G. P. (George Payn) Quackenbos.

A natural philosphy: embracing the most recent discoveries in the various branches of physics .. online

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MEDICAL SCHOOL
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U (L i . / . U




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\



\






NATURAL PHILOSOPHY:



EMBRACING



TEE MOST RECENT DISCOVERIES



VARIOUS BRANCHES OF PHYSICS,



AND EXHIBITING



THE APPLICATION OF SCIENTIFIC PPJNCIPLES IN EVEEY-DAY LIFE.



ADAPTED TO USE WITH OR WITHOUT APPARATUS, AND ACCOMPANIED WITH

FULL DESCRIPTIONS OF EXPERIMENTS, PRACTICAL EXERCISES,

AND NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS.



BY G. P. QUACKEXBOS, A.M.,

PRINCIPAL OF " THE COLLEGIATE ifcllOOL 1 ', N. Y. ; AUTHOR OF " FIRST LESSONS IN

COMPOSITION 11 , "ADVANCED COURSE OF COMPOSITION AND RHETORIC"

u ILLUSTRATED SCHOOL HISTORY OF THE UNITED STATES ", ETC.



NEW YORK:
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,



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Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1859, by

G. P. QUACKENBOS,

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States, for the
Southern District of Now York.



91



PREFACE



THE importance of the physical sciences is now so generally ad-
mitted that there are few institutions of learning in which they are
not made regular branches of study. And very properly. for what
can be more interesting and instructive, what more worthy of the
attention of intelligent creatures, what more calculated to inspire
their minds with a thirst for further knowledge, and fill their hearts
with reverent gratitude to the Divine Being, than an acquaintance
with the laws of the material world, the mysterious influences con-
stantly at work in nature, and the principles by which atoms and
worlds are alike controlled ?

It is in the hope of investing this subject with a lively interest,
and bringing it home to the student by exhibiting the application
of scientific principles in every-day life, that the Natural Philosophy
here presented to the public has been prepared. The author has
sought to render a subject, abstruse in some of its connections, easy
of comprehension, by treating it in a clear style, taking its princi-
ples one at a time in their natural order, and illustrating them fully
with the facts of our daily experience. The range of topics is com-
prehensive. By avoiding unnecessary repetitions, room has been
found for chapters on Astronomy and Meteorology ; one of which
subjects, at least, has heretofore been invariably omitted in similar
treatises, though a summary of both is important, as time is seldom
found for pursuing these branches in separate volumes.

The incorrectness of many of the text-books on Natural Philos-
ophy has been a subject of general complaint. Grave errors, both
of theory and fact, have been handed down from one to another, and
the results obtained by modern research have been too often over-



4 PEEFACE.

looked. In preparing this volume, every effort has been made to
ensure accuracy, the most recent authorities have been consulted,
and it is believed that a faithful view is presented of the various
sciences embraced, as far as they are at present developed. It is
the intention of the author to keep his book up to the times by
constant revision, and to make such alterations and additions as the
progress of discovery may require.

Two styles of type are used in the text ; a larger size for lead-
ing principles, a smaller size for descriptions of apparatus and exper-
iments, explanatory illustrations, &c. By confining a class to the
former when the saving of time is an object, a brief yet complete
course may be taken. Questions at the bottom of each page will
be found to facilitate the examiner's duty, and to afford the pupil a
means of testing his preparation before reciting. At the end of
such chapters as admit of it, easy practical examples have been in-
troduced, to illustrate the rules and principles set forth.

An important feature of this work is its adaptation to use with
or without apparatus. The majority of schools have few facilities
for experimental illustration. The wants of these are here met by
a free use of engravings, full descriptions of experiments, and expla-
nations of their results. A number of these engravings have been
furnished by BENJAMIN PIKE, jr., of 204 Broadway, New York, and
are not mere fancy-sketches, but actual representations of instru-
ments (the best and most modern of their kind) manufactured at
his establishment. Mr. Pike's life has been devoted to this branch
of industry ; and it may not be improper to add that institutions
desirous of procuring a set of apparatus, partial or complete, will
find his assortment unsurpassed in variety and excellence. For
convenience of recitation, those cuts to which reference is made by
letters are reproduced apart from the text, in the back of the book.

An Alphabetical Index closes the volume

KBW YORK, July 1, 1859.



CONTENTS.



CHAPTER PAGB

I. MATTER AND ITS FORMS .... ... 7

II. PROPERTIES OF MATTER . . 12

III. MECHANICS.

Motion. Momentum. Striking Force ..... 26
IT. MECHANICS (continued}.

Laws of Motion 34

V. MECHANICS (continued).

Gravity 46

YI. MECHANICS (continued*}.

Centre of Gravity 70

VII. MECHANICS (continued).

The Motive Power. The Resistance. The Machine.

Strength of Materials 81

Till. MECHANICS (continued).

The Mechanical Powers ....... 94

IX. MECHANICS (continued).

Wheelwork. Clock and Watchwork 120

X. MECHANICS (continued}.

Hydrostatics ISO

XI. MECHANICS (continued).

Hydraulics . .152

XII. PNEUMATICS 1G3

XIII. PYROXOMICS 192

The Steam Engine 219



6 CONTENTS.

CHAPTER PAGE

XIV OPTICS 1

XV. ACOUSTICS 274

XVI. ELECTRICITY 289

Frictional Electricity 290

Voltaic Electricity . . , 316

Thermo-electricity 332

XVII. MAGNETISM . 333

Electro-magnetism ... . . 349

Magneto-electricity 366

XVIII. ASTRONOMY 368

XIX. METEOROLOGY . 401

FIGURES REPRODUCED . 407

INDEX . .440



NATURAL PHILOSOPHY.



CHAPTER I.



MATTER AND ITS FORMS.

1. Matter. "Whatever occupies space, whatever we can
see or touch, is known as Matter. Earth, water, air, are
different forms of matter.

A distinct portion of matter is called a Body. The
Earth, a ball, a rain-drop, are Bodies.

2. All matter, properly speaking, is Ponderable, that
is, has weight.

Imponderable means without weight. The term Imponderable Matter has
been applied by some to heat, light, electricity, and magnetism. As late re-
searches seem to indicate that these are forces or conditions of matter, and not
themselves varieties of matter, they are now generally called Imponderable
Agents.

3. Forms of Ponderable Matter. Ponderable Matter
exists in three forms ; Solid, Liquid, and A-er'-i-form.

A body is said to be Solid when its particles cohere, so
that they can not move among themselves ; example, ice.
Solid bodies are called Solids.

1. What is Matter ? Give examples. What is a Body? Give examples. 2. What
is said of ah matter? What dons imponderable mean? To what has the term im-
ponderable matter been applied? What are heat, light, electricity, and mag-
netism generally called ? 3. In how many forms docs ponderable matter exist ?



8 MATTER AND ITS FORMS.

A body is said to be Liquid when its particles cohere
so slightly that they can move freely among themselves ;
example, water. Liquid bodies are called Liquids.

Aeriform means having the form of air, and matter is
said to exist in this state when its particles repel each other,
tending to separate and spread out indefinitely ; example,
steam. Aeriform bodies are called Gases and Vapors.

Liquid and aeriform bodies are embraced under the
general name of Fluids.

There are marked points of difference between solids and fluids. A solid
has a permanent shape ; a fluid accommodates its shape to that which con-
tains it. A solid may often be moved by moving a portion of its particles ;
as a pitcher by its handle. The particles of a fluid, on the other hand, do
not cohere, and therefore, when we move some of them, the rest are detached
by their own weight ; thus by dipping a tumbler into a pail of water, we can
not remove all the fluid, but only as much as the tumbler contains. Again, a
solid resists a force which seeks to penetrate it. A fluid, on the contrary, is
easily divided ; if we move slowly through the air, for instance, we feel no
resistance.

The same substance may, under different circumstances, appear in all
three of these forms. Thus water is a liquid ; when frozen, it becomes ice,
which is a solid ; when exposed to a certain degree of heat, it is converted
/nto steam, which is aeriform.

4. Classes of Bodies. Bodies are distinguished as Sim-
ple and Compound.

A Simple Body consists of matter that can not be re-
solved into more than one element ; as, gold.

A Compound Body consists of matter that can be re-
solved into two. or more elements ; as air, which is com-
posed of two gases.

The simple bodies, or elements, of which every thing in the universe is
composed, are sixty-two in number. Of these, fifty, distinguished by a pe-
culiar lustre, are called Metals. The remaining twelve are known as Non-
metallic Elements.

Name them. When is a body said to be solid ? What are solid bodies called ? When
& a body said to be liquid ? What are liquid bodies called ? What does aeriform
mean ? When is a body said to be aeriform ? What are aeriform bodies called ?
What name is applied to both liquid and aeriform bodies? Mention some of the
marked points of difference between solids and fluids. In how many forms may the
same substance appear? Give an example. 4. Into how many classes are bodies di-
vided ? Name them. What is a Simple' bo'ly ? What is a Compound body ? How
many simple bodies are there ? How are they divided ? Name the principal met.



SIMPLE SUBSTANCES. 9

The principal metals are the seven known to the ancients, gold, silver,
iron, copper, mercury, lead, and tin ; antimony, which was next discovered,
in 1490 ; bismuth, zinc, arsenic, cobalt, plat'-i-num, nickel, manganese, &c.
The twelve non-metallic elements are ox'-y-gen, hy'-dro-gen, ni'-tro-gen,
chlorine [Mo'-reen], iodine [i'-o-deen], bromine [bro'-meen], fluorine [flu'-o-
reeri], se-le'-ni-um, sulphur, phosphorus, carbon, and bo'-ron.

These simple substances are rarely found ; nearly every body that we meet
with, whether natural or artificial, is composed of two or more elements, and
ia therefore compound. Such is the case with air, which was anciently thought
to be a simple substance, but was proved, towards the close of the eighteenth
century, to be a mixture of 21 parts of oxygen and 79 parts of nitrogen.
Water, also, has been found to be a compound substance, made up of oxygen
and hydrogen combined in the proportion of 1 to 8. Of the sixty-two
elements referred to above, twenty are so rare that their properties are not
yet fully known ; thirty more are comparatively seldom met with ; the
remainder constitute the great bulk of the globe and all that is thereon,

The consideration of the simple substances, with their
properties and combinations, belongs to the science of
CHEMISTRY. The force that causes them to combine and
produce compound substances, is called Chemical Affinity.
Oxygen and hydrogen combine and form water, in conse-
quence of their chemical affinity.

Chemical affinity subsists only between certain substances. If sulphuric
acid be poured on a piece of zinc, the two substances will combine and
form a compound entirely different from either. Pour the acid on a lump of
gold, and no such change will ensue, because there is no chemical affinity be-
tween them.

5. Natural Philosophy. Natural Philosophy is the
scionce that treats of the properties and laws of matter. It
is also called PHYSICS.

Pythagoras was the first to use the term philosophy. From him and his
followers it was borrowed by Socrates; who, when the other sages of his time
c-'lled themselves sophists, or wise men, modestly declared himself a philoso-
pher, or lover of .wisdom. Philosophy implies a search for truth ; and Natu-
ral Philosophy, as distinguished from Moral and Intellectual Philosophy,
searches for the truths connected with the material world.



als. Name the twelve non-metallic elements. What is said of the simple substances ?
What kind of substances are air and water? Of what is air composed? Of what,
water ? Ilow many elements constitute the great bulk of the globe ? What is said
of the rest? To what science does the consideration of the simple substances be-
long? What causes the simple substances to combine? Give an instance of chem-
ical affinity. Illustrate the fact that chemical affinity subsists only between certain
substances. 5. What is Natural Philosophy ? With whom did the term philosophy
1*



10 MATTER AND ITS FORMS.

6. Modes of Investigation. We arrive at the facts of
Natural Philosophy in two ways ; by Observation and Ex-
periment. Observation consists in watching such phenom-
ena, or appearances, as occur in the course of nature.
Experiment consists in causing such phenomena to occur
when and where we wish, for the purpose of noting the
attendant circumstances and results.

For example, we arrive at the fact that an unsupported body will descend
to the earth's surface, when we see an apple full from a bough ; this is by Ob-
servation. We learn the same fact, when, with the view of ascertaining
what it will do, we let an apple drop from our hands ; this is by Experiment.

7. Modes of Reasoning. Having obtained our facts in
the two ways just described, and classified them, we next
proceed from individual cases to deduce general laws. This
is called Reasoning by Induction.

Thus, if we try the experiment with many different apples, and find that
each, when let go, will fall to the ground, we lay down the general law that
all apples will fall in like manner. If we find that not only apples do this,
but also other objects with which we make the trial, we go a step further,
and announce another law, that all objects left unsupported will fall to the
ground.

It is by this process that most of the laws and principles of Natural Phi-
losophy have been . established. Archimedes \ar-Jce-me' -deez], the Sicilian
philosopher, used it over two thousand years ago. Gal-i-le'-o revived it in
modern times, and it may be said to lie at the foundation of all the great dis-
coveries of Newton.

When we have two similar phenomena and know that
one proceeds from a certain cause, we attribute the other
to the same cause. This is called Reasoning by Analogy.

Such reasoning is employed in the case of all bodies that are beyond our
reach. From what is near, we draw conclusions respecting what is remote.
It is thus, for example, that the philosopher explains the motions of the heav-
enly bodies, extending to them, by analogous reasoning, the same principles
that govern the motion of bodies on the earth.

8. Division of tJie Subject.^ Natural Philosophy, hav-



originate? "Who borrowed it from Pythagoras? What does philosophy imply?
What is the particular province of Natural Philosophy ? 6. How do we arrive at
th facts of Natural Philosophy ? In what does Observation consist ? In Avhat, Ex-
periment? Illustrate these definitions. 7. What is meant by -reasoning by induc-
tion? Give an example. By what philosophers has this mode of reasoning been
employed? What is meant by reasoning oy analogy? Give an example. 8. What



DIVISION OF THE SUBJECT. 11

ing to treat of matter in all its forms, embraces the follow-
ing distinct sciences :

Mechanics, which treats of forces and their application
in machines. To Mechanics belong

Hy-dro-stat'-ics, which treats of liquids at rest ;

Hy-drau'-lics, which treats of liquids in motion.

Pneumatics \nu-mat '-ics\ which treats of gases and
vapors.

Pyr-o-nom'-ics, which treats of heat.

Optics, which treats of light and vision.

Acoustics \a-cow' -sties], which treats of sound.

Electricity, which treats of the electric fluid. To Elec-
tricity belong

Galvanism, which treats of electricity produced by
chemical action ;

Thermo-electricity, which treats of electricity developed
by heat ;

Magneto-electricity, which treats of electricity devel-
oped by magnetism.

Magnetism, which treats of magnets and the forces they
develop. To Magnetism belongs

Electro-magnetism, which treats of magnetism devel-
oped by electricity.

Astronomy, which treats of the heavenly bodies.

Me-te-o-rol'-o-gy, which treats of the phenomena of the
atmosphere.



branches does Natural Philosophy embrace ? Of what does Mechanics treat ? Hy-
drostatic ? Hydraulics ? Pneumatics ? Pyronomics ? Optics ? Acoustics ? Elec-
tricity ? Galvanism ? Thermo-electricity ? Magneto-electricity ? Magnetism ?
Electro-magnetism? Astronomy? Meteorology?



12 PROPERTIES OF MATTER.



CHAPTER II.

PROPERTIES OF MATTER.

9. EVERY distinct portion of matter possesses certain
properties. Some of these belong in common to all bodies,
solid, liquid, and aeriform, and are called Universal Prop-
erties of matter. Others, again, are found only in certain
substances, and these are known as Accessory Properties.

The Universal Properties of matter are Extension, Fig-
ure, Impenetrability, Indestructibility, Inertia [in-er f -ska],
Divisibility, Porosity, Compressibility, Expansibility, Mo-
bility, and Gravitation.

The principal Accessory Properties are Cohesion, Ad-
hesion, Hardness, Tenacity, Elasticity, Brittleness, Mallea-
bility, and Ductility.

We proceed to consider these properties in turn.

10. EXTENSION. Extension is that property by which
a body occupies a certain portion of space. The portion
of space thus occupied is called its Place.

In other words, every body, however small, must have some size, or a
certain length, breadth, and thickness, which are called its Dimensions.
The greatest of these three dimensions is its Length ; the next greatest, its
Breadth, or Width ; the least, its Thickness. But, instead of any of these
terms, we use the word Tieiglit to denote distance from bottom to top in the
case of objects towering above us, and depth to denote distance from top to
bottom in the case of objects' extending below us.

11. FIGURE. Figure is that property by which a body
has a certain shape.

This property necessarily follows from Extension ; for since every body
must have length, breadth, and thickness, it must also have some definite

9. What is meant by Universal Properties of matter? What is meant by Acces-
sory Properties ? Enumerate the universal properties. Mention the principal ac-
cessory properties. 10. What is Extension ? What is meant by the dimensions of a
body? What is Length ? Breadth? Thickness? When are the terms height and
11. What is Figure? From what docs figure follow? What is the



IMPENETRABILITY. 1 3

chape. "While this is true of all bodies, it must be remembered that the form
of solids is permanent, while that of fluids varies, to adapt itself to every new
surface with which it comes in contact. A bullet keeps the same shape,
wherever it is placed ; whereas a quantity of water, poured from a tumbler
into a pail, visibly changes its form.

12. IMPENETRABILITY. Impenetrability is that property
by which a body occupies a certain portion of space, to the
exclusion for the time of all other bodies.

Impenetrability may be illustrated with a variety of simple experiments.
Fill a tumbler to the brim with water, and drop in a bullet ; the water will at
once overflow. Fill a bottle with water, and try to put the cork in ; the cork,
will not enter till it has displaced some of the water : if it fit so closely that
the water can not escape, and a hard pressure be exerted, the bottle will
burst.

The impenetrability of air is shown with the ap-
paratus represented in Figure 1. A is a glass jar
fitted with an air-tight cork, through which a funnel,
B, enters the jar. C is a bent tube, one end of which
also passes through the cork into the jar, while the
other is received in a glass of water, D. Let water
be poured into the funnel ; as it descends, drop by
drop, into the jar, air passes out through the bent
tube, and escapes through the water in D in the form
of bubbles. Thus it is shown that water and air can
not occupy the same space at the same time.

13. Impenetrability belongs to all substances, though in some cases it
may appear to be wanting. A nail, for instance, is driven into a piece of
wood without increasing its size ; but it effects an entrance by forcing to-
gether the fibres of the wood, not by occupying their space at the same time
with them. In like manner, a certain amount of salt and sugar may be suc-
cessively dropped into a tumbler brim-full of water without causing it to over-
flow. The particles of water, which are supposed to be globular, do not
everywhere touch each other, and the particles of salt are accommodated in
the interstices between them. These in turn leave minute Fig. 2,
spaces, into which the still smaller particles of sugar find their /" - L ._' ,
way. Fig. 2 exhibits such an arrangement. To illustrate it ,
familiarly, we may fill a vessel with as many oranges as it
will hold, and then pour on a quantity of peas, shaking the
vessel slightly so that they may settle in the empty spaces.



difference between solids and fluids as regards figure ? 12. "What is' Impenetrability?
Give some familiar illustrations of this property. Describe the experiment with the
apparatus represented in. Fig. 1. 13. What is said of those cases in which impen-
etrability appears to be wanting? Illustrate this with the nail. Explain how salt
and sngnr may br> dropped into a tumbler full of water without causing it to over-




14 PROPERTIES OF MATTER.

"When the vessel will receive no more peas, repeat the process with fine grav-
el, and it will be found that a considerable quantity will lodge between the
oranges and peas.

14. IXDESTRUCTIBILITT. Indestructibility is that prop-



Online LibraryG. P. (George Payn) QuackenbosA natural philosphy: embracing the most recent discoveries in the various branches of physics .. → online text (page 1 of 42)