G. P. (George Payn) Quackenbos.

An English grammar online

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I have some cherries to divide between them.

A machine has been invented for .the more easily and econom-
ically elevating of grain to snch heights as may be required. —
Just think of me entering into one of the fashionable saloons of
Saratoga in such a garb. — "So Roman emperor was so cruel nor
tyrannical as Nero. — ^The Swiss have defended their liberties the
most resolutely of any other nation.

The manufactures of Belgium chiefly consist of laces, silks, and
carpets. — Can I not prevail over you to return with me ? — ^Your
hat is altogether prettier and preferable to mine. — I have no other
friend but thou. — Ben Jonson says that the poet Spenser died by
want. — There were some disagreeable persons along, and so we
was disappointed of our excursion.

The weary sailors heard with delight the woods and groves to
re^ho the notes of countless songsters, and saw with rapture the
trees to bend under a load of fruit. — ^Tou must have felt the needle
have passed into the flesh. — ^A diphthong consists of two vowels'
forming one sound. — ^It is singular how an uneducated tinker could
have produced such a great work.

Willing or no, we must all die.— An eclipse of the moon is
caused by the earth getting between it and the sun. — ^No disease
was more loathsome nor more dreaded by the' people than lep-
rosy.— Ootton, as a crop, is more valuable, but not so certain, as
com. — She will not sing for anybody else but he. — She had rather
stay, if you will promise to stay with her. — ^They dared not to
start.

He no sooner entered into the house but he came rushing oat
again with these bad news. — Whom, when they had scourged him,
they let him go.: — ^Thou shouldst treasure up these oounsds deep
in your heart. — ^When money is to be. made, be it never so little,
every man strives their best to be first on the ground. — They
compose the easiest, that have learned to compose.



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BULBS FOB THE UfiB OF OAFXTALB. 267

LESSON XOII.

BULES FOB CAPITALS

683. Most words commence with small letters.
Capitals must be Tised when required by the following
rules, and only then : —

BULXS rOB THB USX OF CAPITAL LXTTHUL

684. Begin with a capital,

L Every sentence and every line of poetry.

EZAMFLXS.— 'Forget others* faults.^How bright the day I— What is
fame ? — Custom forms us alL

"Time is the warp of life; oh! tell
The young, the fair, to weave it well.**

n. All proper nouns, and titles of office, honor, and
respect.

Examples. — ^Henry the Fowler, emperor of the Germans ; Robert Roe,
Esquire ; Elizabeth Barrett Browning; the Red River; the Strait of Gib-
raltar; High Bridge; Union Square; the Superior Court of the CStyof
KewYork; July; Monday.

HE. All adjectives formed from proper nouns.

Examples. — ^African, Itdian, Welsh, Ciceronian ; also adjectives de-
noting a sect or religion — ^Methodist, Puritan, Catholic, Protestant.

IV. Common nouns, when personified in a direct
and lively manner ; not when sex merely is attributed
to an inanimate object.

Examples.— Then War waves his ensanguined sword, and fidr Peace
flees sighing to some happier land. — ^But, The tun pursues his fiery course ;
the fiMon sheds her silvery beams.

V. All appellations of the Deity, and the personal
pronouns Thou and He standing for His name.

088. How 4p- mo«t -words commence f 684. Becite Bole L for the use of capi-
tals. In each example, tell which word begins with a capital according to tha
rale. Recite Rule II. What adjectives must begin with capitals? When most
eonmion nowis begin with capitals f Becite Bule V. When must a quoted



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258 BULE8 FOB THE USE OF GAFITALS.

ExAMPLU. — ^The Almighty; the Kmg of kmgs; the Etemal Esmioe;
JehoTah ; the Supreme Being ; our Father.

VI. The first word of a complete quoted sentence,
not introduced by that^ if, or any other conjunction.

Examples. — ^Thomson says, ** Success makes Tillains honest" But,
Thomson says that ** success makes yillains honest**

VIL Every noun, adjective, and verb in the titles
of books and headings of chapters.

Examples. — ^Butler's ** Treatise on the History of Ancient PUloso*
phy ** ; Cousin's ** Lectures on the True, the Beautiful, and the Good ^

VJLLl. *Word8 that denote the leading subjects of
chapters, articles, or paragraphs.

A word defined, for instance, may commence with a ciq[>itaL — ^Do not
introduce capitals too freely under this rule. When in doubt, use a small
letter.

IX. The pronoun /and the interjection O.

X. Words denoting great events, eras of history,
noted written instruments, extraordinary physical phe-
nomena, and the like.

Examples. — ^The Creation ; the Confuaon of Languages ; the Bestora-
tion; the Dark Ages; the Declaration of Independence; the Aurora
Borealis. ^

XL Letters standing for words are generally written
as capitals.

Examples. — ^a. d., for anno Domini, in the year of our Lord ; LLD.,
for legum doctor, doctor of laws. ^

EXBBCISE.

Correct the rnnall letters and capitals improperly ttsed,
UiTDEB BuLE I.— order is heaven^s first Law.— All Trui^ is

■entence commence with a capital, and when not ? Recite Rale VII., relating to
the titles of books. Recite Rnle VIII. What may commence with a capital
mider this rule? What caution is girenf Recite Rule IX. Recite Rule X., w-
lating to words denoting great events, &o. Recite Rule XL, relating to letters.
What does a. d. stand for? What does LL.D. stand for f How are those ahbiv
stations written t



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latEBOlSE OK OAi>ltALS.

Fteoioxui. — ^how Fortune plies her Sports I — is not hope a flatterer!
— ^gratitude is the heart's Memory. — ^pay as yon go.
be thou the first true merit to befriend;
his praise is Lost who stays till All commend.

UndkjRulk IL — The sarmatians inhabited what is now known
as Inland. — ^mayor grey and the Oonunon council received gov-
ernor hawkins and general smith at the city hall, and escorted
l^em up Clinton avenue to The park. — The apennines run through
Italy. — Cecil, lord burleigh, was queen elizabeth's Premier for forty
Years.

Under Bule IH., lY. — ^How often we hear of welsh flannel,
irish whiskey, scotch Ale, london porter, Swedish iron, dutch cheese,
mssian isinglass, and french Lace I — The Spanish minister and the
representative of the ottoman porte have just visited the british
firigate. — Here are Byron Collars for sale. — ^May health paint thy
cheeks with her brightest colors I

There pleasure decks her guilty Bowers,
And dark oppression builds her Towers.

Undeb Rule V., YL— Lift up your hearts to the supreme ruler
of the Universe.— the jews are still looking for their messiah,
their promised saviour. — Truly has the Poet said, " the hand of
god has written legibly."— Attila called himself "The Scourge
of god ". — ^'Tis said that " conscience is man's most faithful friend."
— ^How much truth there is in this old proverb : " all is not Gold
that glitters."

Under Bule VIL, IX. — ^for the Student i think there are few
Books more valuable than hallam's " introduction to the litera-
ture of europe in the fifteenth, sixteenth, and s|f enteenth cen-
turies." — There is much Wit in a Volume that i have lately read,
entitled "What i saw in California; or, a three months' tour
among the placers." Shall i reason ftirther with you, o ungrate-
ful men?

Under RuLk X., XI.— A truthftil history of the days of
chivalry, the crusades, and the feudal system, wiU find Readers
enough. — ^Put your letter in the p. o. before two o'clock p. m.,
and you will receive an answer by 8 a. m. to-morrow. — S. Jones,
m.d.

jfxsoELLANEOUS. — ^thc moors, having conquered northern afirioa,
crossed the straits of gades, now gibraltar, into spain, in 710. —



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260 XZEBOISB ON OAPTTALS.

it panl preached at phOippi in Thrace, a. d. 51, the first christuoi
Sermon delivered in europe.

maker, preserver, mj redeemer, god!

whom have i in the heavens but thee alone f

deaths but a path that mnst be trod,
if man would ever pass to god.

Next with a Shudder i beheld consumption's sunken Cheek and
wasted Form.— o pitiless Destroyer, spare thy Victim ! — ^i have
read in spenser that ^' love is a celestial Harmony of likely hearts."
— ^fervently must we all exclaim : *' may the Horrors of the french
revdation never be repeated I ''



LESSON XCIII.

PUNCTUATION.

685. Pnnotoation is the art of diyiding written lan-
guage by points, in order that the meaning may be
readily understood.

686. The Punctuation-points are as follows : —
Pkbiod, • Semicolon, ;
Imtssbooation-poiht, ? Comma, ,
Exclamation-point, S Dash, —
Colon, : Parenthesis, ( )*

Brackets, [ ]

687. The Period. — ^A period must be placed after
every declarative and imperative sentence, and every
abbreviated word ; as, " Virtue is the only nobility."
" Obey your parents." " We write Jaa. for James^
JT. T.' for New Tark^ no. for nvmber, George L for
George FirsV^

688. When we have two distinct but kindred propositions, if thej are

886. Define Pnnetuation. 686. Mention the punctnation-pointii. 687. Oive
the rule for the use of the i>eriod. 688. When we have two distinct but kindred
propositions, what two modes of punctuating hare we f When must we nae the



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THB PERIOD.



261



short, we may either separate them with the cdon or s^nicolon, and thus
form one compound sentence ; or we may use the period, and thus make
two sentences. Always follow the former course, if the propositions are
connected by the conjunction and^for^ ov however ; for it is not elegant
to commence a sentence with these conjunctions.

*'*' Adversity is the touch-stone of principle. Without it, a tnan hardly
knows whether he is honest or not** Here a semicolon may be substi-
tuted for the period after principle. If the propositions are connected by
the coigunction /or, a semicolon mtai be used : ** Adversity is the touch-
stone of principle ; for without it,^ &c.

689. A period after an abbreviation does not take the place of other
points. Punctuate just as if the word were not abbreviated. But, at the
end of a sentence closing with an abbreviation, only one period must be
used. Thus : ** Go to the P. 0., I tell you, and ask for a letter for H.
Kob,jr.,M.D.'»

690. Some common abbreviations, with the meaning
of whicli every one should be familiar, are now pre-
sented.

COMMON ABBRIYIATI0N8.



A. B., Bachelor of Arts.

A.O., ante Christvm^ before

Christ
A.M., Master of Arts.

A. M., ante meridiem^ morning

B. C, before Christ
Co., County, Company.

Cor. Sec., Corresponding Secre-
tary.
D. D., Doctor of Divmity.
Do., ditto, the same.

D. v., dec volenUf God willmg.

E. E., errors excepted.



F.B. S., Fellow of the Royal Soci-
ety.
Hon., Honorable.



Id., ideniy the same.
I. e., id est, that is.
L H. S., Jenu hominum idlwxtcr^

Jesus Saviour of men.
Inst, instant, of this month.
LL. D., Legum Doctor, Doctor of

Laws.
M. C, Member of Congress.
M. D., Doctor of Medicine.
Mem., memorandum.
Messrs., messievre, gentlemen.
M. P., Member of Police.
Mr., Mister.
Mrs., Mistress.
MS., manuscript
N. B., nota bene, mark WdlL
P. M., Postmaster.



oolon or lemicolonf Whyf 6iv« an example. 689. What dlreotloni are given
fat punetnating, when a period ie need after an abbreviation? What ie said of a
■entenee cloaing with an abbreviation f 680. What point follows each abbrevia-
tion preiented in the liat f Why ie there no period between the two t» in LL, D, ?



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262 oomioN abbbeviation8.



P. M., poit mmdUm^ ertning.

P. 0.,Poft Office.

Pro tern., pro tempore, for the time.

Prox., proximo^ of next month.

P. S., Postscript

Qy., Query.

Bee Sec., Recording Seoretsry.

Bey., Beyerend.



B. B., Bailroed.

Sec., Secretary.

St, Saint, street

Ult, iUtitnOy of last moi^

XT. a A., United States of America.

U. a A., United States Army.

U. a N., United States Nayy.

Viz., videlicet, namely.



691. The Intebbogation-point. — An interrogatioii-
point must be placed after every interrogative sentence,
member, and clause; also, after the inteijections eh
and het/j implying a question. "Has air weight?"
" Air has weight ; do you not believe it ? " " You
thought it would rain, hey ? ^

692. TheExolahatton-point. — ^An exclamation-point
must be placed after every exclamatory sentence, mem-
ber, clause, and expression ; as, " How disgusting is
vice 1 " " Life is short ; how careful we should be to
use it aright 1 '* " For shame 1 "

An exclamation-point must also be placed after
every interjection except <?, eh, and Aey, unless very
closely connected with other words; as, "Ah! who
could have foreseen it ? " "Pshaw! you are trifling.''

exbboisb.
Introduce the pertod, interrogation-painty exelamationrpoin%
and capitak, where they are needed : — ^The good are better made
by ill — ^We have received good, and shall we not reoeive evil —
Wa last words (ah how well I remembdr them) were, *' My son,
beware of the first advances of sin " — ^What singolar tradilions
the Laplanders have — ^They asked Galileo whether he wonld re-
nonnce his doctrines (§ 478) — ^They asked Galileo, " wiU yon re-
nounce yonr doctrines " — Aim at perfection affliction is a school

691. Where moat an interrogation-point be placed ? 002. Where mutt an ezdam*-
tion-point be placed I After what part of epeech xnut an ezelainatldn*point tUm
beuiedt



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THB OOLON. 263

<yf Yirtne how silly are maxij of the forms of etiquette where
was Homer bom many a man addresses another as mr or esq,
according as he dresses ill or well — ^Wm A Stevens A M Pres —
The wind is NE



LESSON XOIV.

PUNCTUATION (CONTINUED)

693. The Colon. — ^The colon indicates the next
greatest degree of separation to that denoted by the
period.

694. A colon must be placed between the great di-
visions of sentences, when minor divisions occur that
are separated by semicolons ; as, ^' Man has effected
wonders ; he is every day advancing in knowledge and
power : yet, surpassed by nature even in her humblest
efforts, he can not so much as make a blade of grass."

A colon must also be placed before a formal enu-
meration of particulars, or a direct quotation, referred
to by the words thuSj following^ as foUows^ this, these^
&c. " There is much justice in this warning of Lava-
ter : * Beware of him who hates the laugh of a child.' "

A formal enumeration is one in which the words ^r«^, seeondli/, &c,
or similar terms, are introduced. These words are set off with the comma,
the particulars are separated by the semicolon, and before the whole enu-
meration a colon must be placed. Thus : ** There were four greal^ empires
in ancient times: first, the Assyrian; second, the Persian; third, the
Macedoman ; and fourth, the Roman.**

695. The Semicolon. — ^The semicolon indicates the
next greatest degree of separation to that denoted by
the colon.

698. What degree of separation doea the colon indicate f 694. Give the rule
relating to the use of the colon between the great diviaions of eentencea. Give the
mle relating to a formal enumeration of particulari. What is meant by % formal
•numeration t 09S. What degree of aeparation does the semicolon indioatet



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264 THE 8E1CI00L0K.

696. Hule I. — ^A Bemicolon must be placed between
the members of compomid sentences, tmless the connec-
tion is exceedingly close ; as " The wheel of fortnne k
ever turning ; who can say, * I shall be uppermost to-
morrow ' ? "

If the members are Tery short, and the connection is dose, the ccnmna
may be used in stead of the semicolon ; as, **l£an proposes, but God dis-
poses.^

697. Hide IL — ^A semicolon must be placed be-
tween the great divisions of sentences, when minor
divisions occur that are separated by commas; as,
" Plato called beauty a privilege of nature ; Theocritus,
a delightful prejudice."

698. Rule III. — ^A semicolon must be placed before
an enimieration of particulars, when the names of the
objects merely are given, without any formal introduc-
tory words ; as, " There are three cases ; the nomina-
tive, the possessive, and the objective."

699. Rule ZF.-r-A semicolon must be placed before
Otf , when it introduces an example ; as at the close of
the last paragraph.

BXEBOISB.

InBert all the points thus far treated, where they a/re required:
— ^Five great enemies to onr peace are constantly harassing gb
avarice, ambition, envy, anger, and pride — Books are onr best
friends they are ever ready with cheerfcd words yet how many
there are that never have recourse to their Mendly sympathy-
Seneca ^wlb np the matter thus " I would rather never receive
a kindness than never bestow one " — ^Labor not to be rich cease
from thine own wisdom — ^A good book, in the language of the

098. Recite Bale I. for the use of the semicolon, relating to compound ientenoee.
When may the comma be used in etead ot the flemi(Jolonf 687. Recite Rule IL,
relating to the great divisions of sentences. 698. Recite Role III., nIPating to an
enumeration of particnlars. 699. Recite Rule IV., relating to examples.



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THB OOIOCA.

booksellers, is a salable one in that of the onrioos, a scarce one
in that of men of sense, a nsefal one — ^There are three safe guides
to eternity first a sonnd head secondly an honest heart thirdly an
bomble spirit — ^The spirit of a man will sustain his infirmity but
a wounded spirit who can bear



LESSON XOV.

PUNCTUATION (CONTINUED).

TOO. Tecb Comma. — The comma indicates the least
degree of separation denoted by any point.

701. liule L — ^Adjuncts and clauses, not essential
to the meaning of a sentence, or modifying the whole
proposition, are set off with a comma on each side,
when introduced between a subject and its verb, or
other parts that are closely connected.

At the commencement or end of a sentence, such

adjxmcts and clauses are set off with a comma after or

before them, as the case may be.

ExAMPLSs. - The bones of birds, in a word, combine strength with
lightness, in a remarkable degree. — ^Blankets, which derired their name
fh>m ^Thomas Blanqnet, were introduced into England in .1840.— By the
way, gmipowder was first known to the Chinese. — ^No one can be an athdst,
if he will only examine his own structure.

702. Subjects introduced by m todl a«, and not, Ac., fall under this
nde ; as, ^' Toledo, as well as Damascus, was noted for its sword-blad^s.**

708. Single words relating to a whole proportion, and all yoc&tive ex-
pressions, are also set off with the comma. "Galileo, accordingly, was
imprisoned." ** Smiley Fortune, smile on our attempt*?

104k. No comma must be placed between restrictive adjuncts or clauses
and that which they restrict; as, "All must pay the debt of tuUure.'^
" AH that glitters, is not gold."

700. What degree of Mparation does ^e comma Indioatef 701. BeolteRole
I. for the use of the comxna, relating to af^ancts and damee. At the eommenee*
ment or end of a lentenee, how are sa<^ adjimeta and olauaes ptmotuaited t Give
ezamplei. VTOS. What lahjecta fall oirder this rule 9 708. What lingle words •x%
alio let off with the comma 9 7Qi; What is the principle relating to nstrietlTe
12



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S66 EI7LIS FOB THE FSB

706. HtUe II. — ^A noun in apposition, modified by
an adjunct or adjective, is generally, with its modifiers,
set off by the comma ; as, ^^ Cleopatra, queen of Egypt,
was defeated by Octavius."

706. Hide III. — ^A comma must be placed after the
logical subject (§ 108) of a sentence, when it ends with
a verb, or consists of several parts which are them-
selves separated by the comma ; as, ^^ All that glitters,
is not gold." " Envy, anger, and pride, are our worst
enemies."

707. Utile IV. — A comma must be placed between
short members of compound sentences, connected by
andy butj or^ nor^ for, heca/usej whereas^ and other
conjunctions; as, ^^ Beauty dazzles, but amiability
charms."

A comma must also be placed before a coijunctioa comiectiiig the parts
of a compound predicate, unless they are very short and so closely e<mr
nected that no point is admissible ; as, ** The sun shines on all, even the
wicked and ungrateAiL**

708. Rule Y. — A comma must be placed before or
introducing an equivalent, or a clause defining the
writer's meaning ; as, " Spelter, or zinc, comes chiefly
from Germany."

709. Rule VI. — ^A comma must be placed before
andy OTy and nor^ preceding the last of a s^ies of
clauses, or words that are the same part of speech and
in the same construction ; as, " Sunshine, cloud, and
storm, all are sent for some wise purpose."

710. Rule F7Z— When, to avoid repetition, (md^

adjimcts and clatiMs? T06. Recite Bnle II., relating to nouBi in appoeftion.
70S. Beoite Bole III., relating to the l<%loal snbjeot of a ■enteooe. 707. Becite
Bnle rv., relating to ehort memten of eomponnd eentenoes. Wliat is the role
relating toa compound predicate? 708. Becite Bule V., relating to #. 70«. Be-
•ItoBuleVX, relating to oful, or, and iMT. 710. Becite Bale VU., wlating to tha



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Of THB OGMMA. S67

or^ noTj or a verb previously tised, is omitted, a comma
takes its place.

" Tin is found in England, Bohemia, Saxony, Malacca, and Banca.**
In stead of saying England and Bohemia and Saxony and Malacca, to ayoid
repetition we omit amf, and a comma takes its place. "Methusaleh was
the oldest man ; Samson, the strongest.'' Was is omitted after Banuon^
and a comma takes its place.

711. Bule VIIL — ^Words used in pairs take a com-
ma after each pair. " Joy and sorrow, cloud and sun-
shine, are alike sent for our benefit."

712. Bvle IX. — ^Words repeated for the sake of em-
phasis must be set off with their adjuncts, if they have
any, by the comma. " Truth, truth, and nothing but
truth, will satisfy the candid inquirer."

EXEBCISE.

Imeftt the points thus far treated : — Be temperate temperate
I say that you may avoid disease — ^Fashion for the most part is
nothing but the ostentation of riches — Where if I may ask are
the modesty and self-restraint the industry and honesty of our
ancestors— Bom four years after the cmci&don of Christ Jose-
phus lived to witness the destruction of Jerusalem — By the Per-
sian the Turk and the Arab carpets are ranked among the
necessaries of life They form with his cushions and divan all hij9
furniture his seat his bed his table He must have his prayer-
carpet spread out on which to kneel at the appointed hour he
must have his smoklng-carpet on which to recline and dream
away his time there must be a carpet for tent and harem bazaar
and mosque

As darkness begins bats issue from the fissures of walls and
other hiding-places where they have sought shelter during the
day and by their active flight capture such insects as are then on
the wing gnats musquitoes moths beetles &o The service which
they thus render is very considerable particularly i» tropical
regions where they swarm by myriads

omiuion of a eoo junction or verb, TU. Recite Rule VIII., relating to words vied
in pain. 112. Recite Rule IX., relating to words repeated.



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S68 THE DASH. — ^PASEBrrHBBBS.

LESSON XOVI.

PUNCTUATION (CONTINUED).

713. The Dash. — ^The dash is used to denote,

L A break in the construction. "Glory — ^what
isiti"

n. A transition in the sentiment £rom grave to
humorous. "London is noted for its magnificent
buildings, its extensive shipping, and — ^its dexterous
pickpockets.'*

in. A sudden interruption. " You know my feel-
ings ; you know — " " Hold ! " interrupted my friend.

IV. Hesitation. " Such a man is a — a — ^I faiow not
what to call him."

V. An abrupt or exclamatory repetition. "Such
was the testimony of Solomon — Solomon, who had all
the pleasures of the world at his command."

714. A dash is sometimes used to denote the omissioii of letters, figorei^
or words ; as, "In the year 18 — , I stopped oyer night at the village <st
G— .»»

716. A dash after other points makes them indicate a greater degree
of separation than they generally denote.

716. Pabektheses. — ^Marks of parenthesis are used
to enclose words which explain, modify, or add to the
main proposition, when so introduced as to break the
connection between dependent parts and interfere with


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Online LibraryG. P. (George Payn) QuackenbosAn English grammar → online text (page 22 of 24)