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may perhaps occur in Phoen., cf. C.I.S., i. p. 103 (Inscrip. of
Idalion 88). Barth, however, N. B., p. 23 f., cps. the Arabic
ILI, and maintains the D is a radical and not an afformative ;

r



CHAP. 28, VERS. 9-19. 253

he also thinks that D in D33 is radical, and that DPIK is a
technical word of foreign origin; cf. p. 352.

n^:)*'Z2trn . . ♦ lirSni . ' Wnk Us top reaching heaven-
wards ;' cf. II, 4, and see note on 18, 16.

13. vhv 2!^:. * Standing on it ' (the ladder). LXX, eV
avTr]^] SO Vulg., Pesh. Tuch, Del. and- Di. render, 'stafidhig
by him' (Jacob), which perhaps is better (cf. 18, 2), as one
does not see why it should be said that Yahweh stood on the
ladder, while the thought, ' Yahweh stood by Jacob,' is more
natural ; and if vi'V referred to tbo, we should expect 1^, or

npyi', after nt:x^i.

14. n^^lDI . . , n^"rp1 ; cf. on i, 2.

15. ''^T\ a^^ l\r^^ ir. ' UjitU that I shall have done; lit.
' until that when ;' cf. on 24, 19 and Num. 32, 17 DN "IK'S ly
D3NUn ; Is. 6, 1 1 Dny INK' Ds IK'S ny.

16. '^ni^l'' \s^ ■'22^5^ =^'ivithout 7ny knowing it,' circ. cl.;
cf Driver, § 160; see on 24, 31.

17. b^ni: no. 'How dreadful !' cf. Ps. 8, 2 TIX HD
^ how glorious I' Num. 24, 5 "jvHS UD ilD 'how goodly are
thy tents,' etc.; see M. R., § 93. Rem. c; Dav., S., § 7 b;
Ges., § 148.

19. T'b^n'^2 is situated to the north of Jerusalem, in the
Judean plateau, which continues about ten miles to the north
of Jerusalem, before it breaks into the valleys and mountains
of Samaria. It stands about three miles from the end of the
plateau, where three roads concentrate : a highway from the
west by Gophna, the great north road from Shechem, and a
road from the Jordan Valley through the passes of Mount
Ephraim. Sh., G., p. 290. The statement that the former



254 GENESIS,



name of Bethel was Luz (35, 6. 48, 3. Judg. i, 23 ; cf. Jos.
18, 13), probably only implies that the more modern Bethel
was situated near the ancient Luz; cf. Di., p. 337. See also
Bad., Pal^ p. 213, where it is suggested that Bethel may be
identified with the modern Betin.

20-22. The apodosis commences with '•7 niH"' n\n"i at the
end of ver. 21. Render, ' If God he with 7?ie, and keep me on
this journey which I am going, a7id give me bread to eat, and
raiment to wear, and I return safe and sound to my father s
house, then shall Vahweh be my God, and this stone' etc.;
so LXX, Pesh., Vulg., Di., Del., Dav., ^S"., § 130c; and
this division is more natural than that proposed by Tuch,
who commences the apodosis with ver. 22. Cf. Driver,
p. 130, on the perfect with waw conv. after an imperf.
with DX.

29.

1. The LXX add after Dip ^jn nV"iN, -nph^ Ad^av rbv vlbv

Ba6ovrfk Tov "Evpnv, dbfXcpov 8e 'PejBeKKas, firjTpoi 'laKw^ Koi 'Haav,

probably a gloss to harmonise this passage with 28, 5 ; the
expression Dip ^22 nvnx for Mesopotamia — which is only
found here — being in itself more or less indefinite.

2. 'And he looked up, and behold a well in the field, and
behold there, three flocks of sheep were lying by it ; for out of
that well they used to water the flocks' etc. 3. ^ And all the
flocks used to be gathered thither, and they used to roll away

the stone from ofl^ the mouth of the well, and ivater the sheep,
and brifig back the stone upon the mouth of the well to its
place.*

Observe the tenses, which are instructive. The participle
D"'V2l, ' were lying,' describing the condition at the particular



CHAP. 28, VER. 20 CHAP. 29, VER. 7. 255

occasion, the frequentative imperfect 1pti'\ and this followed
by four perfects with waw conversive, ISDNil, v^JI, IpK^ni,
U'^C'nij describing what used habitually to be done ; cf.
Driver, §§31; 113- 4/3; M. R., §25; Ges., § 112. 3 a. a ;
Dav., S., § 54 b, and note on 2, 6.

^p\r^. The indefinite, unnamed subject expressed by the
3rd person pi. of the verb. See Ges., § 144.3b; Dav., S.,
§ io8b; M.R., § 123, and cf. 26, 18. 35, 5. 41, 14. 49, 31.

nb'1"!^ ]U^m. ^A?2d the stone on the mouth 0/ the wet I
was greatl lit. ' and the stone ivas gj'eat on the mouth of the
welt ;' ripna without the article, and therefore predicate; so
in ver. 7 h"iJ DVn "Iiy JH ; cf. Ges., § 126. 2 i; Dav., S., §§ 19,
103; M. R., § 125.

■^^^nn •'D hv ThT]> pSni, i.e. 'the stone on the
mouth of the well,' etc., which in the more common con-
struction would be nxnn '•D hv "»^N pNH ThTil'\', cf. Mic. 6, 12

With these two verses cf. 24, 11 ff. Ex. 2, 15 ff. (where,
however, the tenses are different, a singte occasion only being
described).

4. ^Xl^^ =^^?ny friends !' cf. 19, 7.
<

6. »lh52 = 'z> cojuing' participle not perfect; in ver. 9

nX3 is accented on the penult., and is therefore the perfect.

7. n^pr^n rp\^r\ n^ \!h. 'it is mt time for the cattte
to be gathered together' lit. ' it is not the time of the being
gathered together of the cattle' i.e. for the catUe to be collected
and put up for the night. On the construction of the inf.
cstr. with a subj. following and a construct state preceding,
cf. Ges., §§ 115. 2 ; 114. i b ; M.R., §§ iii, 117, 118 ; Dav.,
6*., §§ 90 b, 91.



256 GENESIS,

8. D^"^"iyn vD. The LXX have ndvTas tovs Trot/icVay,
reading D^pnv3, an easier reading than that of the text; so
the Sam. here and ver. 3.

i^V^'J^^ • ♦ • ^^^^^ ♦ • • '^-^^*' "^'^'^ "^^- ^^^'^ ^"^P^-
continued by the pft. with waw conv., as in Ex. 23, 30 iy

pNH nsni'mi man irs; Hos. 5, 15 '•:2 i^pai )J2m'^ 1K'^< ny,

and often; cf. Driver, p. 135; Dav., S., § 53 b ; Ges.,

§ 112. 3 c. II.

9. n^^a ^mi . . ♦ "^nio '):n^v. cf. on 19, 23, and

see also Ges., § ii6. 5. Rem. 4.

n"^2b^b '^t^^^ . b IIJ'N to express the genitive, as in 40, 5

nnvD i^r^b "^rN naxni np^^Dn; 47, 4 yiivb it^s* ]it,)h; see

Ges., § 129. 2 ; M. R, § 83 ; Dav., S., § 28. R. 5.

II. npV' ptr^T. P^; (ver. 13) Pi'el ='/(? kiss f(mdly; or
' rtJwr zi'/M kisses,' as distinguished from the Qal P*^'^ (here)
' /(? /^/lyj/' cf. ^iXfo) and KaratpiXeoo in Greek.

13. npy V^Xli r\^. LXX, to 6Vo/ia 'UkcI^^; so LXX in
Num. 14, 15. I Kings 10, i, possibly confusing Dto^ with DC',
which was very similar in sound.

14. D*'^^ linn. 'A 7Jiojith, days,' i.e. a w^hole month; cf
41, I h'^iy n'^T\^^ ' iwo years ;' Num. 11, 20 D''D"' C'ln : D^D^
being in apposition to tJ'in ; see Driver, § 192. i ; Ewald,
§ 287 h; Ges., § 131. 2 c; M. R., § 71. 4 ; Dav., S., § 29 d.

15. ''^T\ ""W^ ^3n. Cf. 27, 36. 'Arl thou, as a brother, to
serve inefor nothing ?' lit. ' is it the case that thou art my brother,
and shouldest serve vie for nothing ?' cf the Vulg. ' nu77i quia

f rater fueus es, gratis servies inihi ?' On ^Jninyi, perf. with
waw conv. after ^3, without an imperf. preceding, cf. Driver.
§ 123 y ; Ges., § 1 12. 4 c ; Dav., S., § 56 ; M. R., § 26.



CHAP. 29, VERS. 8-23. 257

17. n"iDl nh57 ^TV^. The predicate in the plural with
the subject in the dual, as the dual in Hebrew only occurs in
a few nouns, never in the verb or adj. (contrast the Arabic) ;
see M. R., § 134 ; Ges., § 145. 6 ; Dav., S., § 31.

m^l. 'Weak,' lit. 'tender' neither bright nor clear. So
LXX and Pesh. But Onq, and Saadiah take niDn as meaning
* beauiiftd^ as though Leah had fine eyes, but otherwise was
not so handsome as Rachel. Good eyes were considered by
the Orientals one of the essentials of beauty; cf. i Sam. 16,
12. Song of Songs 4, i.

18. D'^DIT i^llL\ Jacob wished to purchase his wife by
seven years' service Mithout hire, the seven years' service
taking the place of the ordinary price ("in)0) paid the wife's
relatives before marriage; cf. 24, 53. 34, 12. i Sam. 18,
23 ff. Hos. 3, 2.

19. im T^n Ult^. * // is hette)' for vie to give her to t/iee,
thajifor me to give her to another man /' cf. Ex. 1 4, 1 2 i::? 31^ ""i

nm^a \:T\ryci d^^'d nx nny; Pro v. 21, 9 jj n3D i?y nne^i> y^o

''lJ1 D"'jnQ nrND: see note on 25, 23, and for inf. cstr. as
subj. in nominal sentence the note on 2, 18. So Judg. 18,
19. I Sam. 29, 6. Ps. 118, 9. etc.

"^nh^ \l^''h^7, i.e. a stranger; cf. Jer. 6, 12. 8, 10. At the

present day in Arabia the cousin is preferred as a husband

to a stranger ; cf. Lane, Maimers ajid Customs, vol. i. p. 167.
<

21. ^TilTS nb5 TQ!r\. nnn is accented on the last syllable,

on account of the light consonant N in nx, that both n and N
may have their full sound; cf. HD?, 27, 45.

22. nntTD, i.e. the wedding banquet; cf. Judg. 14, 12.
Tobit II, 19.

23. The bride was brought to her husband veiled (cf. 24,

s



258 GENESIS,



65), and so the deception practised by Laban could easily be
accomplished.

26. 1^^ ntri^*' ^^7 = '// IS no/ customary in our lajid,' lit.
' // is not wont thus to be done ; ' imperf. as in 10, 9 ; see note
on that passage, and cf. 50, 3. Ex. 13, 15. 33, 11. Judg. 14,
10. 2 Sam. 13, 12.

27. nt^t Vy^- The wedding festivities usually lasted a
week; cf. Judg. and Tobit, I.e.

n^n^l, i.e. Laban and his relatives; cf. 24, 50. The
LXX and Sam. read |nN1.

30. hvr\ T'^^ D^. Vll='a]so;' the second DJ in nx D3
^m may either emphasize Rachel only (see Ges., Thes.,
p. 294), or may be taken with \'0 = ' etiam' ^ still more than,^
which is perhaps a little forced. Di. condemns both ways as
against the usage of the language, and following the LXX
and Vulg., rejects the second Di. Knobel takes the second
D:i with DnN''1, i.e. did not only go in to her, but also loved
her: but this would require anx D!! IlilN^I ; cf. 31, 15. 46, 4.

nt^7?3 . . . ^nt^'^l . On the comparative, see note on
25, 23.

31. ^^^1it^, not absolutely ^ hated,' but relatively ^ less
loved;' cf. Deut. 21, 15. Matt. 6, 24.

32. ^^2 7r\t2'^. ^"2 as in 26, 22; cf. the note there; so
ver. 33.

'^'^IVI ♦ , . nt^"^. n . . ♦ nN"l = 7(? look upon with compas-
sion;' so I Sam. I, II iriDN •'jyn HNnn r\^'\ nx; Ps. io6,
44 nn^ ivn Ni^i.

■^^^i^^^j c^- ^9' ^9 ^"^ ^^^ "^^^ there.

33. \\V12'^ = ' hearing!



CHAP. 29, VER. 26 CHAP. 30, VER. 6. 259

34. "^b^ , . . mS"^. 'IF/// decome attached to me;' cf.
Num. 18, 2. 4. ^ip as though = '^//(2^/;;«f;//' or '•dependent!

b^lp. As the mother in the case of the other three sons,
Simeon, Reuben, and Judah, gives them their names, so
probably the reading of the LXX (Lagarde), cKaXeae (but
Swete reads eKXi7) perhaps = ' habitation.'
In this verse two explanations of the name are given,
probably derived from two different documents {a) from E,
13T ♦ ♦ , ^Jint 'presented me with a goodly present', and {b) from
J, ""hlX" (^nr with the ace. like pK' and -ilj) ' will dwell with me!



CHAP. 30, VERS. 16-27. 263

The meaning ' dwe//,' however, generally assigned to byt, seems
to be very doubtful, cf. Cheyne, crit. note on Is. 63, 15. It
is, therefore, perhaps better to render ^will exaW or 'honour
?ne ' (cf. LXX, nt/jertfl). ^nT = Assyr. zabdlu, to bear, lift up. See
Del., Proleg., p. 62, Del.°, ad loc. This meaning of ^ar is,
however, questioned by Hal^vy, R.E.J.^ 1885, p. 299, and
Nold., Z. D.M. G., xl. p. 729.

21. T\T^1 := ' vindtcatio ;' the daughter's name is here
given, as necessary to explain chap. 34. Jacob's daughters
are elsewhere presupposed (37, 35. 46, 7), but not mentioned
by name.

24. ?]DV explained from ver. 23^ (E) n^< h'^rk'i^ :]D&<
TlQin, as though it were flDN'' = ' /o =' mtdtiplier ;' see on ver. 20, and
cf. 35, 18.

27. '^T\ "TIS!^^ ^^3 D^^. ' If now I have found favour in
thine eyes, — / have observed the omens, that (lit. and\ Yahweh
has blessed 7ne for thy sake! Dav., S., § 146. R. 4, takes these
words, * / have divined and Yahweh, etc' as a clause with
and in the place of an object, sentence ; cf. 47, 6 ; Driver,
p. 207 ; Ges., § 120. 2. R. 2 (cf §111. 2. R. 2. foot-note,
which apparently contradicts Ges., 1. c). The apodosis to
''1:^ TINVO NJ D« is suppressed; cf. 38, 17. 50, 15; Ges.,
§ 159. Rem. 2; the apodosis would perhaps run NJ 7N
vVD inyn, as in 18, 3. The words cannot be translated
' Would that I had found favour in thy eyes' (Ges. in Thes),
as this would require the imperf, not the perfect; cf. Pss. 81,
9. 139, 19. '>n:^m ; see on 44, 15. The LXX have oltavi-
adfir]u (iv, making Tlirm into the apodosis to TlN^'t: DN ; the
Vulgate ' experimento didici!



264 GENESIS,



28. ^^V = lit. ' upofi me.' bv because it will be as a burden
to him; cf. 34, 12.

29. * T/ioti hiowest how I have served thee, and what thy
cattle has become with me! *]^may "y^^ nN and n\-J -\:^K DNI
"\V\ are both accusatives after nyi^ ; cf. Ges., § 157 c; Dav.,
S., § 146 ; M. R., §§ 158. R. b, 161 b. nnx is emphatic,
'thou with whom I have been in service shouldest know.'
TliC ' ivith me' i. e. under my care.

30. y^D"*"^. Waw conv., as in 22, 24, which compare.

*^T'^1 7, lit. ' at my steps' i. e. wherever I went ; cf. Is. 41,2
v3"i? int^lp'' pnv ' whom righteousness meeteth wherever he

goeth;' Job 18, 11 ^'hrh inv^sni.

■^^2^5 C^. Emphatic, ' I too'. You have been prosperous,
when shall I begin prospering.?

31. T^Vy^ ni^ltrt^. ' I will again feed;' so 26, 18 ntJ''"!
"isn"''! pnv ''ajid Isaac dug again! Two verbs to express one
idea (here without 1 cop.) where in English an adverb is
used; so Ps. 7, 13 ^uT ♦ « ♦ 31K''' ^ will again sharpen ;' see
Ges., § 120. 2 b. Rem.; M. R., § 30 a; Dav., S.^ § 83 c.

32-43. These twelve verses are very obscure, possibly
corrupt. In ver. 31, Jacob, in answer to Laban's request to
tell him what reward he desires, replies that Laban is to
give him nothing if he will accede to a proposal he has
to make. In ver. 32, Jacob proposes to go through Laban's
flock, and separate the particoloured and black sheep, and
all the particoloured goats. The normal colour of the goats
is black, or at least dark-brow^n ; that of the sheep, on the
contrary, white ; see Song of Songs 4, i. 2. 6, 5. 6. Dan. 7, 9 ;
cf. Song of Songs i, 5. The greater number of the sheep
and goats would naturally be of normal colour, white and



CHAP. 30, VERS. 28-32. 265

black respectively. Jacob proposes that the abnormal cattle
shall be his hire. Laban, vers. 34-36, consents to Jacob's
proposal, and separates the normal and abnormal coloured
sheep and goats, and sends the latter off, under the charge
of his sons, three days' journey distant from the remainder of
his flock of normal coloured animals, left in Jacob's charge.
Jacob, in order that the animals left with him may bring
forth a greater number of abnormal coloured offspring than
they would usually produce, has recourse to the stratagem of
the peeled rods in the drinking-troughs (37-39). Ver. 40
seems to contain a second contrivance on the part of Jacob
to increase his flock, but the text is very obscure and almost
certainly corrupt (see the note there). Vers. 41. 42 either
contain a third stratagem, or refer to the previous two (the
frequentative tenses perhaps supporting the latter view), 41.
42 being a more detailed account of the contrivance prac-
tised in vers. 38. 39.

32. DVn seems to imply that the cattle separated that day,
if of abnormal colour, were to belong to Jacob ; but against this
is firstly ver. 31, where Jacob declines any hire, and secondly
vers. 35. 36^, where Laban, not Jacob, separates and drives
off the abnormal coloured cattle, which seem, according to
ver. 32, to belong to Jacob, but here are apparently regarded
as Laban's. To avoid this difficulty, some, e.g. Tuch, sup-
pose that Jacob's hire is to be the abnormal coloured cattle
that would be born, cf ver. 37 ff.; but nothing is said of this
in ver. 32, and it is questionable whether '•n^b' n\"l1 would fit
in with this view. Well., Comp., p. 40 f , attempts to remove
the difficulty by inserting, after ver. 34, a statement to the
effect that Laban, after the abnormal coloured animals had
been separated by Jacob, found the promised reward too
liberal, and so proposed to Jacob another arrangement



266 GENESIS,



(31, 7 f.). Di. rejects this on the ground that such a lacuna
would be inconceivable, and the contradiction with *•7■|n^)"^«i'
nDlN?0 would be too marked. Di. proposes two solutions of
the difficulty : (i) that before or after n:3b^ HMI several words
have dropped out of the text, or (ii) to alter the accentuation
of ver. 32, and point the first ^)bl2 with Aihnach ; then the
meaning would be ^ evety black sheep among the sheep^ and
spotted and patched amojig the goats, shall be my hire' i.e. you
are to give me nothing now, but the abnormal coloured catde
born after the division, in ver. 32, has taken place will be
mine; cf. in!3, ver. 33. This seems the simplest solution of
the difficulties.

">Dn is inf. abs.; cf. note on 21, 16. Others prefer taking
"iDn as imperative ; addressed to pi?, which suits ver. 35, but
not inyj^. Nli'm Ipi ' spotted and patched! ^



Online LibraryG. J SpurrellNotes on the text of the book of Genesis : with an appendix → online text (page 23 of 35)