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MANUAL OF EGYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOGY

AND

Guide to the Study of Antiquities in Egypt.

_FOR THE USE OF STUDENTS AND TRAVELLERS_.

BY
G. MASPERO, D.C.L. OXON.
MEMBER OF THE INSTITUTE OF FRANCE; PROFESSOR AT THE COLLÈGE DE FRANCE;
EX-DIRECTOR GENERAL OF EGYPTIAN MUSEUMS.

_TRANSLATED BY_

AMELIA B. EDWARDS.

_NEW EDITION, REVISED AND ENLARGED BY THE AUTHOR_.

With Three Hundred and Nine Illustrations.


1895.




PREFACE TO THE FOURTH AND REVISED EDITION.

Notwithstanding the fact that Egyptology is now recognised as a science, an
exact and communicable knowledge of whose existence and scope it behoves
all modern culture to take cognisance, this work of M. Maspero still
remains the Handbook of Egyptian Archaeology. But Egyptology is as yet in
its infancy; whatever their age, Egyptologists will long die young. Every
year, almost every month, fresh material for the study is found, fresh
light is thrown upon it by the progress of excavation, exploration, and
research. Hence it follows that, in the course of a few years, the standard
text-books require considerable addition and modification if they are to be
of the greatest value to students, who must always start from the foremost
vantage-ground.

The increasing demand for the _Egyptian Archaeology_ by English and
American tourists, as well as students, decided the English publishers to
issue a new edition in as light and portable a form as possible. This
edition is carefully corrected, and contains the enlarged letterpress and
many fresh illustrations necessary for incorporating within the book
adequate accounts of the main archaeological results of recent Egyptian
excavations. M. Maspero has himself revised the work, indicated all the
numerous additions, and qualified the expression of any views which he has
seen reason to modify in the course of his researches during the past eight
years. By the headings of the pages, the descriptive titles of the
illustrations, and a minute revision of the index, much has been done to
facilitate the use of the volume as a book of reference. In that capacity
it will be needed by the student long after he first makes acquaintance
with its instructive and abundant illustrations and its luminous
condensation of the archaeological facts and conclusions which have been
elucidated by Egyptology through the devotion of many an arduous lifetime
during the present century, and, not least, by the unremitting labours of
M. Maspero.

_April, 1895_.




PREFACE TO THE FIRST EDITION.

To put this book into English, and thus to hand it on to thousands who
might not otherwise have enjoyed it, has been to me a very congenial and
interesting task. It would be difficult, I imagine, to point to any work of
its scope and character which is better calculated to give lasting delight
to all classes of readers. For the skilled archaeologist, its pages contain
not only new facts, but new views and new interpretations; while to those
who know little, or perhaps nothing, of the subjects under discussion, it
will open a fresh and fascinating field of study. It is not enough to say
that a handbook of Egyptian Archaeology was much needed, and that Professor
Maspero has given us exactly what we required. He has done much more than
this. He has given us a picturesque, vivacious, and highly original volume,
as delightful as if it were not learned, and as instructive as if it were
dull.

As regards the practical side of Archaeology, it ought to be unnecessary to
point out that its usefulness is strictly parallel with the usefulness of
public museums. To collect and exhibit objects of ancient art and industry
is worse than idle if we do not also endeavour to disseminate some
knowledge of the history of those arts and industries, and of the processes
employed by the artists and craftsmen of the past. Archaeology, no less
than love, "adds a precious seeing to the eye"; and without that gain of
mental sight, the treasures of our public collections are regarded by the
general visitor as mere "curiosities" - flat and stale for the most part,
and wholly unprofitable.

I am much indebted to Mr. W.M. Flinders Petrie, author of _The Pyramids and
Temples of Gizeh_, for kindly translating the section on "Pyramids," which
is entirely from his pen. I have also to thank him for many valuable notes
on subjects dealt with in the first three chapters. To avoid confusion, I
have numbered these notes, and placed them at the end of the volume.

My acknowledgments are likewise due to Professor Maspero for the care with
which he has read the proof-sheets of this version of his work. In
departing from his system of orthography (and that of Mr. Petrie) I have
been solely guided by the necessities of English readers. I foresee that
_Egyptian Archaeology_ will henceforth be the inseparable companion of all
English-speaking travellers who visit the Valley of the Nile; hence I have
for the most part adopted the spelling of Egyptian proper names as given by
the author of "Murray's Handbook for Egypt."

Touching my own share in the present volume, I will only say that I have
tried to present Professor Maspero's inimitable French in the form of
readable English, rather than in a strictly word-for-word translation; and
that with the hope of still further extending the usefulness of the book, I
have added some foot-note references.

AMELIA B. EDWARDS.

WESTBURY-ON-TRYM,

_August_, 1887.






CONTENTS.


CHAPTER I.

ARCHITECTURE - CIVIL AND MILITARY.

§ 1. HOUSES: - Bricks and Brickmaking - Foundations - Materials - Towns -
Plans - Decoration

§ 2. FORTRESSES: - Walls - Plans - Migdols, etc.

§ 3. PUBLIC WORKS: - Roads - Bridges - Storehouses - Canals - Lake Moeris -
Dams - Reservoirs - Quarries


CHAPTER II.

RELIGIOUS ARCHITECTURE.

§ 1. MATERIALS; PRINCIPLES OF CONSTRUCTION: - Materials of Temples -
Foundations of Temples - Sizes of Blocks - Mortars - Mode of hoisting
Blocks - Defective Masonry - Walls - Pavements - Vaultings - Supports -
Pillars and Columns - Capitals - Campaniform Capitals - Lotus-bud
Capitals - Hathor-headed Capitals

§ 2. TEMPLES: - Temples of the Sphinx - Temples of Elephantine - Temple
at El Kab - Temple of Khonsû - Arrangement of Temples - Levels - Crypts -
Temple of Karnak - Temple of Luxor - Philae - The Speos, or Rock-cut
Temple - Speos of Horemheb - Rock-cut Temples of Abû Simbel - Temple of
Deir el Baharî - Temple of Abydos - Sphinxes - Crio-sphinxes

§ 3. DECORATION: - Principles of Decoration - The Temple a Symbolic
Representation of the World - Decoration of Parts nearest the Ground -
Dadoes - Bases of Columns - Decoration of Ceilings - Decoration of
Architraves - Decoration of Wall-surfaces - Magic Virtues of Decoration
- Decoration of Pylons - Statues - Obelisks - Libation-tables - Altars -
Shrines - Sacred Boats - Moving Statues of Deities

CHAPTER III.

TOMBS.

§ 1. MASTABAS: - Construction of the Mastaba - The Door of the Living,
and the Door of the Dead - The Chapel - Wall Decorations - The Double and
his Needs - The _Serdab_ - Ka Statues - The Sepulchral Chamber

§ 2. PYRAMIDS: - Plan of the Pyramid comprises three leading features
of the Mastaba - Materials of Pyramids - Orientation - Pyramid of Khûfû -
Pyramids of Khafra and Menkara - Step Pyramid of Sakkarah - Pyramid of
Ûnas - Decoration of Pyramid of Ûnas - Group of Dashûr - Pyramid of Medum

§ 3. TOMBS OF THE THEBAN EMPIRE; THE ROCK-CUT TOMBS: - Pyramid-mastabas
of Abydos - Pyramid-mastabas of Drah Abû'l Neggah - Rock-cut Tombs of
Beni Hasan and Syene - Rock-cut Tombs of Siût - Wall-decoration of
Theban Catacombs - Tombs of the Kings of the Eighteenth Dynasty at
Thebes - Valley of the Tombs of the Kings - Royal Catacombs - Tomb of
Seti I. - Wall-decorations of Royal Catacombs - Funerary Furniture of
Catacombs - Ûshabtiû - Amulets - Common Graves of the Poor

CHAPTER IV.

PAINTING AND SCULPTURE.

§ 1. DRAWING AND COMPOSITION: - Supposed Canon of Proportion - Drawing
Materials - Sketches - Illustrations to the _Book of the Dead_ -
Conventional Treatment of Animal and Human Figures - Naturalistic
Treatment - Composition - Grouping - Wall-paintings of Tombs - A Funerary
Feast - A Domestic Scene - Military Subjects - Perspective - Parallel
between a Wall-painting in a Tomb at Sakkarah and the Mosaic of
Palestrina

§ 2. TECHNICAL PROCESSES: - The Preparation of Surfaces - Outline -
Sculptors' Tools - Iron and Bronze Tools - Impurity of Iron - Methods of
Instruction in Sculpture - Models - Methods of cutting Various Stones -
Polish - Painted Sculptures - Pigments - Conventional Scale of Colour -
Relation of Painting to Sculpture in Ancient Egypt

§ 3. SCULPTURE: - The Great Sphinx - Art of the Memphite School - Wood-
panels of Hesi - Funerary Statues - The Portrait-statue and the Double
- _Chefs d'oeuvre_ of the Memphite School - The Cross-legged
Scribe - Diorite Statue of Khafra - Rahotep and Nefert - The Sheikh el
Beled - The Kneeling Scribe - The Dwarf Nemhotep - Royal Statues of the
Twelfth Dynasty - Hyksos Sphinxes of Tanis - Theban School of the
Eighteenth Dynasty - Colossi of Amenhotep III. - New School of Tel el
Amarna - Its Superior Grace and Truth - Works of Horemheb - School of the
Nineteenth Dynasty - Colossi of Rameses II. - Decadence of Art begins
with Merenptah - Ethiopian Renaissance - Saïte Renaissance - The
Attitudes of Statues - Saïte Innovations - Greek Influence upon Egyptian
Art - The Ptolemaic and Roman Periods - The School of Meroë - Extinction
of Egyptian Art

CHAPTER V.

THE INDUSTRIAL ARTS.

§ 1. STONE, CLAY, AND GLASS: - Precious Stones - Lapidary Art - Beads and
Amulets - Scarabaei - Statuettes - Libation Tables - Perfume Vases - Kohl-
pots - Pottery - Clay - Glazes - Red and Painted Wares - Ûshabtiû - Funerary
Cones - Painted Vases - "Canopic" Vases - Clay Sarcophagi - Glass - Its
Chemical Constituents - Clear Glass - Coloured Glass - Imitations of
Precious Stones in Glass - Glass Mosaics - Miniature Objects in Coloured
Glass - Glass Amulets - Coloured Glass Vases - Enamels - The Theban Blue -
The Enamels of Tell el Amarna - Enamelled Ûshabtiû of Amen Ptahmes -
Enamelled Tiles of the Step Pyramid at Sakkarah - Enamelled Tiles of
Tell el Yahûdeh

§ 2. WOOD, IVORY, LEATHER; TEXTILE FABRICS: - Bone and Ivory - Elephant
Tusks - Dyed Ivory - Egyptian Woods - Wooden Statuettes - Statuette of
Hori - Statuette of Naï - Wooden Toilet Ornaments - Perfume and Unguent
Spoons - Furniture - Chests and Coffers - Mummy-cases - Wooden Effigies on
Mummy Cases - Huge Outer Cases of Ahmesnefertari and Aahhotep - Funerary
Furniture - Beds - Canopies - Sledges - Chairs - Stools - Thrones -
Textiles - Methods of Weaving - Leather - Breast-bands of Mummies -
Patchwork Canopy in Coloured Leather of Princess Isiemkheb -
Embroideries - Muslins - Celebrated Textiles of Alexandria

§ 3. METALS: - Iron - Lead - Bronze - Constituents of Egyptian Bronze -
Domestic Utensils in Bronze - Mirrors - Scissors - Bronze Statuettes -
The Stroganoff Bronze - The Posno Bronzes - The Lion of Apries - Gilding
- Gold-plating - Gold-leaf - Statues and Statuettes of Precious Metals
- The Silver and Golden Cups of General Tahûti - The Silver Vases of
Thmûis - Silver Plate - Goldsmith's Work - Richness of Patterns -
Jewellery - Funerary Jewellery - Rings - Seal-rings - Chains - The Jewels
of Queen Aahhotep - The Ring of Rameses II. - The Ear-rings of Rameses
IX. - The Bracelet of Prince Psar - Conclusion

NOTES

INDEX






LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS.

FIGURE

1. Brickmaking, tomb of Rekhmara, Eighteenth Dynasty

2. House with vaulted floors, Medinet Habû

3. Plan of the town of Kahûn, Twelfth Dynasty

4. Plan of house, Medinet Habû, Twentieth Dynasty

5. Plan of house, Medinet Habû, Twentieth Dynasty

6. Façade of house of Second Theban Period

7. Plan of house of Second Theban Period

8. Restoration of hall in Twelfth Dynasty house, Kahûn

9. Box representing a house

10. Wall-painting in Twelfth Dynasty house, Kahûn

11. View of mansion, tomb of Anna, Eighteenth Dynasty

12. Porch of mansion of Second Theban Period

13. Porch of mansion of Second Theban Period

14. Plan of Theban house and grounds, Eighteenth Dynasty

15. A perspective view of same

16. Part of palace of Aï, El Amarna tomb, Eighteenth Dynasty

17. Perspective view of part of palace of Aï

18. Frontage of house, Second Theban Period

19. Frontage of house, Second Theban Period

20. Central pavilion of house, Second Theban Period

21. Ceiling decoration from house at Medinet Habû, Twentieth Dynasty

22. Ceiling decoration, Twelfth Dynasty style

23. Ceiling decoration, tomb of Aimadûa, Twentieth Dynasty

24. Door of house, Sixth Dynasty tomb

25. Façade of Fourth Dynasty house, sarcophagus of Khûfû Poskhû

26. Plan of second fortress at Abydos, Eleventh or Twelfth Dynasty

27. Walls of same fortress, restored

28. Façade of fort, tomb at Beni Hasan, Twelfth Dynasty

29. Plan of main gate, second fortress of Abydos

30. Plan of S.E. gate of same

31. Plan of gate, fortress of Kom el Ahmar

32. Plan of walled city at El Kab

33. Plan of walled city at Kom Ombo

34. Plan of fortress of Kûmmeh

35. Plan of fortress of Semneh

36. Section of platform of same

37. Syrian fort, elevation

38. Town walls of Dapûr

39. City of Kaclesh, Ramesseum

40. Plan of pavilion of Medinet Habû, Twentieth Dynasty

41. Elevation of same

42. Canal and bridge of Zarû, Karnak, Nineteenth Dynasty

43. Cellar with amphorae

44. Granary

45. Plan of Store City of Pithom, Nineteenth Dynasty

46. Store-chambers of the Ramesseum

47. Dike at Wady Gerraweh

48. Section of same dike

49. Quarries of Silsilis

50. Draught of Hathor capital, quarry of Gebel Abûfeydeh

51. Transport of blocks, stela of Ahmes, Tûrrah, Eighteenth Dynasty

52. Masonry in temple of Seti I., Abydos

53. Temple wall with cornice

54. Niche and doorway in temple of Seti I., Abydos

55. Pavement in same temple

56. "Corbelled" vault in same temple

57. Hathor pillar in temple of Abû Simbel, Nineteenth Dynasty

58. Pillar of Amenhotep III., Karnak

59. Sixteen-sided pillars, Karnak

60. Fluted pillar, Kalabsheh

61. Polygonal Hathor-headed pillar, El Kab

62. Column with square die, Contra Esneh

63. Column with campaniform capital, Ramesseum

64. Inverted campaniform capital, Karnak

65. Palm capital, Bubastis

66. Compound capital

67. Ornate capitals, Ptolemaic

68. Lotus-bud column, Beni Hasan, Twelfth Dynasty

69. Lotus-bud column, processional hall of Thothmes HI., Karnak

70. Column in aisle of Hypostyle Hall, Karnak

71. Hathor-head capital, Ptolemaic

72. Campaniform and Hathor-headed capital, Philae

73. Section of Hypostyle Hall, Karnak

74. Plan of the temple of the Sphinx

75. South temple of Elephantine

76. Plan of temple of Amenhotep III., El Kab

77. Plan of temple of Hathor, Deir el Medineh

78. Plan of temple of Khonsû, Karnak

79. Pylon with masts, wall-scene, temple of Khonsû, Karnak

80. Ramesseum, restored

81. Plan of sanctuary at Denderah

82. Pronaos, temple of Edfû

83. Plan of same temple

84. Plan of temple of Karnak in reign of Amenhotep III

85. Plan of Hypostyle Hall, Karnak

86. Plan of great temple, Luxor

87. Plan of buildings on island of Philae

88. Plan of Speos, Kalaat Addah

89. Plan of Speos, Gebel Silsileh

90. Plan of Great Speos, Abû Simbel

91. Plan of Speos of Hathor, Abû Simbel

92. Plan of upper portion of temple of Deir el Baharî

93. Plan of temple of Seti I., Abydos

94. Crio-sphinx from temple of Wady Es Sabûah

95. Couchant ram, from Avenue of Sphinxes, Karnak

96-101. Decorative designs from Denderah

102. Decorative group of Nile gods

103. Dado decoration, hall of Thothmes III., Karnak

104. Ceiling decoration, tomb of Bakenrenf, Twenty-sixth Dynasty

105. Zodiacal circle of Denderah

106. Frieze of uraei and cartouches

107. Wall-scene from temple of Denderah

108. Obelisk of Heliopolis, Twelfth Dynasty

109. Obelisk of Begig, Twelfth Dynasty

110. "Table of offerings" from Karnak

111. Limestone altar from Menshîyeh

112. Wooden naos, in Turin Museum

113. A mastaba

114. False door in mastaba

115. Plan of forecourt, mastaba of Kaäpir

116. Plan of forecourt, mastaba of Neferhotep

117. Door in mastaba façade

118. Portico and door of mastaba

119. Plan of chapel, mastaba of Khabiûsokari

120. Plan of chapel, mastaba of Ti

121. Plan of chapel, mastaba of Shepsesptah

122. Plan of chapel, mastaba of Affi

123. Plan of chapel, mastaba of Thenti

124. Plan of chapel, mastaba of Red Scribe

125. Plan of chapel, mastaba of Ptahhotep

126. Stela in mastaba of Merrûka

127. Wall-scene from mastaba of Ptahhotep

128. Wall-scene from mastaba of Ûrkhûû

129. Wall-scene from mastaba of Ptahhotep

130. Plan of serdab in mastaba at Gizeh

131. Plan of serdab and chapel in mastaba of Rahotep

132. Plan of serdab and chapel in mastaba of Thenti

133. Section of mastaba showing shaft and vault, at Gizeh

134. Section of mastaba, at Sakkarah

135. Wall-scene from mastaba of Nenka

136. Section of Great Pyramid

137. The Step Pyramid of Sakkarah

138. Plan and section of pyramid of Ûnas

139. Portcullis and passage, pyramid of Ûnas

140. Section of pyramid of Ûnas

141. Mastabat el Faraûn

142. Pyramid of Medûm

143. Section of passage and vault in pyramid of Medûm

144. Section of "vaulted" brick pyramid, Abydos, Eleventh Dynasty

145. Section of "vaulted" tomb, Abydos

146. Plan of tomb, Abydos

147. Theban tomb with pyramidion, wall-scene, tomb at Sheikh Abd el Gûrneh

148. Similar tomb

149. Section of Apis tomb, Eighteenth Dynasty

150. Tombs in cliff opposite Asûan

151. Façade of rock-cut tomb of Khnûmhotep, Beni Hasan, Twelfth Dynasty

152. Façade of rock-cut tomb, Asûan

153. Plan of tomb of Khnûmhotep, Beni Hasan, Twelfth Dynasty

154. Plan of unfinished tomb, Beni Hasan, Twelfth Dynasty

155. Wall-scene, tomb of Manna, Nineteenth Dynasty

156. Plan of tomb of Rameses IV.

157. Plan of tomb of Rameses IV., from Turin papyrus

158. Plan of tomb of Seti I.

159. Fields of Aalû, wall-scene, tomb of Rameses III.

160. Pestle and mortar for grinding colours

161. Comic sketch on ostrakon

162. Vignette from _Book of the Dead_, Saïte period

163. Vignette from _Book of the Dead_, papyrus of Hûnefer

164-5. Wall-scenes, tomb of Khnûmhotep, Beni Hasan

166. Wall-scene, tomb, Eighteenth Dynasty

167. Wall-scene, tomb of Horemheb

168. Wall-scene, Theban tomb, Ramesside period

169. Wall-scene, tomb of Horemheb

170. Wall-scene, Ramesseum

171. Wall-scene, Medinet Habû

172. Wall-scene, Ramesseum

173. Wall-scene, Ramesseum

174. Wall-scene, tomb of Rekhmara

175. Wall-scene, tomb of Rekhmara

176. Wall-scene, mastaba of Ptahhotep

177. Palestrina mosaic

178. Sculptor's sketch, Ancient Empire tomb

179. Sculptor's sketch, Ancient Empire tomb

180. Sculptor's correction, Medinet Habû, Twentieth Dynasty

181. Bow drill

182. Sculptor's trial-piece, Eighteenth Dynasty

183. The Great Sphinx of Gizeh

184. Wooden panel, mastaba of Hesî

185. Cross-legged scribe, in the Louvre, Ancient Empire

186. Cross-legged scribe, at Gizeh, Ancient Empire

187. King Khafra

188. The "Sheikh el Beled" (Raemka), Ancient Empire

189. Rahotep, Ancient Empire

190. Nefert, wife of Rahotep, Ancient Empire

191. Head of the "Sheikh el Beled," Ancient Empire

192. Wife of the "Sheikh el Beled," Ancient Empire

193. The kneeling scribe, at Gizeh. Ancient Empire

194. A bread-maker, Ancient Empire

195. The dwarf Nemhotep, Ancient Empire

196. One of the Tanis sphinxes, Hyksos period

197. Bas-relief head of Seti I.

198. Amen and Horemheb

199. Head of a queen, Eighteenth Dynasty

200. Head of Horemheb

201. Colossal statue of Rameses 11.

202. Queen Ameniritis.

203. Thûeris, Saïte period

204. Hathor cow, Saïte period

205. Pedishashi, Saïte period

206. Head of a scribe, Saïte period

207. Colossus of Alexander II.

208. Hor, Graeco-Egyptian

209. Group from Naga, Ethiopian School

210. _Ta_ amulet

211. Frog amulet

212. _Ûat_ amulet

213. _Ûta_ amulet

214. A scarab

215-7. Perfume vases, alabaster

218. Perfume vase, alabaster

219. Vase for antimony powder

220. Turin vases, pottery

221-3. Decorated vases, pottery

224. Glass-blowers, wall-scene, Twelfth Dynasty

225-6. Parti-cloured glass vases

227. Parti-coloured glass vase

228. Glass goblets of Nesikhonsû

229. Hippopotamus in blue glaze

230-1. Theban glazed ware

232. Cup, glazed ware

233. Interior decoration of bowl, Eighteenth Dynasty

234. Lenticular vase, glazed ware, Saïte period

235. Tiled chamber in Step Pyramid of Sakkarah

236. Tile from same

237. Tile, Tell el Yahûdeh, Twentieth Dynasty

238. Tile, Tell el Yahûdeh, Twentieth Dynasty

239. Inlaid tiles, Tell el Yahûdeh, Twentieth Dynasty

240-1. Relief tiles, Tell el Yahûdeh, Twentieth Dynasty

242. Spoon

243. Wooden statuette of officer, Eighteenth Dynasty

244. Wooden statuette of priest, Eighteenth Dynasty

245. Wooden statuette of Naï

246-54. Wooden perfume and unguent spoons

255. Fire-sticks, bow, and unfinished drill-stock, Twelfth Dynasty

256. Dolls, Twelfth Dynasty

257. Tops, tip-cat, and toy boat, Twelfth Dynasty

258-60. Chests

261. Construction of a mummy-case, wall-scene, Eighteenth Dynasty

262. Mask of Twenty-first Dynasty coffin of Rameses II

263. Mummy-case of Queen Ahmesnefertari

264. Panel portrait from the Fayûm, Graeco-Roman

265. Carved and painted mummy-canopy

266. Canopied mummy-couch, Graeco-Roman

267. Mummy-sledge and canopy

268. Inlaid chair, Eleventh Dynasty

269. Inlaid stool, Eleventh Dynasty

270. Throne-chair, wall-scene, Twentieth Dynasty

271. Women weaving, wall-scene, Twelfth Dynasty

272. Man weaving carpet or hangings, wall-scene, Twelfth Dynasty

273. Cut leather work, Twenty-first Dynasty

274-5. Barks with cut leather-work sails, Twentieth Dynasty

276-7. Bronze jug

278. Unguent vase, or spoon (lamp for suspension?)

279. Bronze statuette of Takûshet

280. Bronze statuette of Horus

281. Bronze statuette of Mosû

282. Bronze lion from Horbeit, Saïte period

283. Gold-worker, wall-scene

284. Golden cup of General Tahûti, Eighteenth Dynasty

285. Silver vase of Thmûis

286. Silver vase of Thmûis

287. Piece of plate, wall-scene, Twentieth Dynasty

288-95. Plate, wall-scenes, Eighteenth Dynasty

296. Signet-ring, with bezel

297. Gold _cloisonné_ pectoral, Dahshur, Twelfth Dynasty

298. Mirror of Queen Aahhotep, Eighteenth Dynasty

299-300. Bracelets of same

301. Diadem of same

302. Gold _Ûsekh_ of same

303. Gold pectoral of same

304-5. Poignards found with mummy of Queen Aahhotep

306. Battle-axe found with same

307. Model funerary bark found with same

308. Ring of Rameses II

309. Bracelet of Prince Psar






EGYPTIAN ARCHAEOLOGY.




CHAPTER I.


_ARCHITECTURE - CIVIL AND MILITARY_.

Archaeologists, when visiting Egypt, have so concentrated their attention
upon temples and tombs, that not one has devoted himself to a careful
examination of the existing remains of private dwellings and military
buildings. Few countries, nevertheless, have preserved so many relics of
their ancient civil architecture. Setting aside towns of Roman or Byzantine
date, such as are found almost intact at Koft (Coptos), at Kom Ombo, and at
El Agandiyeh, one-half at least of ancient Thebes still exists on the east
and south of Karnak. The site of Memphis is covered with mounds, some of
which are from fifty to sixty feet in height, each containing a core of
houses in good preservation. At Kahûn, the ruins and remains of a whole
provincial Twelfth Dynasty town have been laid bare; at Tell el Mask-hûtah,
the granaries of Pithom are yet standing; at Sãn (Tanis) and Tell Basta
(Bubastis), the Ptolemaic and Saïtic cities contain quarters of which plans
might be made (Note 1), and in many localities which escape the traveller's
notice, there may be seen ruins of private dwellings which date back to the


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