G. P. (George Payn) Quackenbos.

An English grammar online

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so as to determine wUch is meant " We could not help admiring the
striking grandeur of the scenery in the neighborhood of this cascade.**
Or, " Struck with its grandeur, we could not help admiring the scenery
in the neighboriiood of this cascade." Or, " We could not hdp admiring
this cascade, which was surrounded by scenery of striking grandeur."

587. A pronoun should not be used with its substan-
tive, in a relation which the substantive may itself
properly sustain.

" Regulus haying reached Rome, he urged l^e senate not to accept the
terms proposed by Carthage." Omit Ae, and thus make Eegulvs the sub-
ject. " Whatever we desire, we are very apt to hope t^." Omit it, ** ii
is hard indeed, the lot of the poor when they are attacked by ndoiess.'*
Say, ** Hard indeed is the lot of the poor, when," &c


TJndeb § 581. A ruler that administers the laws with jiistice
and who consults the happiness of his subjects, will always be re-

[Corrected, — ^A ruler that administers the laws with justice and
th^ca consults the happiness of his sabjects, will always be respected.
Who must be changed to that, because th^t is used in the previoos

It may be corrected. Show what is wrong In the sentence We toere struck with the
grandeur qf the scenery in the neighborhood qf this cascade, and could not hOp ad-
miring it. Alter the Bentence in three ways, so as to determine Its wM»M*^ng
587. State the role relating to a proaoun and its substantive.


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relative clause with reference to the same antecedent, the two
clauses being connected by a conjunction.]

Such travellers as have penetrated into the interior of Africa
and who have given us an account of their explorations, repre-
sent it as abounding in game. — What surprises me most, and
which may well surprise every-body, is that men will so far lose
sight of their own interests as to fall into intemperance.— -Persons
that have been Hind from their birth, but who have opportu-
nities for instruction, can be taught to read with facility. — The
cotton that is raised on these islands, and which always commands
a better price than the ordinary qualities, is one of the staples of
the state.

Undkb § 582, 583. Can you remember the book where you saw
the passage ? — There are characters where there seems to be no
redeeming feature. — It is useless to speak of the authors whence
Milton drew his inspiration. — Gibbon sometimes utters senti-
ments whence we can derive no good. — He has produced a
volume well calculated to interest the class it is intended. —
What else could Bnrgoyne do in the circumstances he was

Under § 584. When there are too many laws, they are con-
stantly violated ; which always has a bad effect on the commu-
nity. — We love to see a man modest, which is generally a sign
of merit. — After an illness of a few days, Washington died;
which was the cause of great sorrow to the country at large. —
Hannibal wintered at Oapua, which proved the ruin of his

Under § 585. Jackson had no fears but what he would pre-
vent the further advance of the British. — ^We have bought some
of them French roses. — Do you like them fuchsias as well as ours?
— I have no apprehensions but what he will be in time.

Under § 586. Helen sent Mary a pot of jelly, which she said
she had made for her husband. — "No man should allow another
to commit a crime, if he can prevent him. — ^Why did not the friends
of Hamilton and Burr do their best to prevent the duel between
them ? — The simplicity of the style maintained throughout this
book, has always led me to admire it.

Under § 587. William and Mary, they have no love for study.
— ^It is singular the labor that men will undergo to avoid labor. —


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Koflsnth haying taken reftige in Tnrkej, he was now for a lime
safe. — ^It is not always right, what a man thinks to be right-
There is no politician, whom, however high he may stand in the
eyes of the world, we shall not find him selfish and nnscrapnloos.



RXJLE Vm.— Abticlbb.

588. An article relates to the word whose meaning
it limits.

ExA]iPLis.^ul tie the holiest thai can bind mem together. — 7%e ka
we talk, the less trouble we are likely to M into. — 77ie prodigal [penotu]
often come to want — Charles the Bald [kinff\. — If all the planets are in-
habited, what a countless thf(mg of liviDg beings most pass before the
Creator's eye I

689. The articles must not be interchanged. ** He does not look like
the man of talent" Change the to a, because no particular man of talent
is referred to.

590. An or a mnst not be used with a plnral nooB.
" He borrowed a tongs from a hut a long ways off."
Correct thus : — " He borrowed a pa4r of tongs from a
hut a great distance off."

591. No article must be joined to nouns used in
their widest sense, or to the names of qualities, passions,
states of being, &c., taken generally, and not as belong-
ing to a particular object.

We say, ** Lead us not into temptation [not the temptation] ; deliver
us from evil [not the evil].^ But we speak of ** the temptations of the

588. Becite Rule VIII., relatlDg to articles. G-iye examples, and in each tell
to what the article relates. 589. In the sentence He does not look like the man ^
talentf what change should be made, and why ? 690. With what must an or o not
be used? 591. To what nonns mnst aa article not be joined f When mnst the
article be prefixed to the names of qoaUtles, passions, states of feeling, Jbct


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world," ** the evil of sin.** So, " Patience is a virtue ; " but " the patience
of Job." When we limit the meaning of the noun to a particular object
with the preposition o/J we must introduce the article.

592. No article must be joined to the names of the arts and sciences,
or words used merely as tities ; as, " Columbus was well versed in geog-
raphy and mathematics [not tfie geography and the mathematics],'" *^ The
supreme executive officer in Russia is called Czar [not a Czary^

593. When two or more nouns joome together in the same construction,
the article need not be repeated unless they are contrasted; as, "The
energy and ambition of Napoleon were equalled only by his selfishness."
But, ^* We admire the energy, but not the ambition, of Napoleon." The
article is here repeated, because the nouns are contrasted.

594. If one of the nouns does not admit an article before it, place it
first; as, " Mathematics and the classics should both be studied as a men-
tal discipline," — ^not the classics and' mathematics, for then the article
would appear to limit the meaning of mathematics also.

695. In making a comparison, if we refer to one per-
son or thing viewed in different characters or capacities,
we must use the article but once ; if we refer to two
persons or things, we use it twice.

^^ Shakspeare was a greater poet than actor." Here we refer to but one
person, and say that he was greater as a poet than as an actor. If we re-
peat the article — "Shakspeare was a greater poet than an actor" — ^we
mean than an actor vtas^ and refer to two different parties.

596. So, when a noun is preceded by two or more ai^jectives connected
by a conjunction, if but one person or thing is referred to, place the article
before the first adjective only ; but, if more than one, use the article
with each adjective. If we mean one spot, partly black and partly blue,
we say "a black and blue spot"; but, if we refer to two spots, one all
black and the other all blue, we say " a black and a blue spot ".

597. Few means not many ; little means not much. By putting the
article a before them, we make their meaning positive ; a few, a little,
mean some. It is better to have a few virtues than/cw virtues, and a little

602. To what elfle mast an article not be Joined? 593. When two or more nonni
come together in the same conatruction, when may we use the article but once,
and when must we repeat itf 694. What must be done, if one of the nouns does
not admit an article before it f 695. In making a comparison, when must we use
the article but once, and when must we repeat it ? 596. When a noun is preceded
'by two or more adjectives connected by a conjunction, when must the article be
used before the first adjective only, and when before eaoht 597. What does/ew


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money than litile money. A person may be commended for haying fiw
yiees, but not for haying a few,

598. Abeangbment. — ^The article generally precedes
its noun, but sometimes follows it ; as, the fourth chap-
ter, chapter the fourth.

599. When both an article and an adjective are joined to a noun, the
usual order is article^ adjective^ noun; rarely, as in the last examine, nowa^
article^ adjective,

600. The adjective stands before the article and noun, when theexpres*
aons all ihe^ both the^ many a, such a, tohat a, are used ; as, both the

601. When the adjective is modified by a«, how, so^ or toOy the artide
stands immediately before the noun, and the adjective with its modifier
either precedes both or follows both ; as, too terrible a doom, or a doom too
terrible. When the a<]yective is modified by any other adverb, the order
is either artide^ adjective^ noun, or better article, noun, adjective. We say
a dazzlingly bright eye, or better an eye dazdingly bright*

602. When the adjective is modified by several words, the article pre-
cedes the noun, and the acyective with its modifying words follows it ; as,
a character hvely in every point of view,


Ukdbb § 589. A diphthong is the combination of two vowels in
one syllable.

[Corrected, — ^A diphthong is a combination of two vowels in
one syllable. TTts must be changed to a, becanse a diphthong,
one of the kind bat no particular one, is defined.]

By the variation of the compass is meant a deviation in the
direction of the needle from due north. — ^Few flowers are so beau-
tifdl as a dahlia.*— An eagle is the emblem of America. — ^A whale
is the largest of fish. — Critics are not agreed as to what animal
Job means, when he speaks of a leviathan. — She is entitled to the
third of her husband's property.

mean f What doee little mean? What is the effect of patting a "beforp/eirand
little 7 Illustrate this. 698. What is the uflual position of the article Y 699. When
both an article and an adjective are joined to a noun, what is the usna] order t 600.
In what ezpresBions does the adjective precede the article and nonnt 001. Whatfi
the order, when the adjective is modified by a«, how, so, or too 7 What is the order
when the adjective is modified by any other adverb I 602. When the «4jectiT« !■
tnodifled by Meveral words, what is the ord«r t


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Undsb § 590. I have just ordered a splendid regalia.— Abont
thia time, people were alarmed by a singular phenomena in the
Bkf. — ^The crime was committed in a thick woods. — ^I can not cnt
with snch a doll scissors.^When you go to market, bny me a hen
and chickens.

Undbb § 591, 592. The apteryx is a cnrionskind of a bird with-
out the wings. — Which most not be used when a reference is made
to persons. — The law is Jnst, bnt it operates hard in the particular
cases. — ^Neither the famine nor the pestilence destroys as many as
the sword. — Osesar was now again saluted as the dictator.

. Undeb § 598, 594. Europeans can stand the heat, but not ma-
laria, of Africa.— It is the justice, as much as wisdom, of a magis-
trate, that we admire. — The law and politics engaged his attention
by turns. — ^The dahlia, as well as fuchsia, is a native of America.

Undeb § 595. A mastiff makes a better watch-dog than spanieL
— ^Many a boy that is sent to college would make a better black-
smith tha^ a scholar. — ^A German acquires the English language
more easily than Italian. — Michael Angelo was as great a painter
as a sculptor. ^

Undeb § 596. Farmer Ball has a black and white cow, and lets
them both run on the road. — ^A black and a white cow was run
over by the locomotive last Tuesday. — ^The past and present con-
dition of Greece present quite a contrast— The upper and lower
cities have a very different appearance. — ^There is a black and a
blue spot where I struck my arm.

Ukdeb § 597. I am happy to say that he has little sense of shame
left. — ^We can point with honest pride to few American sculptors.—
They have run through their property, and now have a little left.



RULE X. — ^ADjEcmvBs.

603. An adjective relates to the substantiye whose
meaning it qualifies or limits.

e03. Recite Rule X., relating to MU«otiTM. aiye example!, and in each tell


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EzAMPLis. — T^ruth is eternal, — We are ali mertal. — 7b retrtai is ioh
pouible, — Thai the beet prifUinff-preseee art made in the United Siatet k
eerfatM.— Tlie ungraUpd [perume\ are tiie»riaa&£^-»To be [a] mrtwxek
\yiMLn\ is to be [a] haff^ \man\*

604. Use ihie and thai with singular noons oidy, theu and tlum odIj
with plurals. Say HtU eort of mai, not then $ort, beeanse son is aogii-
lar; these tidengsy not thU tidrnge^ beeanse tidings is plnraL

60ft. This here and these ^ere^that there and Aftose '<re, are gross entMa
Ck>rrect bj omitting the adverbo thi s boy, not this here boy,

606. Few ToisisiiB not many: little meuoB not muclL Few, fewer, faeest,
are therefore used with reference to things numbered ; littUy less, leatt,
with reference to quantities. " There can not be fetoer than a hundred
persons present ** It can not weigh less than a hundred pounds."

60Y. Whole implies entireness of parts. To imply entireness of ncim-
ber, we must use a//. We say the whole population, but aU the inhabi-
tants. Whole Tillages may be destroyed in a country, yet some may es-
cape ; if ol/ the yilti^es are destroyed, none esci^e.

608. A^jecdves, though they have the form of participles or are de-
rired ftom them, can not gorem the objective case. If an objective fol-
lows them, it depends on a preposition, and this preposition should gen-
erally be expressed. Say conduct unbecoming to a gentleman, not wnbe-
coming a gentleman,

609. Abeangemknt. — ^When several adjectives are
joined to a noun, if all refer to it alike, they are gener-
ally arranged according to their length, the shortest
first, and connected by a conjunction ; as, " a gracdPal,
beautiful, and intelligent girl ".

But sometimes an adjective forms with a noun one
complex idea that can be modified by another adjec-
tive, and this again by another. In such cases, the
adjectives are not connected by a conjunction, and

to what the adjective relatee. 604. WUh what muBt this and that be used t With
what, these and those 1 606. What expreuionB are pronounced s^oes errors f How
are they to be corrected? 60«. To what are/cir, /c«?cr,/ewcs< applied, and to
-what little, lese^ leaat 7 607. What is the difference of meaning between whole and
ait 7 mnatrata this. 608. la an adjeetive capable of governing t What should be
expressed after an adjeoUve, to govern the objective case t 609. When several ad-
jectives refer alike to a noun, in what order are they generally arranged t In what
ease mnst the adjectives not be connected by a oopjnnction f How must they thoft
W amagedt In what order do ttacy generaBy stand, as regards their meaning I


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must be so arranged that each may properly modify
the complex idea conveyed by the adjectives and noun
which follow.

Adjectives denoting material generally stand nearest the noun, then
those denoting color, then age, then ordinary qualities : as, " a handsome,
new, white wooden cottage ; " "a well-formed, spirited, young iron-grey
horse ; " ** a gloomy, dilapidated old building ".


Undbb § 604. Napoleon was rapid in his movements, and by
these means surprised his enemies.

[Corrected, — ^Napoleon was rapid in his movements, and by
^AiMneans surprised his enemies. ITiese must be changed to thia^
because, but one means being spoken of, means is singular.]

Put that ashes in the barrel. — I can not help thinking of those
bad news you brought. — ^After you have bought a gallon of those
good molasses, take this spectacles to the silver-smith's, to get
them mended. — Eor this last ten dayd, she has suffered from
neuralgia. — Old houses are infested with rats and mice, and this
vermin sometimes do great damage to the walls. — None of those
kind of persons will be admitted.

Undbb § 605. I do not like tiiese 'ere coarse-pointed pens.-^
Set out those 'ere onions in this here bed. — What has become of
that there friend of yours ?

Under § 606, 607. I have little fears on that subject. — She
donH like visitors; the less she has, the better it suits her. — In
this retired spot, you have the least possible interruptions. — No
less than forty-seven scholars were engaged on our standard
translation of the Bible. — If less than twenty members are pres-
ent, no business can be done. — ^The whole waters around New-
foundland teem with fish.— All the families in New York were
attacked by the cholera ; very few escaped altogether. — The whole
details are harrowing in the extreme.

Under § 608. Be sparing flattery, when you are in the com-
pany of sensible people. — Some persons are so vile as to be utterly
undeserving notice.-^We expect from you such deportment as is
becoming your position in. life.— Parties most deserving the aid
of the charitable are frequently overlooked.


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Uin>BB § 609. An indnstrious, obliging, £uthftil, and Bmart
servant, is a rarity. — I found her an iutelligent and young lady. —
The company have just erected a brick fine four-story building. —
Here is a white fragrant rose. — ^We saw a number of rusty singu-
lar copper old coins. — ^They have presented their minister a new
black handsome doth coat.



610. Adjectives whose meaning precludes the idea
of comparison must not be compared. Nor must they
be used with more^ most^ less^ leasts sOy or any other
adverb implying difference of degrees in the quality

An a(\jectiTe already in the comparatlye or superlative d^ree most
not be made the basis of a new comparison.

Do not say, the ehiefut beauty, a truer statement, to faultiest a char-
acter, the farthereet house, a more nearer view, the least trised couise.
Correct by omitting the termination or adverb that implies comparison;
or by substituting an ai^ective that may properly be compared. Tima :
the chief beauty, a more correct statement, a character so nearly faultless^
^e farthest house, a nearer view, the least toise course.

611. In comparing two objects, use the comparative
degree ; in comparing more than two at once, the
superlative: as, "the elder of the two brothers,"
" tiie eldest of the family ". " Asia is larger than Eu-
rope." " Asia is the largest of the grand divisions of
the earth."

The comparative degree is used when an object is compared with any

•10. What adjeetives muit not be compared f With what wortU, also, miut
nioh a4jectivei not be used Y What rule U laid down with i«tpect to a4}eottv«t
already in the comparative or tnperlative f According to these rulee, what are wt
forbidden to say f Howmnat -we correct ench expreaaionaf 611. In comparing
objects, when matt the comparative degree be used, and when the luperlattvet


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number of others, provided they are taken separately ; as, ** Asia is largtt
than Europe, Africa, or North America.'* ** Asia is larger than any other
grand division."

612. After the comparative degree, use other with
the latter of the terms compared, if it includes the
former, and only then.

" The Amazon is longer than any river.'' The Amazon being a river,
the latter of the terms compared, rtver, includes the former, Amazon:
and we assert that l^e Amazon is longer than itself. Correct by intro-
ducing the word otluir^ to exclude the former term : '* The Amazon is longer
than any other river."

" The Amazon is longer than any other river of Europe.^ Here the
Amazon is not compared with rivers in general, but with the rivers of
Europe. As it is not itself a river of Europe, the latter term compared
does not include the former, and other must be omitted.

613. After the superlative degree, neither other nor
any must be used with the latter of the terms com-
pared ; this latter term must include the former.

**The Amazon is the longest of all other rivers." ^^The Amazon is
the longest of any river in the woiid." Both these sentences are wrong,
because the latter term compared does not include the former. Say, ^' The
Amazon is the longest of rivers ; " or, of all rivers.

** Augustus was the greatest of all his successors." Wrong, because
Augustus was not one of his own successors; the latter term does not in-
clude the former. Correct by substituting a term that does include the
former : " Augustus was the greatest of all the Roman emperoray Or else
substitute the comparative degree : ** Augustus was greater than any of
his successors."

614. An adjective in the comparative or superlative
must precede an adjective modified by niore or mostj
relating to the same noun ; as, " a larger and more in-
teresting volume ".

In what case may the comx>arative degree be used, even when on object is cona*
pared with any number of others f 612. How and when must other be nsed after
the comparative degree f Show by examples when other mast be used, and when
not. 618. After the superlative degree, what words mnst not be used with the
latter term! Why notY Illustrate this principle. 614. What is the proper
•rderi when a oomparativs or luperlativ* and an a4)eotiv» modified by more or


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riXMB 8Y19TAX*

We do not mj **a more inftereedng and hrger Tdnsie,'' 1. Bemue U
would sound ilL 2. Because it mi^t appear tbat mor# belonged to the
second adjectiTe larper^ as well as to irUeretting,

615. Adjectives mnst not be uged for adverbs, nor
adverbs for adjectives. See § 403, 404.


TJndxb § 610. Nothing is more preferable than a good char-

[Corrected. — ^Nothing is preferable to a good character. More
must be omitted, because the meaning of preferable precludes the
idea of comparison. Than must be changed to to, because |>r^i3f-
ahle is followed by to,]

The people were clamorous for a freer constitution. — ^Few in*
stitutions give so complete a course and so perfect an education
as the German Uniyersities. — ^Turkey is as dead as any country
can well be. — ^The raisins of Malaga are more superior than those
of Smyrna. — The English regarded Wellington with the most
entire confidence. — ^Mohammedan pilgrims look upon Mecca as
the most holiest spot on earth.— Did you not promise to take
her for better or worser? — ^The Pacific is the least roughest of
all the oceans. — How much more are we better off than ever
before I

Under § 611. Which of those twins is the largest ? — ^The elder
of your three brothers is the smaller. — ^Is the present or the past
condition of France the best? — ^Which is the most northerly, New
York or San Francisco ? — ^Which is the more northerly. New York,
Philadelphia, or San Francisco ? The former, I think. — ^At Pana-
ma, the year is divided into a wet and a dry season ; the last is
the shortest — ^We have a department for boys and one for girls;,
the former are the smartest in arithmetic, but the latter are the
best in composition.

Undeb § 612. The plague was more fatal than any disease
then known. — Mary is shorter than any other of her sisters.—
Jeremiah is more pathetic than any of the prophets. — ^Day and

ntMt relate to the aitine nounf Why should we not say a mon inier^titig oMd
targar volume 1 016. What it the laat rule relating to a4iMtlTea?


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FAL8B snrrAX. 8S8

night are longer in the polar regions than in other lower latitadetk
— Iridium and platinum are heavier than any of the metals.

Undbb § 613. Lake Superior is the largest of anj lake in the
world. — ^Washington was the last of his soldiers to leave the field.

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Online LibraryG. P. (George Payn) QuackenbosAn English grammar → online text (page 18 of 24)