G. P. (George Payn) Quackenbos.

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Undbb § 522. Good Queen Bess's, as she is commonly called,
reign, was one of the most glorious in English history. — Such was
this impostor's, if we may so characterize him, career.



RULE IV.— The Object.

523. A substantive that is the object of a verb or
preposition is in the objective case.

EzAMPLKS. — Some read books amply for amtisement. — Surveying the
einmtry on this side [of] the Yarroui^ I found some cbanning situations. —
It is past two o^ clock [for on the clock"]. — ^You are [by] five dollars richer
than yon were. — Do procure [for] her a situation. — ^I forbid you [to ap-
pear in] my presence. — ^He was taught [m] philosophy by Nevaton.

624. Do not introduce a preposition to govern the object of a transitive
verb. " Consider of my offer." Consider is a transitive verb, since it
affirms an action exerted on my offer; the preposition o/ should therefore
be omitted.

J$25. Do not make an intransitive verb govern an objective. ** He win
soon repent him of Ms crime." The verb wUl repent is intransitive, since
it affirms an action not exerted on any person or thing ; him should there-
fore be omitted. ** Beware the tempter." Beware is intransitive; the
preposition of should therefore be introduced, to govern tempter. — ** Be-
ware ofihe tempter."

626. A verb may have several objects, connected by a conjunction ; as,
** Cherish ^'iM^»c«, charity, and truth.""

627. A verb may be followed by two objectives, one of which is its ql>-

623. Recite Rule IV., relating to the object. Give examples. 524. Point oat
the error in the sentence Consider qf my offer. State the rule that applies.
625. Point out the error in the sentence Betoare the tempter. State the rale that
applies. 620L How many objects may a verb have! 687. By what may a verb be


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jeot and the other in iqypoeitioii with this olject; as, "Thej caU Walter
Soott the wizard of the North." Walter BcoU is in the objectiYe, bong
the object of the Terb caU; wizard is in the otgectiye, in apposition with
Walter Seott.

628. A yerb is frequently followed by two objectlTes, the former of
which is the object of a preposition understood, while the latter is the
object of the yerb ; as, ^* We promised [to\ the best ^>eaker a prize."
" Thrice they offered [to] Caesar a crown." " WUl you buy [for] me a

If the objects are transposed, the preposition is inserted; as, *'We
promised a prize to the best speaker." ** Thrice they offered a crown to
Caesar." " Will you buy a telescope for me ? "

When such constructions are thrown into the passiye form, the object
of the yerb, and not that of the preposition, must be made the subject ; as,
" A prize was promised to the best speaker," not " The best speaker was
promised a prize." ** A crown was thrice offered to Caesar," mot ** Caesar
was thrice offered a crown."

529. A yerb in the passiye yoice can haye no object. A substantiye
in the objectiye case, following such a yerb, is generally goyemed by
some prepoffltion understood ; as, " Eyen this fayor was denied [to] himJ*
" He was expelled [from] the kingdotn,'^

630. Ayoid making the same word the object of a yerb and prepom-
tion, or of two prepositions separated by interyening words. *" They not
only themselyes yigorously prosecuted^ but called on their allies to aid
them tn, the war.'" Correct thus: " They not only themselyes yigorouriy
prosecuted the war, but called on their allies for aid." ** I would haye
you pay deference to, and place confidence in, the friends that I leaye you."
Correct thus : ** I would haye you pay deference to the friends that I leaye
you, and place confidence in them."

531. Abeangement. — ^The object generally stands
after the governing word, but sometimes precedes it,
particularly in solemn and poetical style.

Examples. — ^I give you my peace. Bdemn style. My peace I give
unto you.

f()Jlowed f 628. When two objectivefl follow a verb, of what are they sometunes
respectively the objecte f If the objects are transposed, what chaoge is made in
the construction 7 When such constructions are thrown into the passive form,
What must be made the subject of the verb t 629. When an objective follows a
verb in the passive voice, by what is it governed ? 630. Of what must a word no*
be made the object ? Give a sentence in which this rule is violated, and show how
to correct it. 681. What is the poBition of the object t 632. What dasa of ^


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He Utob wHhin the city's walla. PoeHeai. He liTes the city's walls

682. The rdatives and interrogatlTes always precede thdr goyerning
Terfo. 27iat and as always precede the goyerning preposition ; the other
reUtiyes and the interrogatiyes often do so in familiar style. We say, '* The
man that I met, that I spoke to.^ ** The man whom I met, idiom I spoke
to, or to whom I spoke." " Whom did I meet ? ** " Whom did I q>eak
to, or to whom did I speak ?"

RXJLE V. — OBjBcrrvB without jl Pbxposition.

533. A modifying substantive, denoting time, direc-
tion, extent, quantity, or value, often stands in the ob-
jective case without a preposition.

Examples. — ^I am twenty years old, this yery day. — ^Three times he
rose. — ^A sick man always wants to go home, — She rode a mile, — ^A well
fi^jfeet deep. — ^This wheat will measure fifty buahehy and will weigh sixty
pounds to the bushel. — ^He chai^ged me a dollar for this book.

In the examples jiist ^yen, no preposition can be supplied to goyem
the objectiyes in italics. But in many cases prepositions are used or un-
derstood, and then Rule IV. applies. " On Monday last he started for
the south,^ " Our western prairies often extend for miles,^ ** A cubic
foot of gold would be [6y] many pounds heayier than a cubic foot of

634. To is omitted before homey north, south, &c., when not modified
by other words, but expressed when they are modified : as, ^' He went
home, north, south;" but, '* He went to his home, to the north, to the
fiimlistant south."


Ukdsb § 523. Who should I trust, if not he who I have lived
with for years?

[Oorreeted. — Whom should I trust, if not him whom I have
lived with for years ? WTio must be changed to tohom, he to him,
and who to whom, to be in the objective case ; the first whom

always precede their goyerning verb t What wordf always precede their goyern-
ing preposition t What words often do sot 633. Becite Rule V., relating to a
modifying substantive denoting time, &o. Give examples, and state what each
•bjectiye denotes. 684. Give the rule relating to the preposition to before homst
norPi, mnith, Ac.



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191 TAL8B ensiTAz.

being the object of the verb should truity h4m of ihould trutt
understood, and the second toJioin of the p]:<eposition with,]

I love 70. — ^Let all the world give homage, and they praise
that never praised before.— Who did Dr. Jones appoint as his
execntors ?— We will meet you and he this evening. — ^Let who-
ever you wish, be present. — ^I mentioned those that I had seen,
and she among the rest — ^Between you and I, there is something
wrong in that family.— Despite ye aJl, I will succeed. — ^We have
not had many Nero's in modern times. — ^Take care who you give
that letter to. — ^What has become of the Washingtons' and Frank-
lin's ?^ — ^Let the scholar confine himself to his studies, and he that
wishes to be safe avoid the vortex of politics. — ^Notwithstanding
the persuasions of my Mends and she whom I loved more than
ihey all, I determined to return.

Undsb § 524. I do not recollect of any parallel case in his-
tory. — He will conunence with his studies next week. — ^No per-
son that respects himself can allow of such liberties. — ^Why will
men pursue after pleasure ? — ^Man wants for little here below.—
She will not permit of any interference. — We have tried in vain
to discover about liis plans.

Under § 526. Fare thee well. — ^Retire thee into the drawing-
room. — ^We should beware us of evil practices.— I fear me there
are spies abroad. — Sit thee down and rest thee here.

Ui^DBB §528. Washington was offered kingly power.— It
seems as if I were grudged even the food I eat. — When a visitor
COQie^ ill, he should be handed a book. — ^I was told a very sin-
gular story. — He was allowed a pension in consequence of his

UiTDEB § 580. The nutmeg tree is a native of, and is still largely
cultivated in, the Moluccas. — ^We should not only respect and obey,
birt; try to pay every attention to, our parents. — ^The natives of
Iceland collect great quantities of, and realize quite a profit by
exporting, eiderdown.

Uin>EB § 533. A man of three-score years old.

[ Corrected, — ^A man three-score years old. Of must be omitted,
because years^ being the objective of time, needs no prepo-

Dig a pit of six feet deep.— If it rains on to-morrow, I shall
want to return to home without delay. — ^I met a lady of firom


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twenty to thirty years of age.— For three times the straggle was
renewed. — ^For these I will charge yon at a dollar a dozen.



RULE VL— SuBSTANnvBS in Apposition.

535. One snbstantiye joined to another denoting the
same person or thing, is in the same case.

Examples. — ^The fables of -fiaop, a Phrygian slave, — ^Wolsey, the
butcher's son, rose to be a cardinal. — ^Wolsey the cardinoTs career termi-
nated unfortunately. — Homer wrote two great works, the Iliad and the
Odyssey. — I heard it myself. — ^I Daniel saw a vision. — ^Ye gen^roHon of
vipers. — Father Matthew has done much for temperance in Ireland. — ^The
evangelist John was bom in Bethsaida.

The leading substantive generally precedes the other, but not always,
as will be seen by the last two examples.

586. Substantives in apposition are frequently introduced by the words
oa, or^ that ts, namely (vi^.), to vfit, ** France has always looked upon
England as her enemy [in apposition with £ngland]J" '*The czar, or
emperor^ of Russia, is now at Moscow." " The Helvetian republic, that is
Switzerland, has given many proofs of its attachment to liberty." ^^ Three
children of Henry YIII. reigned after him; namely [viz., to wit] Edward
VI., Mary, and Elizabeth^

587. A substantive repeated for emphasis often stands in apposition
with the same word previously used; as, **They are tyrants, unfeeling
tyrants, tyrants from whose tender mercies nothing is to be hoped."

588. A noun may be put in apposition with a clause or member of
a sentence; as, ** Pocahontas informed the colonists of the intended
massacre, — a favor that was not soon forgotten." As the clause or
member has no case, the case of the noun in apportion is not thus

636. Beoite Role VI., relating to substantiveB in apposition. Give ezamplM,
and state with what each substantive that illustrates the rule is in apposition.
How does the apposition snbstantive generally stand t 686. By what are snbstan'
tives in apposition frequently introduced ? 637. 'With what does a substantive
repeated for emphasis often stand in apposition t 688. With what, besides a sub-
stantive, may a noun be put in apposition t In such eonstruotions, what is th«


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MlUed; it may be regarded m in the nominatiTe independent, aooordbig
to Rule IL

639. A noun in apposition with a plural substantiye, or with two or
more singular substantiyes taken together, must be in the plural ; as, ** We
must not make ourselyes gluttons." " Washington and Adams, the first

640. The pronouns all, these, both, and such, are put in apposition
with more than one singular substantiye taken together; as, ** Hun, (xoth,
and Vandal, — all were Ihere.** "Scipio and Hannibal were both great

641. The singular pronoun each is put in apposition with a plural sub-
stantiye; as, **They looked out each for himself.''

642. In* the expressions each other (properly applied to two) and one
another (to more than two), each and one are in apposition with some pre-
ceding substantiye. ** Be ye loying to one another : " one is in the nomi-
natiye case, in apposition with ye ; another is in the objectiye, after the
preposition to, — be ye loving, one to ano^/ter.-^** Righteousness and Peace
haye kissed each other : " each is in the nominatiye, in apportion with
Righteousness and Peace ; other is the object of have kissed, — ** I giye yon
to each other : " each is in the objectiye, in appomlicm with you; other is
also in the objectiye after to,

643. There is no apposition in the following cases, even though the
substantiyes refer to the same thing: —

1. When one substantiye is in the subject and the other in the predi-
cate ; as, ** Prussia is a kingdom." Kingdom is in the nominatiye after
the yerb, according to Rule VIL

2. When of is introduced, to, govern the latter substantive ; as, " The
kingdom of Prussia." *

8. Between the parts of a complex proper noun(whidi should be taken
together m parsing); as, Cape Horn, the Ural Biver, Gilbert Motier de
La Fayette,

4. Between the relative and its antecedent The religion subsisting
between these is pointed out in Rule YIIL

644. When the substantives are in the possessive case, the dgn of the

case of the noon in apposition t 689. When must the apposition noun be put In
the plural ? 540. With what are the pronouns ail^ theee^ bothy and sitoh pat in ap-
position t 641. 'With what is each put in apposition t 642. In the expressions each
other and one another, bow are each and one used t Parse ow and another in the
sentence Be ye loying one to another. Parse each and other in the sentence Right-
eoueneee and Peace have ki—ed each other, 648. Spedty the four eases in which
there is no apposition. 644. When the suhstantivet are in the posaeiiive (
which takes the sign of the possessive t


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poflseflsiYe ia used but once, with the <me nearest to the noun modified ;
as, ** HU datiiBS as edUcr are yery arduous." *^ Leaye it at the doctar't
[office], mj friend on Broadway.** '* Take this prescription to JRll, the
apothecary's [shop],"


Undeb § 535. I loye the generous man, he whose great heart
Wide opens to enfold a fellow man.

[Corrected. — ^I love the generons man, him whose great heart,
&c, Ee must be changed to Am, to be in the objectiye case, bo*
canse it is in apposition with the objective fnan^

Harvey, him who discovered the circulation of the blood,
flourished in the time of King Oharles I. — ^Milton visited Galileo
in prison, he who made so many discoveries in Natural Philoso-
phy. — ^Will you thus requite me, ungrateful men — ^I who have
toiled for you — ^I who have lost all but life in your defence ? —
Captain Grant, he that conmianded the Yizen, I used to count
among my most intimate friends. — ^He loves you well, all ye that
hear my words. — Have you read any of the works of Hannah
More, she who was so popular at the commencement of the pres-
ent century ?



RULE VJU. — Substantives afteb Verbs.

645. A verb that has no object takes the same case
after as before it, when both words refer to the same
person or thing.

EzAMPlES. — ^Prussia is a JHngdom [same case as Prussia^ — ^nomma-
tive]. — ^I know Prussia to be a kingdom [same case as Prussia^ — objec-
tive]. — Who was Pericles ? [ Who is in the same case as PericleSj — ^nomi-
native.] — ^It was «Ac.— Did you know it to be her f

546. Rule VII. refers to intransitive verbs of existence, such as 6e, ie-

64S. Recite Rule VII., relating to BubBtantivea used after verbt. Oive exam-
pies, and point out the substantive before and after the verb in each. 646. What


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MMiM, t%tm out; abo, to the tranatiTe verbs cally name^ make, appoint^
eonnder, regard, and the like, in the paasiye Toioe. *' JBe has been, be-
come, preddent" ** He hoe been called, made, appointed, elected, cha$en,

547. The words after and before, as used in this rale, refer to the
grammatica], and not to the actual, order. In most cases, the two corre-
spond ; but the eubfect of the verb is always to be r^arded as before it,
and the other sitbetantitfe as after it, no matter what position they may
actually occupy. The gnunmatical order may be reversed ; as, ** Who art
thou?" 7%mi isthe subject or nominatiTe before the yerb ; who is in the
nominative after it. — ^Both substantives may precede the yeH> ; as, " I know
not what he is called." — ^Both substantives may follow the verb; as, *^ Are
you a Frenchman / "

548. The substantive before the verb is sometimes omitted; as, ** [For
a man'\ To become a profound scholar requires long and patient study."
Scholar is in the objective after to become, because man understood is in
the objective before it

549. The substantive before the verb may be a clause. As this clause
is the subject of the verb, it stands in the rektion of the nominative case,
and the substantive after the verb is also in the nominative. ** To write
well is a great accomplishment [nom.]." '* Why he did it Ib a, mystery
[nom.] to me."

550. Rule Vn., of course, applies to participles. **By becoming a
Quaker, Penn incurred his father's anger." Pcfin, to whidi the parti-
ciple becoming relates, is in the nominative case before it, and Quaker is
therefore in the nominative after it

551. A participle may be used independently. A noun standing after
a participle thus used, has no substantive before it with which to agree,
and, being used independently, is in the nominative case. ** Does not the
mind revolt at the thought of being a murderer? " *' The crime of bemg
a young man is too atrocious to be forgiven." Murderer in the first ex-
ample, and man in the second, having no substantive before the pus
ticiple being with which to agree in case, are in the nominative inde-

552. Exception to Eulb VlL — ^When the substan-

verbs are referred to in this rule ? 647. What is the meaning of the words after
and b^ore in this rule ? How does the g^rammatioal order compare with the actoal
order t Give examples in which theydlflbr. 648. Which substantive is some,
times omitted t 549. What may the substantive before the verb bet In what
case, then, is the substantive after the verb t 650. To what, of course, does Bole
VII. apply! Give an example. 66L In what case is a substantive after a psr-
ttoiple used independently t 552. State the exception to Bule VIL What do



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tive before the participle is in the possessive case, the
substantive after it is not put in the possessive, but in
the nominative ; as, " The news of my having turned
soldier [not soldier^ a] soon reached the village." " His
being a Frenchman has nothing to do with the matter."
Soldier and Frenchma/n, may here be regarded as in
the nominative independent.

Some grammarians teach that the substantive thus used after a participle
is in the posses^ve case, with the sign of the possessive omitted. But, when
a pronoun stands in this construction, it is unmistakably in the nominative
and not in the possessive ; as, ** I had no suspicion of its being (fuy [not
<Aeir]." It is fair to conclude that a noun in the same construction is in
the nominative also.

Others condenm this construction altogether and would substitute an
equivalent clause ; as, ** The news that I had turned soldier,^ &c.. ^* The
fact that he is a Frenchman,^ &c. " I had no suq)icion that it toas theyJ*
As, however, the construction in question is employed by good writers and
often expresses the idea more neatly than any other, there is no reason
why it should not be used. The substantive after the participle simply
constitutes an exception to Rule VII., and is to be parsed as in the nomi-
native independent.

553. This rule and the remarks under it are further illustrated in th«


No carpet knight was he. — ^What is a noun? — ^Be followers of
virtue. — ^To be called a great man is quite different from really
being one. — ^How the western continent became peopled, is still
an unsettled question. — ^Who would incur the imputation of being
a malicious slanderer ? — ^N^obody likes the idea of being called a
fop. — One critic approves of what is called mere bombast by an-
other.-^On account of there being but few present, the lecture
wA postponed. — ^Her being an heiress is certainly nothing against
her. — Bentley has the reputation of being the best Greek scholar
that England ever produced.

Bome grammarians teaeh respecting this constraotion t What objection is there to
thief What do others say of thi« oQUStmetiont Is there any good reason for


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UiTDXB § 646. Did you sappose it was me?

[Corrected, — ^Did jou suppose it was If Me must be changed
to /, to be in the nominative after the verb wae, it being in the
nominative before it.]

Did you suppose it to be I ?-t-Did you think that little ill-formed
man was me ? — ^If I were you or her, I would put a stop to such
proceedings. — ^You know not whom he may turn out to be. — He
is not the person whom he pretended to be, or who you supposed
him to be. — ^It was my brother that you saw, not me. — ^It makes
no diflferenoe whom or where you are, always be i)olite. — ^Why
did you say it was him? — ^The 2d[i8souri and the Mississippi are the
longest rivers' of North America.

Undbb § 661. I had no idea of its being him.

[Corrected. — I had no idea of its being Tie. Sim must be
chfljiged to Tie, the nominative case, because it is used independ-

llie possibility of their turning soldiers' never occurred to me.
— I have no doubt of its being her. — ^They entertained no suspi-
cion of its being me. — ^We had no hope of their becoming such



654. The case of a pronoun is determined by the
rules already given. These suffice for parsing ; but, to
avoid errors in speaking and writing, we must look to
other things also as well as case.

555. A pronoun takes the person, number, and gen-
der (when it has gender), of the substantive for which
it stands.

" Franklin loved TiU eountry, Victoria loves her country, the Swiss love
iTieir country, we love our country.** Here the pronoun changes first from

666. What detarmineB the person, number, and gender of a pronoun t Ulna'


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fsnsTTAx OF PBONomre. 201

masculine to feminine [his to her], then from singnlar to plural [her to
their\, then from third to first person [their to mir]^ in consequence of
similar dianges in the substantiYe for which it stands.

556. Exception. — Sometimes a pronoim, in stead of
agreeing in number with the word for which it stands,
agrees rather with the idea- conveyed ; as, " Israel had
pitched their tents in the desert." Here Israel is sin-
gular, but it means the Israelites, and hence the pronoun
referring to it is put in the plural.

** I hare ten dollars, and shall put t< in the Savings' Bank to-morrow.^
If I mean ten single dollars or separate coins, I should say ^^put them in
the Savings* Bank ; " but otherwise, though dollars is plural, one amount
is implied, and the pronoun, agreeing with the idea conveyed, stands in
the singular.

657. Many a is always used with a angular noun, as many « <tme,
many an idle toord; but the idea conveyed is plural. A pronoun standing
for a noun preceded by many a, in the same member, agrees with the noun
in the singular , but in B./ollomng member agrees with the idea conveyed
and is plural. *^ During this persecution, many a martyr shed his blood ;
and their names are still embalmed in the memory of the church.**

558. A pronoun referring to a collective noun is put
in the singular when the individuals referred to are
taken as one whole, but in the plural when they are
taken separately; as, "Here the little band lost some
of its best members." " The whole band eagerly
plunged into the river to drink their GM.^^

559. The collective nouns /e«^, manyy hundred, thousand, &c., preceded

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Online LibraryG. P. (George Payn) QuackenbosAn English grammar → online text (page 16 of 24)