G. P. (George Payn) Quackenbos.

An English grammar online

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Supply wrbij and parse the nouns, pranauni, and verbs in the
sentences thus eampleted : — Starike while the iron — hot Whatso-
ever thy hand findeth to do, — it with thy might. The bittern —
in desolate places. The day may — whoi justice will triomph.
Having thus deceived the enemy, Washington — to Princeton. If
the climate of Africa — not so &ta], more travellers — there, in
, stead of oppressing his snbjects, Nero might greatly have benefited
them, if he — to — so. A French o£Gicer, on visiting the mother
of Washington, — : "No wonder America has, — such a leader,
fdnce he — sndli a mother ! "



864. The varions parts of the passive voice are formed
by combining tbe perfect participle with the correspond-
ing parts of the auxiliary le. All transitive verbs are
conjugated in the passive voice according to the follow-
ing model : —

Present Tense.

Singular, Plural.

1. I am ruled, 1. We are ruled,

2. Thou art mled, 2. Yon are ruled,
8. He is mled ; 8. Thej are ruled.

form if to be prtiforredt 863. Give Mme ezamplM thowing that all tlireepenona
are foond in the imperative mood.


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Impefifect Tense.

Singular. Plural.

1. I was ruled, 1. We were rnled,

2. Thou wast or wert ruled, 2. You were ruled,
8. He was ruled; 8. They were ruled.

Perfect Tense.

1. I have been ruled, 1. We have been ruled,

2. Thou hast been ruled, 2. You have been ruled,
8. He has been ruled ; 8. They have been ruled.

Plwperfect Tense.

1. I had been ruled, 1. We had been ruled,

2. Thou hadst been ruled, 2. You had been ruled,
8. He had been ruled ; 8. They had been ruled.

First Futufre Tense.

1. I shall or will be ruled, 1. We shall or will be ruled,

2. Thou shalt <>r wilt be ruled, 2. You shall or will be ruled,
8. He shall or will be ruled ; 8. They shall or will be ruled.

Second Future Tense.

1. I shall or will have been 1. We shall or will have been

ruled, ruled,

2. Thou shalt or wilt have been 2. You shall or will have been

ruled, ruled,

8. He shall or will have been 8. They shall or will have been
ruled; ruled.

Present Tense.

1. I may, can, must, or need 1. We may, can, must, or need be

be ruled, iruled,

2. Thou mayst, &c., be ruled, 2. You may, &c., be ruled,
8. He may, &c., be ruled ; 8. They may, &c., be ruled.

Imperfect Tense.

1. I might, could, would, or 1. We might, could, would, or

should be ruled, should be ruled,

2. Thou mightst, &o., be ruled, 2. You might, ^, be ruled,
8. He might, &c., be ruled ; 8. They might, ^., be ruled.



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Singular, Plural.

1. I may, can, must;, or need 1. We may, can, mnst, or need

have been rnled, have been rnled,

2. Thou mayst, canst, must, or 2. Yon may, can, mnst, or need

needst have been rnled, have been rnled,

8. He may, can, mnst, or 8. They may, can, mnst, or need
need have been ruled ; have been roled.

Pluperfect Tense.

1. I might, conld, wonld, or 1. We might, conld, wonld, or

should have been niled, should have been ruled,

2. Thou mightst, &c., have 2. You might, &c., haye been

been ruled, ruled,

8. He might, &c., haye been 8. They might, &o., haye been
ruled; ruled.


Present Tense.

1. If I be ruled, 1. If we be ruled,

2. If thou be ruled, 2. If you be ruled,
8. If he be ruled ; 8. If they be ruled.

Imperfect Tense.

1. If I were ruled, 1. If we were ruled,

2. If thou were ruled, 2. If you were ruled,
8. If he were ruled ; 8. If they were ruled.


Present Tense.

1. Be I ruled, 1. Be we ruled,

2. Be thou or do thou be ruled, 2. Be you or do you be ruled,
8. Be he ruled ; 8. Be they ruled.

Present Tense. To be ruled. Perfect Tense. To have been ruled.


Present. Being ruled. Perfect. Ruled.

Oomp. Perfect. Haying been ruled.


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866. Some verbfl, besides the regular present participle passiye given
above, have their participle in ing used with a passive meaning ; as, the
houses now erecting^ a book now publishing in nnmbers. Parse a participle
in ing thus used as the present participle passive.

856. Cautions. — ^In old writers we sometimes find the perfect of cer-
tain intransitive verbs formed with am in stead of have^ and the pluperfect
with vo€» in stead of had. Thus : — ^Winter is [has] come ; they are [have]
arrived ; when the j wre [had] gone ; happiness was [had] flown. These
forms are now rarely used, and should be avoided. Do not take them for
pasfflve tenses, which they resemble, but parse thus : Is come is an in-
transitive verb, used for has come; in the indicative mood, perfect
tense, &c.

857. We have seen (§ 808) that there are some adjectives identical
in form with participles. Do not, therefore, confound the verb be followed
by such an adjective, with a passive compound tense. Observe the differ^
ence in the following examples: —

Verb BE and adjective. — ^I am obliged to you. You are mistaken. She
M accomplished. He is resolved to go. I am inclined to remain.

transitive verb in the passive voice, — ^I am obliged to return. Some-
tunes hypocrites are mistaken for pious men. The deed is accomplished.
Water is resolved into its elements. My body is inclined by years.

868. GHANas of Oonstbttction. — ^A sentence containing a verb in the
active voice may often be converted into an equivalent one containing
a verb in the passive. Thus: — "Caesar invaded Britain.'* Make three
changes. 1. Change the active verb invaded to the same part of the pas-
sive voice, was invaded 2. Take the object JSntotn for the subject of the
pasdve verb, Britain was invaded, * 8. Introduce the preposition by after
the passive verb with the former subject Ccesar for its object, Britain was
invaded by Ccesar,


Correct the following sentences (see § 856), and mention the
mood and tense of each verb ;— What is become of your father? —
Samuel is grown out of my recollection. — ^The Jews were de-

855. How do some verbs have their participle ln«n^ need? When bo used,
how i» this participle to he parsed! 866^ How do we sometimes find the perfect
of certain intransitive verbs formed? Give examples. What is said of such
forms 9 Show howto parse them. 857. With what is there daofirer of confounding
the verb be followed by an adjective? Give examples showing the difference.
868. Into what may a sentence containing a verb In the active voice ctften be ooo*
verted t Enumerate the changes to be made.


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parted oat of the land. — ^Tha strife is ceased. — ^He was not yet
descended from Heaven.— Gold weather was already set in.— The
spectre was vanished.

Pa/ne the nouns^ odjectweB^ and verbs (tee § 857) : — Most per-
sons are ashamed to confess that they have been imposed upon
(»ee § 289). — ^Demosthenes was bent on defeating King Philip's
ambitions designs. — ^We are indebted to Newton for some most
important discoveries in Optics. — ^Free countries are generally en-
lightened. — ^It is proved that the earth's axis is inclined to the
plane of its orbit.

Change these sentences to equivalent ones containing a passive
verb (see § 858) : — Crocodiles inhabit the Nile. — ^Wm. Penn founded
Philadelphia.— Men have tamed steam to great accoont. — ^Bor-
goyne had already invaded New York.— You mast conquer aU
evil passions. — ^This news will surprise our neighbors. — ^All good
men should abhor a tyrant. — ^Wine must have overthrown Alex-
ander's reason.



859. Some verbs denote mi action or state, in which,
from its very natm-e, continuance is implied ; as, I lovej
I remember. Others affirm an action or state without
reference to its continuance ; as, I mUj I apeak.

Verbs of the latter class have a distinct form which
is to be used when the idea of continuance is to be
prominently conveyed. It is called the Progressive
Form, and is made by combining the participle in mg
with the various parts of the auxiliary he, as follows.
Recite all the persons in both numbers.

859. As regards continaance, what difference is there In the aignifioation of
verba t What verbs have a distinot form to imply continnancet What is it
eaUadt How is it formed 9


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Indicative Mood.
FSESBNT. — I am ruling, thou art ruling, &o.
Imperfect. — ^I was ruling, thou wast or wert ruling, &a
Pebfbot. — 1 have been ruling, thou hast been ruliog, &o.
Plttpbbeeot. — ^I had been ruling, thou hadst been ruling, &c.
FiBST Ftjtueb. — 1 shall or will be ruling, thou shalt or wilt, &o.
8boond Futubb. — ^I shall or will have been ruling, ^.

Potenticd Mood.
Pbbsent.— I may, can, must, or need be ruling.
Impbefbot. — I might, could, would, or should be ruling.
Pbefbot. — ^I may, can, must, or need have been ruling.
Plupeefeot. — I might, could, would, or should have been ruling.

Subjunctive Mood.
Present. — ^If I be ruling, if thou be ruling, &c.
Imperfeot. — ^If I were ruling, if thou were ruling, &0.

Imperative Mood.
Pbbsent. — ^Be thou ruling or do thou be ruling, &c.

Infinitive Mood,
Pbbsent. — To be ruling. Pebfbot.— To have been ruling.

Present. — ^Ruling. Oomp. Perfect. — Having been ruling.

860. Remakes. — ^Verbs whose simple form denotes continuance, have
DO progressive form. Such expressions as / am loving you^ I wot remem'
bering my friends^ are not good English.

861. All the parts of the progressive form given above are used with
an active signification ; and in the first and second person they are only
so used. But we have seen (§ 856) that, in the case of some verbs, the
participle in ing has a'passive as well as an active meaning ; and in these
the third person of the progressive form is also used passively. ** Houses

800. What verbs have no progressive form t 861. What signifioation have aU
the parts of the progressive form Just given t What different signifioation has the


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€are Tvpldij ereetinff,^ " The book m ptiiZMAtfi^ in numbers.'* **Adcli0on's
mnks were reprinting,^

862. In the present and imperfect indicatiye passive, another progres-
sive form is nsed, though it is less elegant than the one given above. It is
formed by combining the present participle passive with am and was, car-
ried thr<Migh their several persons and nmnbers; as, ** Houses are being
erected,^ << The will of Heaven wu being aeecmpliefied.^ This form it is
best to avoid. Use the other form in stead, or change the entire expres-
sion : ** Houses are in emtree of erectumJ'^ ** The will of Heaven wu
undergoing its aeeomplishment,'"

"Wlien the progressive form of a verb used with a certain subject Is sus-
ceptible of an active meaning, it must be used only with that meaniiig.
Thus we must not say th^ Christiane were perueuting^ unless we mean that
they persecuted others. If we mean they were persecuted themselves,
in stead of this form or the one mentioned in the last paragraph {tlu
Christians were being persecuted^ we use some equivalent expression, sudi
as the Christians were undergoing persecution.

363, Pabsino. — When a verb is in the progressive
form, state it in parsing after mentioning the number.
To determine whether it is in the active or passive voice,
see whether it represents its subject as acting or acted

/ am reading. - These things were transacting in

Am reading is an intransitive verb, in the indicative mood, present
tense, first person, singular number, progres^ve form, and agrees with its
subject I: — Hule^ A verb agrees with its subject in person and number.

Were transacting is a transitive verb, in the passive voice, indicative
mood, imperfect tense, third person, plural number, progressive form, and
agrees, &c.


Correct the following eenteneee by changing the wrbe from ike
progressive to the common form : — ^All men are loying tmth. — "So

third perBon of this form in eertain verbe t Oive examples. 862. What other pro-
greesive form is used in the present and imperfect indicative jMssive t What is
said with respect to this form 9 When must the progressive form of a verb be
used only with an active meaning 9 If, in such a case, we ^wish to convey a passivd
meaning with the Idea of continuance, how must it be done f 80S. How is a verb


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one was esteeming bim.— We shall be seeing what will happ«L —
I can not be disliking her. — ^We must be remaining till to-morrow.
— She asked me not to be forgetting her. — ^If thou were wishing to
help me, then cooldst easily do it.

Change 1M verba to the correiponding progremiw/arm^ and then
parte them : — ^The wind blows. — ^The storm raged.— I will wait for
you. — ^He must have dined. — ^Do yon write? — ^Efforts are made. —
The poor must soffer.— I had listened to an opera. — A civil war
was waged. — ^A canal was dug.— The criminal is punished. — ^Did
he eigoy himself? — James may have talked to my brother. — ^A re-
port is circulated. — ^I shall visit in Washington next week.



364. Nbgativb Conjugation. — ^The meaning of a
verb is made negative by joining to it the adverb not

365. In the infinitive mood and the participles, not
precedes the verb : as, not to rule, not to have ruled;
not ruling J not hamng ruled. So in the passive voice :
not to he ruled^ not to have been ruled; not being ruled j
not ruled J not hawing been ruled.

In the other parts, if the tense is simple, not must be
placed after the verb ; and, if compound, after the first
auxiliary ; as, I rule not, I shall not be ruled.

366. Go through the negative conjugation, forming
the tenses in order, as follows : —

Ihtooattte. — Present I rule not or do not rule,

Thou rulest not or dost not rule, &o.
Imperfect. I ruled not or did not rule.
Perfect. I have not ruled, i&c.

in the progreMive form to be parsed 9 How can it be determined whether it Ig in
the aetive or passive voice t Learn the parsing form.

864. How is the meaning of a verb made negative t 806. What Is the position
of the adverb not^ in the infinitive mood and the participles t What, in the other
partst 860. Oo throng^ the active votoe of the verb rule, ooi^ogated nogatlvdy.


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So in the paaslYe yoioe:-— I am not ruled, I was not ruled, I
have not been ruled, I bad not been mled, 6cc

80 in the progreasiye form : — ^I am not ruling, I was not mling,
I have not been ruling, I had not been mlilig, &c.

867. OofUradioM. — Bi oonTersation, the auxiliary and not following
K are often oontraoted. Hence arise audi forma as don\ didnX AovnV,
kan\ kadn% won% $han\ mayiCt, &c These contractionB are inadqua-
sible in dignified composition. If the j occur in parsing, treat them thus:
— **Don*t langh.** DonH is a contraction tot do not. Bo laugh is an
intransitiye verb, &c Not is an adverb.

368. Intbreogativb Conjugation. — ^A verb is said to
be used interrogativ elj when a question is asked with it ;
as,"^t*?e«^thou?** ''DosH^oundeV' In this case, the
subject, in stead of being placed before the verb, is
placed after it if the tense is simple, and after the first
auxiliary if the tense is compound.

869. The indicative and the potential mood only can
be used interrogatively. Go through the tenses, com-
mencing thus : —

JsDioATPnL — Present Bnle I or do I rule? Bolest thou or
dost thou rnle ? &c.
Imperfect. Baled I <>r did I rnle? Ruledst thou

or didst thou rule? ^
Perfect Have I ruled? Hast thou ruled? ^.
80 in the passive voice:— Am I mled? Was I mled? &o.
80 in the progressiYe form : — ^Am I ruling? Was I ruling? &o.


interrogative conjugation is made negative by placing
the adverb not immediately after the subject.

371. Go through the tenses, commencing thus : —

The paflsive voice. The progreitlye form. 867. What oontractioiui are frequently
made in oonvenatioD t What la aaid of the uae of these oontraoti<ma in compo-
aition t Give an ezam^e of the mode of paning them. 868. When is a verb aald
to be used interrogatively 9 When it ia thus uaed, where doea its subject atandt
860. What mooda alone are used interrogatively 9 Ooi^iigate the active voice of
the verb mZe interrogatively. The paaaive voice. The prograssive form. 870. How
b the interrogative cootjogation made negative t 87L Oive the active voice of tba


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Ihdioativx. — Preient Bole I not or do I not rule?

Imperfeet Bnled I not or did I not role?
Fmfeet Have I not ruled? &c.

80 in the passive voice : — ^Am I not mled ? Was I not ruled?
Have I not been ruled ? Had I not been mled ? &c.

So in the progressive form: — Am I not mling? Was I jiot
ruling ? Have I not been ruling? Had I not been ruling ? &o.

872. The adverb not is sometimes placed before the subject ; as, " Have
not I entreated thee ?" " Did not they insult me ? "

878. The interrogative form of the verb is used, when we ask simply
for information and are in doubt whether the answer will be yes or no. The
negative-interrogative form is used when we expect the answer yes. If I
am uncertain whether you are going to a certain place, I ask, ** Are yon
goingf If I think you intend to go or ought to do so, I ask, " Are you
no< going?**

8Y4. In the present and unperfect indicative of the above coi\jugations,
there are two forms. Of these, the compound forms containing do and did
are the ones commonly used ; the shnple forms appear only in solenm Style
or poetry.

Common Form. — ^Do you not know? Did you hear those loud con-
tendmg notes? Did I not speak to you?

Solemn and Poetical Form. — ^Enow ye not? Heard ye those loud
contending notes ? Spake I not unto thee ?


Change the terha niecessively to the corresponding ten»e of
the progressive^ negative, interrogatvoe, and negativeHnterrogative
form. Thus:-^

' Progressive. — ^He is smiling.
Negative, — ^He does not smile.
Interrogative. — Does he smile?
Negatiee4n,terrogative. — ^Does he not smile ? ^
She langhed. You have called him. «

Jane looks welL Lawyers make money.

Thou hast written. You deceive yourself.

verb ntfe, according to the negative-lnterrogatlye ooQJugtttion. The paesive voice.
The progressive form. 872. Where is the adverb nol sometimeB placed! 878. When
Is the interrogative form of the verb used, and when the negative-interrogative t
V71 In these conjugations, which is the common form of the present and imperfect
indicative t Where alone do the simple fbrms appear! Give examples.

He smiles.


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0»8ar OTarran GfttiL He -wiU soffer tcnrtiire.

Qome birds smg. You had walked rapidl j.

The J maj wait He might have watched.

Thou most go. Thej would make trouble.



375. Hoot of the Verb. — ^The present infinitive active
without its sign to, is the Boot of the verb. The first
person singular of the present indicative, subjunctive,
and imperative, has the same form as the root ; as, to
rule^ I nUej if I mley rule L

The verb 60 is the onlj exception to this rule. It makes / (xniy not / 6«>
In tke present indicative, though it forms its present subjunctive and im-
perative regularly, if Ibe^he L

376. The present' active participle is formed by add-
ing ing to the root, making such changes in the latter
as may be required by the rules of spelling : as, lamd^
Icmdmg; he^hemg; ruieyrulmgi -phiy pinrni^; permit,

377. Formation of the Compound Tenses. — ^The root
of the verb is combined with auxiliaries in the following
compound tenses of the active voice : —

tUeative and SubfuneHve Present, — I do rule,
IfuUeaHve and SiibipmcHve Imperfect, — ^I did rvie.
Indicative JPhUure, — ^I shall or will rtde^ be.
Potential Preeent, — ^I may, can, must, or need rw/tf, be,
Potential Imperfect. — ^I might, could, would, or should rtUey be.
Imperative Present, — ^Do thou rule.

The other compound tenses of the active voice are

876. What is the Root of the verb t What parts of the verb have the same
form as the root t What exception is there to this mle t 87«. How is the present
active participle formed f 877. Which of the compound tenses are formed by
oomhining the root of the verb with anxlllarlesf How are the other oompomid


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formed by combining the perfect or present participle
with auxiliaries ; as, I have nUedj I have been rvlmg.

378. Chief Parts of the F^.— With the root and
the perfect participle of a verb, then, we can form all its
compound tenses. If, together with these, we know the
imperfect indicative (with which, except in the verb he^
the simple form of the imperfect subjunctive corre-
sponds) we can conjugate the verb throughout.

The root, the imperfect indicative, and the perfect
participle, are therefore called the Qbief Parts of the

379. Verbs distinguished as Regula/r and IrreguLa/r.
— The imperfect indicative and the perfect participle of
most verbs are formed by adding ed to the root. Thus :
— ^Warm, warin^^?, yr^rmed; laud, \&xsAed^ laud^.

880. When ed is added, changes may be required in the root bj the
roles of spelling (page 20). Thus:— Final € of the root is rejected; as,
rule, rul-ed, rul-ed.

When the root is a monosyllable or is accented on the last syllable, its
final consonant, if preceded by a single Towel, is doubled: as, stir, stinted,
stinted ; bestir', bestirned, bestimed.

Final y of the root, if preceded by a consonant, is changed to •; as,
I^y, plted, plted.

381. Vetrbs that have but one form for the imperfect
indicative and perfect participle, made by adding ed to
the root, are called Regular. TTarm, wa/rmed^ warmed^
is a regular verb.

Verbs that have more than one form for the imper-
fect indicative or perfect participle, or that do not add
ed to the root to form these parts, are called Irregular.

tenses of the active voice formed f 378. With what three parts given can we
ooojngate a verb throughout t What are these three parts called f 879. How are
the Imperfect Indicative and the perfect participle of most verbs formed t
S80. When ed is added, what changes may be required In the rootf 881. What
verbs are called Regulart What verba are Iirogolart Oive ezampleaof both.
882. Learn the parsing form.


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Awake J omdhe or cmaked^ cmoJce or awaked^ — le^ woe,
been, — are irregular verbs.

382. Pabsing. — ^In parsing a verb, state whether it is
regular or irregular, and, if it is irregular, mention its
three chief parts, in the following order : —

*^ Wann your hands." Waxia is a regular tranaitiTe verb, in the adare
Toice, imperatiye mood, &c.

. '* He has been imprudent.'' Haa beoi is an irregular intranaliye reib ;
from be^ imm, been; in the indicatiTe mood, perfect tense, &c.


Write out or tpeU the three chief parts of the following regulw
^erbs^ making y when necessary^ the changes in the root mentioned in
§ 880: — Grant; heat; tattoo; fim; fawn; smile; root; rot;
hop; hope; hoop; row; ply; play; extol; profit; harass; hal-
loo; benefit; compromit ; hamper; deter; oocor ; destroy;
separate ; bnry ; file ; fill ; justify ; dismay ; tremble ; complain ;
saonter ; journey ; command ; woo ; transfer * hurrah.


883. The chief parts of the primitive irregular verbs
are presented below.

DeriyatiTe and compound verbs follow their primitives, and therefore
they are not given separately in the Table. Thus overtake and undertake
form their chief parts like their primitive take : overtake^ overtook^ over-
taken; undertake^ undertook^ undertaken.

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Online LibraryG. P. (George Payn) QuackenbosAn English grammar → online text (page 10 of 24)