G. P. (George Payn) Quackenbos.

An English grammar online

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645. The sign to must not be separated from the
rest of the infinitive by an adverb ; as, " To faithfuUy
represent this scene would be impossible." Say^Jzi^A-
fvUy to represent this scene, or to represent this scene

646. lie sign to must not be used for the full infini-
tive, unless the root of the verb can be supplied from
the preceding parted the sentence.

'^ Yoa might turn your talents to some account ; you ought to." la
dignified compositicm, ycu cughi to do8o would be pr^erred ; hot 4he sen-
tence is grammatical as it stands, because we can supply turn frcm tiie
first member and thus correctly complete the infinitive. **You neTcr
turned your talents to account ; but you ought toJ** Wrong, because, in
completing the infinitive from the first member, we should have to say to
turned. Change to you ought to have done so.

647. The infinitive is used without its sign to after
the following verbs : —

1. Bid (meaning order\ in the active voice; as, "He bids us come.**
But, " He bids fair [that is, is Hkeli/] to succeed." " He was bidden [pas-
sive] to prepare."

2. Dake (meaning venture\ when not in the infinitive, participles, or
compound tenses ; as, *' I dare not speak." Tet to is sometimes used ; as,
"Nobody dares to touch him." — To Tomst always be used in infinitives
after dare meanmg challenge^ and after the infinitives, participles, and
compound tenses of dare meaning venture; as, "They will not dare to
draw back."

pendent nee. 644. What preposition mnst not be used immedifttely befiure the ]&>
ftnitivef 645. What !■ the role relating to the separation of the sign tol
646. When only may the sign to be used for the fall infinitive t Oive examples of
its proper and improper use for the full infinitive. 647. When must the infinitive
be used without its sign, and when not, after bid! After dare 7 Atter/eel 7 After
hear 7 After make7 Does to ever appear in the Infinitive after ma^0 7 When does
389 require the omiasion of to, and when not! What verb in both voice* requires
th* emission of to) After what other v«rb« is the aign of the Infinitive oooaidiOoaOy


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% FBI., wbm tnuuitive and vied literallj; as, ^*Did yon fM tiie ball
enter ? " But, when feel is in the passive Toice, or is used figuratively o€
the mind, to must be introduced; as, " The ball was felt to esAer,^ *^I
feel it to be right."

4. HsAB, in the active voice; as, ^^ Just hear it thunder.^ •

5. Make, in the active voice ; as» *' He made them leave the reopL**
Bui to is sometimes used ; as, ** Hake us to love, thee/' ^

6. See, when transitive, in the active voice ; as, *^ See it rain.^ When
4ie is intransitive, to must be introduced ; as, " Can ypu see to thread this

i, liBT, in bodi voices ; as, " Let them go.** " They were let go."
8. Occasionally, also, after find, have, help^ know, behold^ observe^

wateh, and in familiar style please; as, "Help us pray [or to pray].^

" Please receipt the bill."

648. After other verbs than thoSe Just named, the sign to must not be

649. If two infimtiTi6ff or more are nsed in the same
construction, the sigii to generally appears in . the first
only, nnless they are separated by a number of inter-
vening words ; as, " Let xxs try to /io good and avoid

650. Use the present infinitive to express an action
or state not completed at the time denoted by the lead-
ing verb; the perfect, to express an action or state

"He expected to return to-day [not to have returned].^ "Napoleon
had hoped to occupy Dresden [not to have oceupied].^^ " The Norw^ians
are thought to have crossed the Atlantic before Ck)lumbus."


TJiTDEB § 644. Never do alms for to be seen of men. — ^We all
love for to see justice and virtue triumph. — ^Always strive for to
gain the approbation of your own conscience ; for to have this is
better than great riches.

omitted t 648. What is said of the f ign to after other verbs than those just named ?
649. What is said respecting the nse of this sign, when two inflnitives or noore are
joined in the same constraotion f 050. What must the present inflnitiye he used
forexpresstngt What, the perfect inflnitiTe f


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Undeb S 645, 646. It is the duty of the good man to sternly
rebuke immorality, not only by precept, but* also by his example.
^The grammarian is not to arbitrarily create rules, but to
patiently deduce them from the writings of standard authors.—
I seem to distinctly behold the whole scene. — Jackson vetoed
the United States Bank, as he had always intended to.— The
Pacific Railroad has not been built, but it is likely to before

Undeb § 647. The captain bid us to leave the wreck, since he
dared not to stay auy longer. — ^I feel the pain to dart from one finger
to another, and can almost see my arm to swell. — A few words
were let to slip, that made me to apprehend some difficulty.—
Do you feel it be right to leave, when you were bidden remain?
— When we have dared speak the truth, we feel that we
have done right. — ^You were heard say that you would dare any
one to mount your horse. — ^In this disease, pains are felt shoot
through all parts of the body. — You can hear with great dis-
tinctness the volcano to rumble, as if cannon were booming in
the distance.

Undeb § 648. Do I understand you say that you will not
allow us remain ?— This movement on Dorchester Heights caused
the enemy evacuate Boston. — An idle pupil needs be re-
minded of the value of time. — ^Have I not forbidden you talk in
school ?

Undeb § 650. Before this time to-morrow, we ought certainly
to have received news. — ^A keen speculator would not have let
such a chance have passed by unimproved. — ^Did you expect to
have accomplished what no one has ever done before ? - Yoti
profess to have been disappointed in me ; I am sorry to fall short
of your expectations.

Miscellaneous. — ^Murat ordered his cavalry to immediately
charge at full gallop. — ^Many a martyr has died rather than to
deny his faith.— You need to do nothing more than to call his
attention to the fact. — ^I shall try to have seen you before to-
morrow. — ^How can I cause my ideas flow more rapidly ?— Swne
credulous minds can be made believe anything. — ^What went ye
out for to see? — ^You should not have told her to have re-
turned so soon. — ^I wish you to thoroughly understand the sub-


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ooNSTBironoK of pabticipleb. 237



RULE Xm.— Pabticiples.

651. Participles are used independently, or relate
to the substantives whose meaning they qualify or

ExAMPLKS. Used independently, — ^There is no way of hecwning a thor-
ough scholar without patient study. — Judging from appearances, the west
wiU soon be settled. — ^It is dangerous standing so near the edge of the
precipice. — What is worth doing at all is worth doing well.

Relating to eubstantives. — ITiey continued praying. — I intend starting
Immediately. — Cease [you] tormenting me. — Rewarded with the lucrative
office of master of the mint, Newton enjoyed an honorable and well-de-
served competence.

652. A participle often stands independently in a substantive clause
used as the subject or object of a verb ; as, ** His being here is no secret."

653. Position.— A participle generally follows its
substantive. But, if the substantive is the subject of
a verb, it is sometimes better to place it after the par-
ticipial clause. *See the last example in § 651.

It always sounds ill to introduce a participial clause between a pronoun
and the verb that agrees with it ; as, " I, worn out with fatigue, seized
a few moments for repose." Correct by placing the participial clause
before the substantive : " Worn out with fatigue, I seized a few moments
for repose."

654. When a participle is not used independently,
see that it is joined to the word to which it really

" By neglecting to punish the vicious, vice is encouraged." Wrong,

661. Beoite Bule XIII., relating to participles. Give examples of participles
osed independently. Give examples of participles relating to substantives.
662. Where does a participle often stand index>endently f 663. How does a partici-
ple stand, as regards its substantive f Where does it sound ill to introduce a par*'
tieipial dause f How is such an arrangement to be corrected f 654. When a par-


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"jtSB oQHfloyppn o K ov sabuciplbs.

becmiue negUcting is here Joined to viee^ as if vice n^lected to punifih the
Tidous. Correct by i&troducing the sobstantiTe to which neglecting really
relates : ** By neglecting to punish the yicious, we encourage yice.^

655. The participle of a transitive verb governs the
objective. The preposition of^ therefore, should not be
introduced between such a participle and its object ;
as, "by erecting ^statues," "for controlling of elec-
tions ". Correct by omitting of.

656. When the^ cm or a, this^ or thaty is introduced
brfore a participle, the latter becomes a noun and loses
its participial construction.

In such cases, the construction of a noun is assumed throo^iout la
adjective, but not an adverb, may be used as a modifier ; and of must be
Introduced if an otyect follows: as, "by .this erecting (^ statues," "for
the more effectual [not effectually] controlling of elections ''. — Obserre,
however, Uiat the common kindred noun, when there is one, is often to
be preferred ; as, " by this erectioh of statues," " for the more effectual
tonirol of elections ".


Fin>EB § 653. He, feeling his deficiencies, retnmed to school

[Oorrea^. — ^Feding his deficiencies, he returned to sdiool.
The participial clause most not separate the pronoun he from the
verb returned, which agrees with it.]

On receipt of this newisi, he, thinking that he now had an op-
portunity of advancing his fortunes, sailed for Europe. — ^You, after
making all these sacrifices, will find that you have gained nothing.
— ^Why should I attempt to comfort her? for she, fearing the
worst, has closed her ears to all words of comfort.

Under § 654. Resting on the brow of the hill, the spires of
the far-distant city met our view. — ^Accompanied as they are with
such incessant toil, who would care for the honors of office ?—
Groaning and reeling under its load, we saw the stage-coach

tioiplA is not used independently, to what must we see that it is Joined t 665. What
case does the participle of a transitive verb govern f What follows with respect
to the preposition qff 666. When does a participle beoome a noun t In such cases,
what ooBstmotion is assumed t What is meant by its assuming tho eoDStmotiflo
ofanoonf What is often to be prefured to this partioi|^ial noon f


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(dowlj ascending the hill. — ^While pondering which course I
flhonld pursue, mj horse pricked up his ears and set out briskly
on the right-hand road, dripping with sweat and covered with

TJnbeb § 656. There is no charity in giving of money to the
intemperate. — ^By helping of others, we often help ourselves. — ^A
public library was founded for promoting of the g^ieral intelli-
gence.-^True happiness generally results from doing of one's duty.

Under § 656. There is no charity in the giving money to the in-
temperate. — True happiness generally results from the doing one's
duty. — This mere reading books can not educate a man truly. —
The following an upright course is a requirement of policy as well
as duty. — ^That neglecting the divine law which so often proved
£M^ to the ancient Israelites, will be found quite as fatal in our
own case.



RULE XIV. — ^PossEssrvB bepoeb a. Paehciplb.

657. A snbstantive which, in stead of being modi-
fied by a participle, is made to modify the latter, is pnt
in the poBsessive case.

ExAMPLKS.— Who first eonceived the idea of ^e moorCs being in-
halHted ?— I have no objection to hit becoming amen^bant — ^Did you hear
of my teaching sdiool at Huntsville ? — ^Tbe j were surprised at Aer reading
so well.

658. A participle thus modified by a substantive in the possessive case
is used independently.

659. A participle modified by a substantive in the possessive does
not become a noun. This is shown by its sometimes taking an object
and being modified by an adverb, — ^like the participle taking in this sen-

067. Beeit« Rule XIV., relating to a subetanUve modifying a partioiple. Oiv«
ttamples, and in each tell what the posMMiye modifies. 658. How la a participle
modified by a poiaesiive niedt 660. Prove that a partioiple modified by a rab-


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660. "When a participle relates to a substantive, the
substantive is the leading word. When a participle is
modifitd by a possessive, the participle is the leading
word. Use, therefore, the former of these constructions,
if the substantive denotes the leading subject of dis-
course ; the latter, if the participle denotes it.

" Cicero, fearing an outbreak, bade Catiline leave ihe city.'* It waa
CScero that bade Catiline leave ; hence we make the noun Cicero the sub-
ject, and join the parUciple to it as a modifier. ** Cicero, allowing Cati-
line to leave the city, may appear strange to some.^ Wrong, because it
is not Cicero that may appear strange, but his allowing Catiline to leave
the city. We therefore change Oieero to the possessive, that it may mod-
ify the participle, and make the whole participial clause the subject of the
verb may appear : ** Cicero's allowing Catiline to leave the city may i^
pear strange to some.**

661. If the use of the participle is attended with
awkwardness or obscurity, substitute for it a noun, an
infinitive, a finite verb with thaty or some other equiva-
lent construction.

** A man's uttetly neglecting the laws of health must sooner or later
bring on disease.** Correct thus : '* An utter n^lect of the laws of health
must sooner or later bring on disease." *^ They refuse accepting the offered
mercy." Say, " They refuse to accept," or simply " They refuse the of-
fered mercy." '* I remember its being considered quite a voyage to ascend
the Hudson to Albany." Improve thus : *^ I remember that it was consid-
ered," kc " The En^ish language's containing so many synonymes m
explained by our having drawn our words from so many different sources."
Very awkward, and inadmissible ; say, ^^ The fact that the EngU^ lan^
guage c(mtains so many synonymes is explained by our having drawn our
words from so many different sources."

fltantive in the possesBive does not become a nonn. 66a When a participle relates
to a substantive, which is the leading word ? When a participle Is modified by a
flubstantive, which Is the leading word? How are we to choose between these
constrnctlons f Illustrate this. 661. What must be done, if the use of the pai^
ticlple is attended with awkwardness or obscurity ? Give an example in which a
noun should be substituted for the participle. Give one in which an infinitive
should be lubBtituted. Give one in which a finite verb with that ihould be snlMrtt-


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Uhdeb § 657. There is no hope of sncli a man keeping pace
with the ^irit of the age.

[Corrected. — ^There is no hope of such a man'* keeping pace
with the spirit of the age. Manmnst he changed to the posses-
sive man\ to modify the participle he^n^f.]

A sense of self-respect prevents us indulging in recrimination. —
Have jou ever heard of a pear heing grafted on a mountain-ash ? —
There is no probahility of Stq)hen arrivjpg to-daj. — ^What do you
think of him visiting Germany? — ^Even the tops of mountains fur-
nish us with evidence of the world having been overflowed by a

Under § 660. Some people think there is no advantage in
children studying Greek. — ^Plutarch, commencing the study of
Latin when neariy eighty years old, appears almost incredible. — I
can not understand them refusing to receive you. — I place no con-
fidence in a man's boasting of what he can do.

Undeb § 661. We shall hereafter forbear endeavoring to con-
ciliate them. — A nation's extending its territory too widely has
sometimes proved fatal to its existence. — ^The having committed
yourself to an error is no excuse for continuing in that error. —
Arnold's betraying of the trust reposed in him was unpardonable. —
This accidental discovering of gold in Australia led to the emigra-
tion of thousands thither.

MisoELLANEons. — ^Activo measures were taken for the more
speedily restoring of order. — ^It is not by the adding to what we
have, but by the cutting off artificial wants, that we become truly
rich. — ^Now is the time for retrendiing of unnecessary expenses
and diligently employing of every moment. — Such an emptying
purses was perhaps never seen before. — ^I can not approve of any
one's persisting in such deceit. — ^Among the most important du-
ties of the Ohristian is setting of a good example to his fellow

The doing justice to so complicated a case will require the con-
sulting many authorities. — ^By teaching of others we leam many
things ourselves. — Is there any prospect of a telegraph cable
being laid across the Atlantic ? — ^There is some doubt of the Oru-
sades having benefited Europe. — ^Who ever heard of a hyena being




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RULE XV.— The Adverb.

663. An adverb relates to the word or words whose
meaning it modifies^ or stands independently in the

Examples. — Try hard, — Far out at sea, we saw a very smgolar m^t—
Are you quite in the dark ? Tee. — ^We shall certainly leave before he a^
rives. — By and hy there was a great noise. — You may f^ further and £ue
woree; eofieequently^ you might as well remiun.

663. Do not use how^ as how, or how that, for
the conjunction that / or how, for lest or that not.

'* She said as how she would come.** " Have a care how you listen to
the tempter.** Correct thus : " She said that she would come.** ** Have a
care that you do not listen to the tempter.**

664. Do not use the adverb no for not.

No is used independently in answering questions ; or it may modify
an adjective or adverb in the comparative degree. But it must not be
j<Hned to an adjective in the positive degree, or to a verb, expressed or
understood. We say no wiser^ no sooner ; but, " Handsome or not [that
is, not handsome^ I admire her.** ** Will you promise or not [that is, not
promise'] ? ** In the last two examples, no would be wrong.

665. In expressing a negation, do not use two nega-
tives in the same clause or member ; as, '^ I did not do
nothing^'^ "It makes tio difference to you n{>rme."
Correct by omitting or changing one of the negatives :
" I did not do anything^'* or " I did nothing." " It
makes no difference to you or me.'

. 5J

662. Recite Rule XV., relating to adverbs. Give examples, and in each men*
tlon to what the adverb relates. 668. What must not be used for the ooi^onction
(Aa<7 664. What must not be used for no/7 How may no be used! What maj
Itmodlfy? Tewhatmustltnotbo joii^l Bliistrato this. 666. In ezpresiiBg


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666. Exceptions. — 1. A negative may be repeated in the same dause
or member ; as, " Not rank, not wealth, constitutes true happiness.**

2. Two correlative negatives may be used ; as, " Neither rank nor
wealth constitutes true happiness.**

8. A negative, and a derivative formed with a negative prefix, may be
used together, to express an affirmation ; as, " Nor is it improper ^^ — ^that
is, it is proper,

667. Two negatives formerly strengthened the negation, and were used
for this purpose by old writers. Thus in Beaumont and Fletcher we read,
" By no means be not seen.** While we have discarded such constructions
generally, we still retain another negative with btUiaihe common form of
expression can not but, " I can not but rejoice.**

668. The rules laid down for the comparative and
the superlative degree in § 612, 613, under adjectives,
apply also to adverbs.

The former of the terms compared must be excluded from the latter
when the comparative is used, but included when we use the superlative.
** The elephant is said to live longer than any other animal.** ** The ele-
phant is said to live the longest of all animals [not of any animdt],^

669. PosmoN. — ^Adverbs should stand near the
words to which they relate. They generally precede
adjectives, stand after the first auxiliary in compound
tenses, and in other tenses follow the verb. Observe
the position of the adverbs in the following ex-
amples : —

Examples. — Q^ite pretty ; very pretty ; so pretty ; pretty enough, — ^He
was e<isily saved. — ^He was saved ecaUy enough, — ^He might etisily have
been saved. — ^He ought to be seriously r^rimanded. — Always dare to act
right. — Never betray a trust — ^Having never betrayed a trust, I can look
my neighbors />raiMi/y in the face. — Down came the rain. — ^The rain came

When there is a choice of positions, select the one that best suiti
the ear.

a negation, what must not be used t 666. In what two oases may two negatives be
used f With what kind of a derivative may a negative be used ? 667. What wa(i
formerly the effect of two negatives? What construction with a double negative
have we retained t 668. What principles apply to the comparative and the super*
lative degree of adverbs t 669. Give the role for the position of adverbs, and 11-


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670. Oare must be tf^n to place only and not only
next to the word or words they are intended to mod-
ify. Otherwise they give a wrong impression of the

If I tikj^ "He only hires the store,** only modifies hireB^ and the im-
pression conve jed is that another verb will follow : He only hire* the
store, he does not wm it HI say, " He hires only the store," ofdy modi-
fies ttcrcy and tiie meaning is, He hires the store, bat nothing else— not
the rest of the house.

*' He not only reads Latin but Greek.** Wrong, because not only is
so placed as to modify reads^ as if some other verb were to follow : He
not only reads Latin, but also writes it But not only is intended to modir
tj Latiny and must therefore be placed next to it : ** He reads not only
Latin but Greek.**

671. So, the adverbs ckiejlyj mostly^ &c, must stand immediatdy be-
fore or after an ac^unct that they are intended to modify; as, *^ The pro-
ductions consist mostly [not mostly consist] of com and cotton.** ^It
was by hunting and fishing chiefly that the Indians subsisted,** — not, ^^ 1%
was by hunting and fishing that the Indians chiefly subsisted.**


XJiTDEB § 668, 664. We thus see how afiSictions are often sent
for our good. — ^Do you think as how it will rain to-day? — ^Eossnth
heard how that the army had surrendered. — ^Take care how you
associate with the wicked.— It is uncertain whether the planets
are inhabited or no. — ^Ready or no, you must start at once. — ^All
men grow old, whether they will or no.

Undeb § 665. Don't you care for nobody ?— Nothing was
never gained by dishonesty. — No other Idng of Israel was so wise
nor powerful as Solomon. — ^Let no one at no time speak irrever-
ently in your presence unrebuked. — In this connection no prin-
ciples can be laid down, nor no rules given, that will cover every
point. — ^We can not in no way ascertain the exact size of the fixed

loitrate it with examples. When there is a choice of poeitioxui, by what must we
be guided f 670. What caution Is giTen in the case of only and not only 7 Ptotb
by an example that a change in the position of only alters the meaning. Show how
not only may be placed inooneotly. 67L How must the adyerbs ehi^^ mostly^
4co., stand f


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FAL^ BnsrtAx. 245

Undxb § 668. BaOroads open up a country the most rapidly
of any internal improyements. — Chess £siscinates its votaries more,
perhaps, than any game. — Of all other bubbles, the Mississippi
Scheme tenmnated the most disastrously. — ^Linnsaus was the most

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Online LibraryG. P. (George Payn) QuackenbosAn English grammar → online text (page 20 of 24)