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G. J Spurrell.

Notes on the text of the book of Genesis : with an appendix online

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1 1. 44, 25, while D puts the cstr. state before l^yjp, Deut. 26, 5.
28, 62. J is fond of using proper names of nations in the
sing., so f'Klb^^ (but E h^'W'^ ''l'2) — the Israelites, ^"^yiy^^ithe
Egyptians, also the different tribes of Israel; cf. Judg. chap. i.
We find too ^Nnb'^ V)^^^ Josh. 9, 6, and in Josh. 17, 14 f.
the tribes speak of themselves in the sing. Lastly may be
noted, the use of sing, gentilic nouns, WSn^ "'p13\"l, etc., cf.
Judg. I, I. 21. 27. 28. 29. 30. 32. 36.

In his syntax, J often employs periods with main and
dependent clauses. He not only uses the ordinary means of
connecting a verbal and nominal sentence, but is fond of
employing the formulae '•? ''H^l, Gen. 6, i. 26, 8. 27, i. 43,
21. 44, 24. Josh. 17, 13, and ■^;^^53 '•n^l, Gen. 12, 11. 24, 22.
52. 27, 30. 30, 35. 37, 23. 43, 2. Disjunctive interrogative
sentences are frequent in J, Gen. 18, 21. 24, 21. Ex. 16, 4.
17, 7. J is fond of using riNT and nt, for emphasis, in HNrnp,

c



XXXIV INTRODUCTION.



Gen. 3, 13. 12, 18. 26, 10. 42, 28; _ \in;?0, only Gen. 21, 16.

f? /m/ or position. Gen. 40, 13. 41, 13 ; also Dan. 11, 7
(LXX). 20. 21.38 (all).

|3, as 2i6.]. = honest, Gen. 42, 11. 19. 31-34.

"•J^/nVf, Num. 20, 19; again in Neh. 13, 16. Prov.31, 10.

D"'3iD = ti?}ies, only Gen. 31, 7. 41.



xlii INTRODUCTION.



IDi] p2, Gen. 21, 23 ; only again, Is. 14, 22. Job 18, 19.

^''pWS^ siniggles, once. Gen. 30, 8.

|Vi53, Gen. 20, 5f.; only again, Hos. 8, 5. Amos 4, 6. Pss.
26, 6. 73, 13.

mn D^nny nto, only Gen. 48, 15. Num. 22, 30.

Hj^y to bind, Gen. 22, 9 ; and "Ipy striped, Gen. 30, 35. 39.
40. 31, 8. 10. 12 (all).

7?3 = /^ believe, only Gen. 48, 11.

iriQ /(? interpret dreams, Gen. 40, 8 f . 41, 8 f.; and P"^^?
interpretation. Gen. 40, 5 f . 41, 11 (all).

p npV? /^ «//(2r^ oneself {to Baal Peor), Num. 25, 3. 5 =
Ps. 106, 28; cf. 2 Sam. 20, 8 (Pu'al), and Ps. 50, 19 (Hif.
with obj. nD-ip), (all).

D^i^ (/;j, unfruitful, only Gen. 41, 23.

nD'*bp ^ ^z^«^ weight, Gen. 33, 19. Josh. 24, 32. Job 42,
II (all).'

riK^i? nni (Mass. Text n^|"5 nni), Gen. 21, 20.

Dillmann, Gen!', mentions, as characteristic of E : —
nnii
22, 1-14. 19. 28, 11-12. 17-18. 20-22. 29, I. 15-23
25-28. 30. 30, 1-3 (to knees). 6. 8. 17-20 a. 20C-23. 31, 2
4-i8a. 19-45. 47. 51-32, 2. i3b-2i. 23. 33, i8b-20. 35
1-8. 16-20. 37, 2b-ii. 22-24. 28a(to/zV). 28C-30. 36
chap. 40 (with traces of J)^ 41, 1-45 (with traces of J)^
47-57. 42, 1-37. 45, 1-46, 5 (with traces of J)l 12. 48;
1-2. 8-22 (in the main)^ 50, 15-26.

The Home of E.

The generally accepted opinion of critics is, that the author
of E was a native of the northern kingdom, an Ephraimite.
The reason for this opinion is based on the following facts.
The narrative bears a distinct Ephraimitic tinge. Joseph is
the king among his brethren, and his father's favourite.
Reuben, next to Joseph, is leader of his brethren, and not
Judah. The sanctuaries of Bethel, Shechem, and Beersheba,



^ For a full discussion of E, cf. Holz., I.e., p. 181 ff. See also
Driver, Introd., p. 1 1 1 f.

^ Cf. Holz., I.e., Table I. p. 2, for the views of the different erities,
Driver, Introd., p. 14.

' Cf. Holz., I.e., Table I. pp. 4, 5 ; Driver, Introd., p. 15 f.



INTRODUCTION. xlv



as a place whither pilgrims journeyed, are especially promi-
nent in E. Abraham also lives at Gerar and Beersheba,
Jacob at Beersheba and Shechem. Ephraim is to receive
the promises and privileges of Joseph. Joshua, the Ephrai-
mite, is the servant and companion of Moses. The graves
of Deborah, Rachel, Joseph, Joshua, Eliezcr are mentioned
by him as being in Ephraimite territory; Gen. 35, 8. ipf.
Josh. 24, 30. 32. 33 \

Did J and E employ earlier sources in writing
their narratives ?

It is not impossible that J and E in composing their
narratives made use of other sources. In E we find two
of these quoted : the Book of the Wars of Jehovah, Hbnbo 120
'''•\ Num. 21, 14: and the Book of Jashar, "i^^n "iDp, Josh.
10, 12 f. 2 Sam. I, 18 (David's lament over Saul's death),
and an extract is quoted from each. The first of these two
books was apparently a collection of songs, celebrating the
victories of Israel over their enemies. The second was
probably of a similar character : a collection of songs in
praise of the noble deeds of the heroes of Israel ^. At what
date the collection was formed is quite uncertain ^ We also

^ Cf. Driver, /«/r^^., p. 115; Holz., 1. c, p. 212 f.; Corn., I.e., p. 47 f.;
Kuenen, Hex., p. 228 f.

^ What the name Tir; means is uncertain. It has been variously
rendered Book of the Upright, Book of the Worshippers op Yahtveh and
their deeds. Kuenen offers two interpretations, The book of that which
is right (in Yahweh's sight), or of him who is right (in Yahweh's
sight). Cf. Hex., p. 35 ; Holz., I.e., p. 228.

•'' Reuss, Di., Kittel assign both books to the period of David or
Solomon. Wellhausen thinks the "nbo ICD contained an account of
the Exodus, the Wandering in the Wilderness, and the Conquest
of Canaan. Kuenen, Meyer, and Stade consider that both works were
completed at a much later date ; cf. Holz., 1. c. Driver, Introd., p. 114,
calls attention to the fact that the Book of Jashar 'at least was not
completed before the time of David' (cf. i Sam. i, 18), 'though the
nucleus of the collection may obviously have been formed earlier.'



xlvi INTRODUCTION.



have no information as to the contents or authors of the
books. Other quotations in E are the poems or fragments :
Ex. 15 (The Song of Moses), Num. 21, 17-18 {The Sorig 0/ the
Well), and vers. 27-30 {The Song 0/ triumph over the defeat
of Sihon). Possibly, these were contained in one of the two
sources, and not improbably Judg. chap. 5 [The Song of
Deborah). Other poetical passages are : (J) Gen. chap. 49';
Balaam's 'Parables' in Num. 23, 7-10. 18-24. 24, 3-9.
15-24; The Song of Moses, Deut. 32, and The Blessiiig of
Moses, Deut. 33. From what sources these extracts were
derived it is impossible to ascertain ^. It is also pointed out
by Driver^ that the command in Ex. 17, 14 'to write "in
a book " the threat to extirpate Amalek, makes it probable
that some written statement existed of the combat of Israel
with Amalek, and of the oath sworn then by Jehovah to
exterminate His people's foes.' The Ten Commandments
in Ex. 20 must have existed in a written form before E
incorporated them into his work, and the ordinances and pre-
cepts upon which the '■Greater Book of the Covenant^ Ex. 20,
22-chap. 23 E, and the 'Little Book of the Covenant,' Yx.
34, 11-26 J, are based "*, doubtless existed in a written shape
before they were worked up into the narratives of E and J
respectively. 'The existence of written laws c. 750 B.C. is
implied by Hos. 8, 12 V Lastly, one other extract may
be mentioned. Gen. chap. 14, a fragment usually assigned
to R, of uncertain date, and of doubtful origin ^



' For the analysis of Gen. chap. 49, cf. Holz., I.e., Table I. p. 5.

^ Cf., for a full discussion, Holz., I.e., p. 230 f., and Cornill, I.e.,
p. 88 f.

^ Introd., p. 115. * Cf. Holz., p. 242.

' Driver, Introd., p. 115.

« Cf. Comill, I.e., p. 72 ; Kucnen, Hex., pp. 143, 324 ; Well., Co??ip.,
pp. 26, 310.



INTRODUCTION. xlvii



The Document P.

P chiefly contains legislation, setting before us the various
precepts and ordinances that were to be observed by Israel,
and explaining their origin. The history contained in it is
merely the framework in which to arrange the legislative
matter. The thread of the narrative is very thin, and often
only serves to carry on the chronology. Important events,
however, are treated more in detail (e.g. the story of the
creation, the deluge, the covenants with Noah and Abraham,
the migration of the patriarchs into Egypt), especially such
events as are narrated to explain the origin of various laws
(e.g. 17, 23. 48, 3-8), in which case the narrative is generally



Online LibraryG. J SpurrellNotes on the text of the book of Genesis : with an appendix → online text (page 3 of 35)