G. P. (George Payn) Quackenbos.

A natural philosphy: embracing the most recent discoveries in the various branches of physics .. online

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Larynx, the, 236.

Lava, discharge of, accounted for, 195.
Leaves, what they are, 122.
Length, defined, 12.
Lens, the crystalline, 261.
Lenses, what they arc, 246. Classes of,

249. Eefraction by convex, 250. Re-

fraction by concave, 251. Achromatic,

Le Sage, first attempted to transmit mes-

sages by electricity, 263.
Level, the spirit, 134. The water, 135.
Lever, what it is, 94. Of the first kind,

94, 95. Practical applications of the,

93, 100, 102. The bent, 99. The com-

pound, 99. Of the second kind, 99. Of

the third kind, 101. Perpetual, 104.

Often combined with the screw, 115.
Le Verrier, his prediction verified by the

discovery of Neptune, 394.
Life-boats, principle of,' 144.
Life-preservers, principle of, 144.
Light, what it is, 229. Corpuscular the-

ory of, 229. Undulatory theory of, 229.

Sources of, 231. Of the sun, 232. Of the
stars, 232. Propagation of, 232. Veloc-
ity of, 233. Intensity of, at different
distances, 234. Reflection of, 236. Re-
fraction of, 245. Laws of refracted, 246.
Polarization of, 253. Dispersion of, 259.
The electric, 323. The zodiacal, 373.

Lightning, 312. Effects of, 313.

Lightning rod, the, 313.

Lights, northern, 303.

Line, a right, defined, 34. Parallel lines
defined, 34. A curve, 84. The neutral,
of a magnet, 334.

Liquefaction, 210.

Liquids, defined, 8. How they differ from
solids, 130. Have little cohesion, 131.
Compressibility of, 131. Not devoid of
elasticity, 131. Pressure of, 135. Rule
for finding their pressure on the bottom
of a vessel, 137. Specific gravity of, 141.
Exhibit endosmose and exosmose, 150.
Flow of, through orifices, 152. Flow
of, in pipes, 155. Conducting power of,
201. Expansion of, 209. Converted
into vapor by heat, 211. Good con-
ductors of sound, 276.

Living Force, 31.

Loadstone, described, 334.

Lock, on a canal, 134.

Locomotive, the, 226.

Lubricants, 87.

Lungs-glass, the, 181.


Machines, what they are, 83. Can not
create power, 88. Law of, 89. Advan-
tages of using, 90. All, combinations
of the six mechanical powers, 120. Must
be regular in their motion, 125. For
raising water, 161. Electrical, 294. Cyl-
inder, 295, 296. Plate, 297. Hydro-
electric, 310. Magneto-electric, 367.

Magic lantern, the, 271.

Magnetism, defined, 333. Theory of, 843.
Terrestrial, 344; intensity of, 345. By
induction, 346. By the sun's rays, 347.
By contact with a magnet, 347. De-
veloped by electricity, 849. Connection
between electricity and, 852.

Magneto-electriciti/, 3G6. Medical use of,

Magnets, what they are, 333. Natural,



834. Poles of, 334, 837. Power of nat-
ural, 335. Armed, 335. Artificial, 335.
Bar, 336. Horse-shoe, 336. Compound,
836. Power of, how increased and di-
minished, 337. Attraction of, 837 ; law
of, 338. Polarity of, 333. Production
of artificial, 345.

Magnifying glasses, 251.

Main-spring, the, of a watch, 128.

Malleability, denned, 25. Of the metals,
25, 26.

Mariotte^s Law, 168.

Mars, details of the planet, 391.

Matter, defined, 7. Ponderable, 7. Im-
ponderable, 7. Forms of ponderable, 7.
Properties of, 12.

Mechanical Powers, the, 94.

Mechanics, defined, 26.

Medium, a, what it is, 231. A uniform,
231. A dense, 246. A rare, 246.

Melody, what it is, 285.

Meniscus, what it is, 249.

Mercury, details of the planet, 381.

Meridian, the magnetic, 340.

Metals, the principal, 9. Specific gravity of
various, 144. Precious, how tested, 145.
Protection of, by voltaic electricity, 328.

Meteorology, defined, 401.

Metius, supposed to have invented the
telescope, 272.

Microscope, wonders revealed by the, IS,
270. What it is, 268. The single, 268.
The compound, 269. Solar, 270. Oxy-
hydrogen, 270.

Milky icay, the, 400.

Mill, Barker's, 161.

Mill-stones, how made in France, 148.

Mirage, 248.

Mirrors, concave, Eoman fleet fired with,
194. What they are, 237. Plane, 238.
Concave, 238. Convex, 238. Eeflection
from plane, 240. Images formed by
plane, 241. Eeflection from concave,
242. Keflection from convex, 244.

Mississippi, the, its discharge, 156.

Mixtures, freezing, 211.

Mobility, defined, 20.

Momentum, what it is, 29. Eule for find-
ing the, 30.

Monsoons, 402.

Montgolfier brothers, balloons invented
by the, 176.

Moon, the, 389. Produces tides, 157. Slzo

of, 889. Motions of, 389. Phases of, 890.

New, 390. Gibbous, 390. Full, 890.

How it appears through the telescope,

391. Eclipses of, 396.
Moons, of Jupiter, 392. Of Saturn, 393.

Of Uranus, 393.
Morse, his telegraph, 358. His telegraphic

alphabet, 361.

Motion, what it is, 27. Absolute, 27. Eel-
~ ative, 27. Kinds of, 23. Uniform, 28.

Accelerated, 29. Eetarded, 29. First

law of, 36. Second law of, 41. Simple,

41. Eesultant, 41. Parallelogram of,

42. Third law of, 43. Eeflected, 45;
law of, 46. Eotary, may keep a body
from falling, 76. Perpetual, 89. Cir-
cular, how converted into rectilinear,
124. Alternate up-and-down, how pro-
duced, 124. Eeal and apparent, of the
planets, 380.

Motive Powers, 81.
Multiplying Glass, the, 252.
Musc7ienbroeck, his electric shock, 300.


Nadir, the, 3S5.

Natural Philosophy, defined, 9. Modes
of investigation in, 10. Branches of, 11.

Nebulae, 400.

Needles, magnetic, 336. Horizontal, 336.
Dipping, 336, 341. Astatic, 339. How
to magnetize, 347. Effects of electric
currents on magnetic, 349.

Neptune, when discovered, 375. First
called Lc Terrier, 375. Details of tho
planet, 394.

Nerve, optic, 261, 262. Acoustic, 2SS.

Newcomen, his steam-engine, 222.

Newton, discovered the law of gravita-
tion, 47. Held tho corpuscular theory
of light, 229.

Nimbus, the, described, 405.

Non-conductors, of heat, 199. Of elec-
tricity, 293.

Non-electrics, 293.

Non-luminous bodies, defined, 230.

North star, distance of the, 399.



Observation, what it consists in, 10.
Occultation, 830.



Ocean, the surface of, spherical, 131.
Pressure of, at great depths, 136.

Octaves, what they are, 284.

Oersted, discovered the phenomena of
electro-magnetism, 349.

OH, how extracted from seeds, 112.

Opaque bodies, defined, 231.

Opera-glass, the, 273.

Opposition, 379.

Optics, defined, 229.

Organ, the, 2S4.

Orifices, velocity of streams flowing
through, 153. Course of streams flow-
ing through, 154. Volume discharged
from, 154.

Oxygen, promotes combustion, 195. Com-
bines with carbon to produce animal
heat, 196.


Paddles, of a wheel, 160.

Pallas, when discovered, 375.

Pallets, of an escapement, 127, 129.

Parachute, the, 55.

Paradoxes, SO. Hydrostatic Paradox, 137.

Parallax, 895.

Parallelogram, defined, 35. Of motion,42.

Pascal, constructed the first barometer,

Pencil, a, of light, 230. A diverging, 230.
A converging, 230.

Pendulum, the, what it is, 65. Laws of
its vibration, 65, 66. Application to
clock-work, 67. Vibrates differently in
different latitudes, 67. Effect of heat
on its vibrations, 68. Compensation, 68.
Gridiron, 68. Ballistic, 64. Its uso in
clock-work, 127.

Penumbra, the, 235.

Percussion, a source of heat, 197. A
source of light, 232.

Perigee, 389.

Perihelion, of a planet, 374.

Perspective, the magic, 242.

Perturbations, S94.

Phantasmagoria, 272.

Philosophy, natural, 9. Meaning of the
term, 9.

Photographic process, the, 2oS.

Physics, another name for Natural Phi-
losophy, 9.

Pile, Volta's, 31S. The dry, 822.

Pinions, defined, 122.

Pipes, flow of liquids in, 155.

Pisa, tower of, 75. Scene of an interest-
ing experiment, 54.

Pistol, the electrical, 304.

Planets, the, 373. Secondary, 374. Pri-
mary, 374. Inferior, 374. Superior, 374.
Orbits of, 374. Table of, 375. Aspects
of, 378. Are they inhabited, 880.

Plating, 326.

Pneumatics, defined, 165.

Points, the cardinal, 341. Of the com-
pass, 342.

Polarity, magnetic, 838.'

Polarisation, of light, 252.

Poles, of a galvanic battery, 323. Of nat-
ural magnets, 334. Of artificial mag-
nets, 837. Magnetic, of tho earth, 344.
Of the horizon, 385.

Pores, what they are, 18.

Porosity, defined, 19. Of various sub-
stances, 19.

Powers, the mechanical, 94.

Press, book-binder's, 115. Bramalf s hy-
drostatic (or hydraulic), 138.

Pressure, of liquids, 135. Of the atmos-
phere, 169.

Prisms, refraction by, 248. Decompose
light, 255.

Projectile, a, what it is, 60. Forces by
which it is acted on, 61. Path of, 61.
Eandom of, 62.

Propeller, the screw, 160.

Properties, universal, 12. Accessory, 12.

Ptolemy, his system of the universe, 370.

Pulley, the, 106. The fixed, 106. The
movable, 107. White's, 103. Much of
its advantage lost by friction, 109.

Pump, the chain, 162. The lifting, 186.
The forcing, 187. The centrifugal, 189.
The stomach, 190.

Pupil, the, 261. Of beasts of prey, 262.

Pyramids, the most stable of figures, 74,
Egyptian, 74.

Pyrometer, the, 215.

Pyronomics, defined, 192.

Pythagoras, tho first to use tho term
philosophy, 9. Taught tho true theo-
ry of the solar system, 370.

Quadrant, defined, 35.



Quadrature, 379.
Quadrilateral, defined, 85.
Quarter, first, of the moon, 390. Third,
of the inoon, 390.


Race, a, what it is, 158.

Rack and pinion, 124.

Radiation, of heat, 204.

Radius, defined, 34.

Radius Vector, the, 3T7.

Rain, 40G.

Rainbow, the, 259. Primary and second-
ary, 260. Lunar, 260.

Ram, the hydraulic, 163.

Random, 62. At what angle it is great-
est, 63.

Rarity, 19. In optics, 246.

Rays, what they are, 230. Incident, 236.

Reaction, defined, 43. Equal to action, 43.
Examples of, 43. Often nullifies ac-
tion, 43.

Reasoning, by inductibn, 10. By analo-
gy, 10.

Reaumur, his thermometrical scale, 214.

Receivers, 177.

Rectangle, defined, 36.

Reflection, angle of, 46. Equal to angle
of incidence, 46. Of light, 236 ; great
law of, 238.

Refraction, 245. Atmospheric, 247. By
convex lenses, 250. By concave lenses,
251. Double, 252. Its effect on the
apparent position of the heavenly bod-
ies, 394.

Refractory substances, defined, 210.

Refrigerators, what their sides are filled
with, 200.

Regulator, of a watch, 129.

Repulsion, between the particles of aeri-
form bodies, 21. Between solids and
liquids, 147. Electrical, 290.

Resistance, what it is, 27. Appears in
various forms, 84.

Rest, what it is, 27. Absolute, 27. Ecl-
ative, 27.

Restitution, force of, 24.

Retina, the, 261, 262. Images formed on,

RJiodium, one of the hardest metals, 22.

Rivers, velocity of, how retarded, 156.

Roc7fing Horse, the, 76.

| Rocking Stones, 79.

Rocks, how rent, 136.

Roemer, first used mercury in the ther-
mometer, 214. Discovered the veloci*
ty of light, 284.

Rope-dancers, how they balance them-
selves, 78.

Rosse, Earl of, his telescope, 273.

Rotation, electro-magnetie, 353.

Rubier, the, 2S9.


Safes, what the sides are filled with, 200.

Sap, how it ascends and descends ift
plants, 151.

Saturn, details of the planet, 393.

Savery, his steam-engine, 221.

Scale, diatonic, 285.

Scape-wheel, the, of a watch, 127.

Screw, the, what it consists of, 114. Kinds
of, 114. Advantage gained by, 114.
Practical uses of, 116. Hunter's, 116.
The endless, 117. Archimedes', 162.

Seasons, the change of, 386.

Sea-water, heavier than fresh water, 144

See-saw, the electrical, 301.

Selenite, polarizes light, 254.

Self-luminous bodies, defined, 230.

Shadows, 235.

Sliock, the electric, 299; anecdote con-
nected with, 300.

Shower, the mercury, 182.

Signal key the, 360.

Silurus elect ricus, the, 316.

Simoom, the, 402.

Siphon, the, 185.

Sirius, its light compared with the sun's,
232. Distance of, 399.

Sirocco, the, 402.

Sling, the principle on which it acts, 38.

Smoke, why it rises, 17G.

Snoic, protects vegetation, 202. How
formed, 406. Colored, 406.

Solids, defined, 7. Difference between
them and fluids, 8. Specific gravity of,
142. Porosity of, proved with the air-
pump, 184. Expansion of, ?07. Melt-
ed by heat, 210.

Solstices, the, 388.

Sonorous bodies, defined, 275.

Sound, nature of, 274. Transmission of,
275. Velocity of, 277. Distance to



winch it is transmitted, 273. Interfer- |
enco of, 279. Reflection of, 279. A mu-
sical, how produced, 281; loudncss of,
231 ; pitch of, 2S1 ; quality of, 281.

Spark, the electric, 29T. Color of, 300.
Length of, 307. Ignition by, 307.

SpeaJcing-tmmpet, the, 279.

Specific gravity, 139. Of liquids, 141.
Tables of, 144. How to ascertAin the
weight of a body from its, 145.

Spectacles, 2C3.

Spectrum, the solar, 255. Properties of
the, 257. Dark lines in the, 253.

Speculum, a, what it is, 2:57.

Sphere, defined, 85. Axis of, 36, 71. Poles
of, 36. Equator of, 86.

Spheroid, oblate, 30. Prolate, 36.

Spirit-level, the, 135.

Spots, solar, 371.

Springs, used as a motive power, 83.

Springs, origin of, 133. Hot, accounted
for, 195.

Square, defined, 36.

Stability, of bodies, 72. Depends on the
position of the centre of gravity, 75.
How increased, 70. Of a sphere, how
increased,- 79.

Stammering, 2S7.

Stars, the, a source of light, 232. Magni-
tudes of, 393. Distance of, 399. Peri-
odical, 899. Binary, 399. Telescopic, 399.

Stares, of wheels, 123.

Steam, the most effective of motive pow-
ers, 83. Generation of, 216. Tempera-
ture of, 217. Properties of, 217. Con-
densation of, 218. Electricity from, 810.

Steam-engine, Hero's, 219. Do Garay's,

220. Of Do Caus, 220. Branca's, 220.
Marquis of Worcester's, 220. Papin's,

221. Savory's, 221. Newcomen's, 222.
Watts', 222. Parts of the, 223, 224. The
low pressure, 220. The high pressure,
226. The, locomotive, 220 ; history of,

Steel, elasticity of, 21.

Steelyard, the, 97.

StepJienson, improved the locomotive,223.

Stethoscope, the, principle of, 278.

St. Helena, tides at, 157.

Still, the, described, 212.

Kills, used by French shepherd?, 73.

Kiool, the insulating, 293.

Stratus, the, defined, 405.

Strength, of men and animals, used as a
motive power, 82. Of materials, 91. Of
rods and beams, 91.

Striking force, 31. Difference between
it and momentum, 81. Rule for find-
ing the, 31.

Strings, of musical instruments, 282.

Sucker, the, principle of, 170.

Sun, the, a source of heat, 193. A source
of light, 232. Size of, 871. Constitution
of, 372. Motions of, 372. Eclipses of, 395.

Sun-dial, the, 126.

Syringe, the fire, 197.

System, the Solar, 870. True theory of,
taught by Pythagoras, 370 ; revived by
Copernicus, 870.


Tanncnt, defined, 34.

Teeth, connect wheels, 122.

r<2fe0ra/?7i,electro-rnagnctic, 353. Morse's,
858. House's, 362. Bain's, 362. The
sub-marine, 362. The Atlantic, 863.
History of the, 363.

Telescope, the, 272. Refracting, 272. As-
tronomical, 273. Terrestrial, 273. Re-
flecting, 273. Ilerschol's, 273. Earl of
Rosse's, 273.

Temperature, what it is, 192.

Tempering, how effected, 24.

Tenacity, denned, 22. Distinguished from
hardness, 22. Belongs to the metals, 22.
Of different substances compared, 23.
Of liquids, 23.

Th c r mo-electricity, 332.

Thermometer, the, 213. Invention of,
414. The differential, 214.

TJdckness, defined, 12.

Tliunder, 312.

Thunder house, the, 806.

Tides, what they are, 157. How pro-
duced, 157. Spring, 157. Neap, 157.
Height of, 157.

Tools, defined, S3.

Top, why it does not fall when spin-
ning, 70.

Tornadoes, 403.

Torpedo, the, 816.

Torricelli, proved the pressure of the at-
mosphere, 171.

Tourmaline, polaiizes light, 251.



Train, of wheels, 120. Of wheels and
pinions, 122.

Transit, of a planet, 380.

Translucent bodies, defined, 231.

Transparent bodies, defined, 231.

Treadle, the, 125.

TrevitJiick, constructed the first practi-
cal locomotive, 227.

Triangle, defined, 35.

Tripoli, formed of fossilized animalcules,

Tropics, the, 3SS.

Trundle, a, what it is, 123.

Tubes, acoustic, 278. Aurora, 302.

Turbine-iitM, 159.

Tympanum, the, 2S8.

Typhoons, 403.


Uranus, when discovered, 875. Its for-
mer names, 375. Details of tho plan-
et, 393.

Vacuum, what it is, 166. Torricellian,
172. Fountain, 181. Bell, 1S3.

Valve, the safety, 226.

Vaporization, 211.

Vapors, what they are, 165. Conducting
power of, 201. Expansion of, 210.

Variation, magnetic, 840. Lines of no,340.

Velocity, what it is, 27. Eule for finding
the, 28. Of various moving objects, 23.

Ventriloquism, 287.

Venus, details of the planet, 382.

Verge, of a watch, 129.

Vesta, when discovered, 375.

Veta, the, 175.

Views, dissolving, 272.

Vision, 260. Defects of, 263.

Voice, the human, 285; when said to
change, 286. Of the inferior animals,2S7.

Volta, his theory respecting galvanism,
318. His pile, 318. Invented the cou-
ronne des tasses, 820.

Voltaic electricity, 316. Effects of, 324.
Decomposes, 325. Luminous effects of,
828. Heating effects of, 829. Physio-
logical effects of, 330. Medically ap-
plied, 331.

Watches, history of, 126. Works of, 128.
How regulated, 128. Tarts of, 129.

J* Water, composition of, 9. Used as a mo-
tive power, 82. Quantity of, on tho
earth's surface, 130. Finds its level, 131.
Conveyed in pipes, 132. How conveyed
by the ancient Eomans, 132. Its weight
compared with air, 144. Wheels moved
by, 158. Machines for raising, 161. Ex-
pansion of, in freezing, 209. Decom-
posed by the galvanic battery, 325.

Water-clock, the, 126, 153.

Water-organ, the, 2S4.

Water-spouts, 403.

Watts, his steam-engine, 222.

Wuvs-, how produced, 156. Height of, 157.

Wedge, the, 112. Used for raisins: weights,
112. Familiar applications of, 113. Ad-
vantage gained by, 113.

Weighing, double, 97.

Weight, what it is, 50. Aoove and below
the earth's surface, 50. Law of, 52. At
different parts of the earth's surface, 53.

Weight-lifter, the, 182.

Wells, Artesian, 133.

Wlieel bnd Axle, the, 103.. Simply a re-
volving lever, 103. Law of, 104. Dif-
ferent forms of, 104.

WJieels, friction, 88. Enter largely into
machinery, 120. Modes of connecting,
120. Different forms of the circumfer-
ences of, 121. Toothed, 122. Varieties
of toothed, 122. Spur, 122. Cog, 123.
Mill, 123, Mortice, 123. Crown, 123.
Bevel, 123. How arranged in watches,
129. Undershot, 153. Overshot, 153.
Breast, 159.

WJdrlwinds, 403.

Width, defined, 12.

Wind, used as a motive power, 82. How
produced, 401. Velocity of, how meas-
ured, 401. Constant winds, 402. Trade
winds, 402. Periodical winds, 402. Va-
riable winds, 403.

Windlass, the, described, 105.

Wind-mills, 82.

Worcester, his steam-engine, 220.

Work, unit of, 84.

Wrapping connector, 121.

Zenith, the, 385.

Zodiac, the, 380. Signs of, 386.


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tion."-H. H. Slerrill, A.Irl., Princ,
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pronounces it "a superior book for
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lish Grammar. . It is with me an indis-
pensable text-book."

W. H. Sfrultz, Princ. Female High
School, Easton, Pa. : " Having used this
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and I take pleasure in saying that J
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>"*. E. Brame, Princ. Greensboro (Ala.)
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31 s as tetter suited to the wants of a
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M. M. Baidvvi*^ A.M., Princ. of

Online LibraryG. P. (George Payn) QuackenbosA natural philosphy: embracing the most recent discoveries in the various branches of physics .. → online text (page 41 of 42)