from the
Father, yet one with Him.

But this rich and profound line of teaching is entered upon in
the Old Testament ; for a study of the latter shows that it con-
tains certain expressions which refer to the Messiah as the Son
of God, and lead further, even in those early days, than to the
mere historico-theocratic idea of the Messianic King. And this
explains bow the whole apostolic view could so readily accept the
testimony borne by Jesus to His higher nature, and how it became
at once the common property of the evangelical accounts.

In all the passages of the Old Testament which bear upon the
subject, the most important point to be observed is how the
Messiah is represented as the divine instrument to all ; that in
and through Him the very covenant-Grod Jehovah reveals Him-
self and works for the good of men* Hence we at least see that



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142 THE TEACnmO OF JESUS. [PART. I.

the Messiah must be an instnunent which in no way intercepts
or obscures the effectual operation of Grod^ but acts as His most
perfect medium of communication And this is the conception
of the Messiah on which the -view taken of Him in the New Testa-
ment is based, wherein He is represented to be of a like nature
with God the Father, and as possessing unity of life and being
with Him as His most perfect counterpart This general notion
becomes more defined in the New Testament, and is expressed in
complete fulnesa

The view on which the synoptical selection of the sayings of
Jesus is based, might attain its result eren apart from the definite
doctrine of the pre-ezistence, simply by means of its connection
with the Old Testament Grod Himself appears in the Messiah^
who is so flEtr the tcupia:. He is thus represented historically
chiefly by Matthew and Luke. They begin with the supernatural
conception The personal life of Jesus of Nazareth does not pro-
ceed from man, not, at least, like that of aU other men, but a
new source of life is brought about in the almighty quickening
power of Qo± The holy thing so bom will therefore (Luke
1 35) be called the Son of Gk)d. And Jesus of Nazareth, who in
this way made His entrance into the world of men, grows up in-
creasing in wisdom with age, and in favour with Gk)d and man.
At His baptism, to which He submitted in common with every
other Israelite who believed in the approach of the Messianic
kingdom. He was pointed out by the divine voice as the Son of
God in whom the Father is well pleased, and at the same time
completely endowed with the fulness of the Divine Spirit, — the
last point being as cleariy enunciated by St John (i 33),
although the latter takes an entirely different starting-point in his
gospel He starts from the higher, the Synoptics from the lower,
standpoint ; but the person thus borne witness to as the Messiah
reveals in the midst of His human lowliness His divine endowment
and glory, both in His words and actions, and also in His whole
personality, as a prophet mighty in deed and word before God
and all people, as His apostles testified in the time of His abase-
ment between His death and resurrection. The testimony which
He bore to Himself attains a high point in Matt xL and John xviL;
and, after His resurrection. He declares Himself to be the One to
whom all power is given in heaven and in earth, who wiU remain
with His own unto the end, and who now sends them forth to



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DIY. JL S 28.] GLORIFICATION OF THE FATHEB IN THE SON. 143

baptize all nations. His life on earth is a manifestation in lowli-
ness of the Lord &om heayen, nntil^ through His suffering, death,
and resurrection. He shall have revealed Himself to His people,
and won recognition as the Son co-equal in being with the Father.
The conclusion of St Luke's Gospel is in effect the same. He
ends with the ascension ; whilst St John represents as the cul-
Tninating point in the life of Jesus His acknowledgment as his
Lord and God by the most unbelieving of His disciples (John
XX. 28), who is mentioned here only because he is brought to this
acknowledgment later than he should have been.

§ 23. The Glorification oftTie Father in the Son,

This proposition results from the foregoing conclusions; and
only on account of its importance in the conception of Grod, and
in the teachiiig of Jesus in general, deserves to be separately
considered. Christ Himself asserts it, chiefly in St John's
Crospel ; but the synoptical utterances also bear witness to the
doctrine involved in it Those recorded by St John express,
first, a unity of being and likeness between the Father and the
Son, and then a gbrifying of the one through the other (xvii 1, 6,
Y111 31 seq.). At the moment when, at the Last Supper, the
traitor Judas, plainly recognised by Jesus and pointed out to
his fellow-disciples, had left the company with which he was
unfit to associate, the Lord says, vvv iBo^daOt), /e,r,\,, " Now is the
Son of man glorified, and Crod is glorified in Him ;" and adds, " If
Grod be glorified in Him, God shall also glorify Him in Himself,
and shall straightway glorify Him." Here there is spoken of,

A glorification of the Son consequent upon His sufferings, which,
in His glance at the traitor now hastening to the fulfilment of
his infamous purpose. He r^ards as an already accomplished fact
The last train of circumstances is set in motion which wiU unin-
terruptedly work out its own completion ; and the Son of man
will thus be glorified, and glorified by God. He is glorified,
because it is the highest exertion of His moral action which con-
fers glory upon Him, partly of itself and partly through its effects
on aU mankind. And herein is included the further glorification
of the Son in heaven, since the Father glorifies Him in union
with Himself by receiving Him into glory (xvii 1, 5).

We have also a ghr^ficatum of the Father in the Son. God is
glorified ip avr^, not nuorely ih/rovgh the Son but in Him, that i£^



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144 THE TEACHINO OF JESU& [PART L

in His person. In this is the Father glorified, since He has im-
parted the fulness of divine life to the Son in such a way that
it is recognised in Him, and the Father is seen in Him. It is not
merely revealed to men through Him or through His teaching
and His deeds (xii 45, viiL 19, xiv. 9), but in Him, so that He
is the Father's most perfect image and organ. Similarly in ch.
xvil 1-6 both propositions are contained, — ^first, that the Son has
glorified the Father by accomplishing the work given Him to do
on earth, which has for its object the imparting of eternal life to
previously carnal man (ver. 4, cf. 2), through the revelation of the
name of God to men, whom the Father has delivered over and
bestowed upon the Son (ver. 6) ; in the next place, ih virtue of
this glorification of the Father by the Son, the prayer of the
latter asks that the Father would also glorify the Son (ver. 1),
that the Father's glory may be perfected (cf. ver. 26). Hence
all that is in the person of the Father and is performed in and
through it by virtue of the unity of the Son's life with His, has
for its end the glorification of the Father, His manifestation to
the world, and the promotion of His honour therein. Although
this result is not directly deducible from our Lord's own teaching,
except in St. John's Gospel, yet it is confirmed in the Sjmoptists,
especially by St. Matthew (xi. 27) and St. Luke (x. 22) (cf. John
vL 46). If the Son alone has perfect knowledge of the Father,
and can communicate it to whom He will (as conversely the
Father imparts true knowledge of the Son, Matt. xvi. 16), so is
the Father also glorified in the Son, in whom alone He is revealed.
For the revelation of Himself, as in truth the Father of Jesus
Christ, as an effectual revelation which at once imparts a living
knowledge to those who are thenceforth no longer carnal but
spiritual, inasmuch as they belong to Christ (John xvii 6), — such
a revelation is at the same time a glorification of the Father, re-
vealing Him, as it does, in His entire perfection so as to receive
honour and worship from those to whom He is revealed. Thus
the foregoing passage serves to testify to the credibility of the
Johannean utterances of Christ. Nor, indeed, is the manifesta-
tion of the Father in the Son completed by the close of Christ's
visible sojourn on earth ; on the contrary. He decidedly points to
His work as a continuous one (John xvii. 26) ; for the words, " I
have declared unto them Thy name and will declare it,'* spoken
primarily of the disciples, have a further reference to aU who.



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DIV. IL § 24.] THE SPIRIT. 145

through their word, should believe on Him (ver. 20). In both
series of the gospel narrative He gives intimation of His second
coming, and connects with it the future completion of His work.
This second coining, however, finds a nearer fulfilment in the
sending of His Spirit, and the consequent indwelling of HimseK
and the Father in the hearts of believers (John xiv. 23, 26).
After the withdrawal of His visible presence, the Spirit, as His
substitute, was to glorify Him (John xvi 14) ; and as in other
cases, so here also tJie glorification of the Son would redound to
the Father's honour. He points out, therefore, most decidedly that
as He is the manifester and glorifier of the Father, this work is
a progressive one, and will find its completion only in the future,
being completed by the promised effusion of the Spirit upon His
people (see below).

Thus the characteristic idea of God as Father and Spirit is
again prominently brought forward. He is Father because He
puts forth extraneously to Himself a life allied to His own, and
thus reveals and glorifies Himself; Spirit, because His is the
most perfect life, which, however, does not end in His own being,
but imparts itself essentially to others. This, however, is more
closely defined in the idea of the Son. But the doctrine is not yet
exhausted ; for the Son Himself speaks of His glorification through
the Spirit, and, in asserting the glorification of the Father in Him,
must needs add to His teaching the doctrine of the Holy Ghost

§ 24. The Spirit

We must have already seen, in the teaching as to the Father,
that the Old Testament contained a doctrine of the Spirit of God.
He is called D^«?% f?'i> njn^ J?"^, and in two places (Ps. li. 11,
and Isa. Ixiii 10) Spirit of Holiness; and in the Apocrypha
'jtvevfia Sr^iov (Wisdom i 5, ix. 17). This Spirit of Gk)d, pos-
sessing life in Himself, is the divine principle of activity every-
where at work in the world (Ps. cxxxix. 7). At first in external
nature (Gen. i. 2 ; Ps. civ. 30, and xxxiii. 6), as if the quickening
breath of God (Gen. il 7 ; Job xxxiii. 4), as the breath of His
mouth or lips (Isa. xi. 4) ; and then also as existing in a human
person (Job xxxii 8), as the inspiring principle of courage, reso-
lution, and warlike deeds (Judg. xi 29, xiii 25 ; 1 Sam. xi. 6),
of bodily strength (Judg. xiv. 6), and also of holy skill in
art (Ex. xxxi 3-5, xxxv. 31-35); of administrative talent in a

K



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146 THE TEACHIKG OF JESUS. [PART I.

rnler (1 Sam. xvi 13), of wisdom and acuteness (Job xxxii 8 ;
Isa. xL 2), and of moral purity (Ps. li 13; Isa. Ldii 10).
Especially is this Spirit the active principle in prophecy (Num.
xxiv. 2, 3; 1 Sam, xix. 20-23), but even in the theocratic
people working only in isolated and individual cases, — ^Moses
himself feeling this limitation (Num. xL 29, c£ 14, 16, 17, and
25—28); but so much the more needful was it that He should
rest in superabundant folness upon the Messiah (Isa. xl 2,
Ixi. 1 [cf. Luke iv. 18] ; Isa. xlii 1 [cf. Matt, xii 18]), and
should in His times be poured out in rich measure upon all
flesh (Joel iii 1, 2), upon eveiy age, sex, and condition (Isa. xliv.
3 ; Ezek. xxxvL 26, 27, cf. xL 19, and xxxix. 29 ; Zech. xii 10).
And what appears in earlier times merely as the subject of prayer
and longing in an individual (Ps. li 10), that God would create
in him a new heart, and implant new strength of spirit, — a bold
thought, indeed ; a prayer rich in prophetic fulness, and so far in
advance of the times in which he lived as to be conceivable only
in a man of such deeply characteristic spirituality as David, to
whom the psalm is attributed, — ^this becomes the very object of
the Messianic pronnse, viz. that God will, by implanting His
Spirit in them, give a new heart to those who are in membership
with His people (Ezek. xxxvi 26, 27). Here, then, the New
Testament steps in, and firstly, in our Lord's own teaching and
jHTomises, completes the Old Testament doctrine of the Spirit,
Jesus imprinting upon it a characteristic stamp, which is per-
petuated by the teaching of the apostles. The existence of the
Spirit of God in the Messiah Himself is taught also in the New
Testament, but without asserting that the Holy Ghost, the
Spirit of God, constituted the higher nature in Christ in the same
way as He had previously worked in the world of nature and of
man. Already had John the Baptist pointed Him out as the One
on whom the Spirit of God rests continually (John i 33, cf iii
34), in contrast to a merely temporary influence, as in the case of
the prophets, — ^by which fact the Messiah was in a position de-
cidedly superior to theirs. The Baptist also completes the Old
Testament idea, by declaring that in the Messiah God has given
His Spirit without measure (John iii 34), and that it is He who
shall baptize with the Holy Ghost (John i 33 ; cf. Matt iii 11 ;
Mark i 8 ; Luke iii 16). No doubt, in prophecy, too, the Spirit
of God is said to rest upon the Messiah, and Isa. xi 2 may be



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DIV. DL S 21] THE 8PIB1T. 147

interpreted to the effect that this is the ^case in foil measure,
although the latter point is rather left to be inferred. But it is
nowhere said in the Old Testament that the outpouring of the
Holy Spirit, which was to ensue in the Messianic times, should
residt immediately bom the Messiah ; and thus the conception of
Him in the prophetic writings and in the Old Testament generally
is carried to a higher point It might appear, from this declaration
of the Baptist, that he regarded the possession of the Spirit as con-
stituting the higiher element in the person of the Messiah ; but
we must remember that he also asserts His pre-existence (John 1
30, cl 1 5), and thereby showed his complete grasp of the Messianic
prophecies up to their culminating point Thus the law of suc-
cession in prophecy extends &om the Old Testament down to this
last prophet, John the Baptist, the immediate forerunner of the
Messiah. like the prophets of the old dispensation, he takes
up the prophetic teaching of the Old Testament at the point where
it had left off, embodies it in his own testimony, and carries it
forward to more complete development We find the doctrine of
the existence of the Spirit of God in the Messiah still farther
developed in the discourses of Jesus Himself, where, however,
the pecuhatity of His person is by no means made to consist in
the possession of the Spirit For when (Luke iv. 21) the Lord
says that the prophecy of Isaiah (Ixi 1) is fulfilled in Him (the
words being put into the mouth of the Messiah, " The Spirit of
the Lord is upon me," etc.), or when (Matt xii 28) He says that
He casts out the devil in the Spirit of Qod, in this possession of,
and working by, the Spirit, the higher nature of Christ's person
is not expressed, His utterances on this point (vide supra) being
quite of a different character.

All the more decidedly, however, is it the teaching of Jesus
that He, the Son, imparts the Spirit, and that from Him, and by
means, indeed, of His glorification, the Spirit is poured out upon
believers. And this brings us to the teaching of Jesus Himself
eoncemii^ the Spirit

When speaking of Him, He uses the expressions mfevfia, or
ri mmffia (John iii 6, 6, 8), wpevfia Oeov (Matt xii 28 ; c£
Luke xi 20, ^ B€uct6\^), or Ttvevfia rov nrarrph^ vfi&v (Matt x.
20), T^ irv^iia rh Sr/iov (Matt xii 32 ; Mark iii 29 ; cC Matt
xxviii 19 ; Acts i 8), or Tivevfia Sryiop (Luke xi 13), or, lastly,
ri wfC/ia rfj^ iXnOeltv: (John xiv. 17, xvi 13 [c£ 7 ff.], xv. 26).



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148 THE TEACHING OF JESUS. [PART I.

And in the last passage the Spirit is called o irapdxXrjro^, the
suQCOurer of the apostles, inasmuch as, in the place of the visible
presence of their Master, Christ, the Holy Ghost was to be sent
them specially as the Spirit of truth, to be a constantly abiding
principle within them (John xv. 26, or xiv. 26, c£ 16).

In proceeding, in the first place, to consider closely the Johannean
discourses of Jesus on this subject, we find two chief sections in
which the Spirit of God is directly spoken of. First, in the con-
versation with Nicodemus, in which the working of the Spirit is
named in connection with all who have an interest in the divine
kingdom, we read that without being bom of the Spirit no man
can see the kingdom of Grod, or enter into it (John iii 3-10).
And, besides this, the Spirit is spoken of, but only in a figure, as
the living water (ch. iv.) ; and again, at the Feast of Tabernacles
(vii 37, 38), " If any man thirst, let him come unto me and
drink," together with the evangelist's interpretation (ver. 39).
We next have our Lord's farewell discourses. These comprise
both His teaching and His promises concerning the Holy Ghost,
with especial reference to the apostles themselves, in furthering
the object He here mainly has in view, viz. to prepare and
fortify their minds for the approaching departure. And herein
lies the gist of the whole matter ; because the outpouring of the
Spirit and His agency in Christ's people was to be in the future
the immediate consequence of Christ's glorification.

Now the teaching of Jesus on this subject is essentially two-
fold. It is concerned partly with the relation of the Spirit to
Christ, in so far as the former is sent by the glorified Christ, and
partly with the effect of the Holy Ghost, but this also in connec-
tion with Christ's work.

TJie Spirit is sent hy the glorified Christ. Our Lord asserts
that He sends Him from the Father (John xv. 26) : "But when
the TrapaKKfjTo^ is come, whom I will send unto you from the
Father, even the Spirit of truth, who proceedeth from the Father,
He shall testify of me ;" c£ xvi 7 : " If I depart, I will send Him
imto you." Christ also imparts Him, as we see at xx. 22. The



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