G. P. (George Payn) Quackenbos.

An English grammar online

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the harmonious flow. "The Saxons (for they de-
scended from the ancient Sacse) retained for centuries
the energy and morality of their ancestors."

717. Beaokets. — ^Brackets are used principally in

718. For -what five purpoies is the dash used f 714. What elie la the dash used
to denote? 716. What is the effect of the dash after other polnUf 716. For what
are marks of parenthesU used! 717. Wher« and for what are brackets prinolpiJlr
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EZEBOISB IS PXTNOniATION*

quoted passages, to enclose words improperly omitted,
or added by way of correction, observation, or explana-
tion. " She is weary with [of] life."

EXEBCISE.

Punetttate the following sentences : — ^He who plays the tyrant
in his own family is a a a what term can I find strong enough to
express my contempt — ^Archimedes the great Sicilian philosopher
and what ancient philosopher ranks higher was ignorant of some
things that are now known to every intelligent school-hoy —
Phonography and under this head we iQclude every method of
writing hy signs that represent the sounds of language is a
great improvement on stenography — ^What are they all worth
the triumphs and honors of the world — ^This was the state of
things in Eome Home the queen-city of the world — " They rise
successive should the author not have said successively and succes-
sive fall"

The Romans were at war with the Persians and their supply
of silk from this source heing cut off they sought unsuccessfully
to ohtain it through other channels About this time two monks
who had penetrated to China returned to Constantinople bring-
ing with them the news that this wonderful sericvm for such was
the Latin name of silk was the produce of a little worm which
changed into a moth they had observed many of the processes
by which it was prepared for use The Roman emperor offered
them great rewards to return and, procure some of the eggs of
this wonderful worm which they did at the hazard of their lives
552 AD and the few eggs which they brought concealed in a hol-
low stick were the stock from which all the sUk-worms since
reared in Europe have descended



LESSON XOVII.

APOSTROPHE. — HYPHEN. — QUOTATION-POINTS.

718. Besides the ptmctaation-points, tlie following
marks are used in written and printed matter: the

718. Wliat marks bealdei the panotnation-points are used in -written and

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270 AF08TB0FHX.— 'HTPHEEr. — QtrOTATION-FOnnBe

ApoBtrophe ( ' ), the Hyphen ( - ), and Quotation-poantg

(« ").

719. The Afostbophe. — ^The apostrophe denotes the
omission of a letter or letters, and the possessive case
of nouns.

ExAMPUS. — ^lU tor it U; e'en for even ; donH for do not; tho^ for
thouffh : o^do^k for on [the] eloeh. So, in the poflaesBive : hero\ Ckarle9\
nun\ children\ heroe$\ Bot remember that the persomd pronouns ncTer
take the apostrophe in the possessive case : ours^ yours, here, theirs,

720. The Hyphen. — ^The hyphen is used to connect
the elements of a compound word, when each retains
its own accent; as, castle-builder, father-in-law, red-
hot, law-abiding, inside-out.

The hyphen is also used after a complete syllable at
the end of a line, to connect the parts of a divided
word. The hyphen may also be used in stead of the
difleresis, to denote that the final vowel of a prefix does
not form a diphthong with the first vowel of a primi-
live ; as, pre-engagement, re-establish.

721. Quotation-points. — Quotation-points are used
to enclose words quoted from an author or speaker, or
represented in narrative as employed in dialogue ; as,
"Eemember now thy Creator in the days of thy
youth."

122. When the substance merely is given, and not the exact woida^
quotation-points are unnecessary.

723. Matter within quotation-points is to be punctuated just as if it
stood in any other position.

724. When quotation-points are needed at the end of a sentence, they
come after whatever other point is required there, if this point appUea to

printed matter? 719. What does the apostrophe denote t Give examples.
720. For -what is the hyphen used ? For what is it used at the end of a Une f For
what purpose is it used in stead of the dinresisf 721 What are qnotation-polxita
used to enclose t 722, When are quotation-points unnecessary ? 723. How is master
within quotaUon'points to be punctuated f 724. How are quotatioa-poiiiU to etsnO,



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EXEEOIBS IN P^NOTUATION'. 271

Ihe qaotntkm alone, but before this point, if it applies to the whole sen*
tenoe and not excluslYely to the quotation ; as, Pilate asked, " What i«
truth? " Where now is the ** man of destiny " f

*J2b. A quotation within a passage that is itself quoted, is enclosed be-
tween ^ngle QuotatK>n-points (< ') ; as, ** I would remind you that Toung
calls man an * insect infinite'."

BXBBCISE.

Punctuate^ and insert the aposi/rophe^ the hyphen^ and quota-
tton-points^ where they are required : — The following ever to be
remembered couplet is from Popes Moral Essays
Tis education forms the common mind
Just as the twig is bent the trees inclined
Kow continued the cavalier lets seek this fair groves friendly
shelter and mid its cool retreats eiyoy that friendship which ac-
cording to the poet is a heavn in epitome — ^Now there 11 be no
delay een tho they meet a stiff souwester — ^Temptations says Fene-
lon are files that rub off much of our self confidence— Very forcibly
says the poet

How poor how rich how abject how august
How complicate how wonderful is man
At twenty three he was a hare brained youth who d brook no
counsel — ^I d rather wait than go thro such a rain — ^The avenge
ing power belongs to one alone



LESSON XCVIII.

PiaUBBS OF BTYMOLOar.— PiaUBES OF SYNTAX.

726. Observe the following sentence : —

" ' Neath a tyrant's yoke the people languish.**
This sentence in plain language and according to the ordinary mode
of expression would read thus : " The people languish beneath a tyrant's
power.** Three things are to be noticed : 1. In the origmal sentence, the

relatively to other points^ at the end of a Bentence f 725. When are single quota-
tion-points to be used?

726. Bepeat the sentence presented at the commencement of the lesson. What
three things are to be noticed in connection with it t What are such changea



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873 navsss.

word *neatk h used for tiie ordiniry form bensatk, 2. The natural order
of the words is changed. 8. The word yoke is nsed, not in its ordinaiy
signification, a wooden frame by which two oxen are connected for draw-
faig, bat in the sense of power tyrannicatty exerted. We see then that
dianges may be made in the form, oonstracti<»i, and ai^dioation of words.
Sodi changes are called Figures.

727. A Figore is a mode of expression in whicli the
ordinary form, construction, or application of words is
changed.

728. Figures may be divided into three classes : —

1. Those in which the ordinuy form of words is
changed, called Figures of Etymology.

2. Those in which the ordinwy construction of
words is changed, called Figures of Syntax.

8. Those in which the ordinary application of words
is changed, called Figures of Bhetoric.

729. FiGUBBS OF Etymology.— The most important
figures of etymology are as follows: A-phar'-e-sis,
Pros'-the-sis, Syn'-co-pe, A-poc'-o-pe, Par-a-go'-ge, and
Tme'-sis.

Aphseresis is the elision of a letter or letters from
the beginning of a word ; as, Hvnxt for hetvoixt.

Prosthesis is the prefixing of a letter or letters to a
word ; as, hedavb for da/ub^ ybent for lent

Syncope is the elision of a letter or letters from the
middle of a word ; as, gMn for given.

Apocope is the elision of a letter or letters at the
end of a word j as, i' tK midst, for in the midst.

Paragoge is the annexing of a letter or letters to a
word ; as, steepy for stee^.

Tmesis is the separation of the elements of a comr

called f 727. What !■ a Figure f 728. How may figures be divided t Define and
name thete three classes. 729. Mention the most Important figuree of etymology.
Define Aphasresis. Define Proethesis. Define Syncope. Define Apocope. De-



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FiauBSB. 273

pOTind by some intervening word or words ; as, w7ws6
eins soever for whosesoever sinSj the live day long for
the Ivoelong day.

730. FiouBEs OF Syntax. — ^The most important
figures of syntax are as follows: — ^El-lip'-sis, Ple'-o-
nasm, Syl-lep'-sis, and Hy-per'-ba-ton.

Ellipsis is the omission of a word or words, neces-
sary to the complete construction of a sentence, but not
essential to its meaning. Numerous examples of this
figure were presented in Lesson LXVJLLi.

Pleonasm is the use of words not necessary to the con-
struction ; as, " He that cometh, let him come quickly,"
— ^for " Let him that cometh, come quickly." — Super-
fluous words generally weaken the style. Pleonasm
should be sparingly used, and only when it is naturally
introduced under the influence of strong emotion.

Syllepsis is the construing of words according to the
meaning they convey, and not by the strict require-
ments of grammatical rules.

" Philip went down to the city of Samaria, and preached Christ unto
ihem^* In this example, dty is in the third, singular; and, according to
§ 565, them should be it By the eity^ however, is meant the people in
the city J and the pronoun referring to it may therefore, by syllepsis, be put
in the pluraL

We have numerous examples of syllepsis in masculine and feminine
pronouns used with reference to inanimate objects personified ; as, "Night
spread her mantle o'er the earth."

Hyperbaton is a deviation from the natural ar-
rangement of words ; as. Thee I revisit for / revisit
thee.

fine Taumgoge. Define TmeeiB. 730. Mention the most important fignres of Byn«
tax. Define Ellii^lB. Define Pleonasm. What is generally the efiieot of Boper-
finous words ? What is Bald respecting the nse of pleonasm f Define Syllepsis.
Oive an example of thlB figure. In what have we numerous examples of syllep-
risf Define Hyperbaton. Of what is hyperbaton a distinguishing ftatoret
What is its effect, when Judiolously used ? To what is it liable to lead t

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S74

Thteflgn^koMO^Ilitdistfaigauhiiigtetavai^ poetry. JndUood^
uwd, it imparts Ttrietj and strength to compontioii; but care must bt
taken that it does not lead to obeeurity.

XXBBOIBB.

Point out the figureo of ot/ymology and the figttrei af tyntaa
that occur in t?ie foUoudng $entmce$ : — Israel latehed their tents
in the desert. — Bedemption I 'twas the favor of the skies.— Each
in other's countenance read his own dismay. — ^Far adown the
▼asty gulf plunged the archangel. — Such is their love to us ward.
— ^^Gainst him discharge thy shafts entipped with flame. — Sweet
Evening— how she fans our cheek with her oool breath I — C^ with
th' enohantress of his soul he talks.

^' Fashion, leader of a ohatt'ring train.
Whom man for his own hurt permits to reign,
Who shifts and changes all things but his shape.
And would degrade her vot'ry to an ape,
The fruitfhl parent of abuse and wrong,
Holds a usurped dominiotn o'er his. tongue ;
There sits and prompts him with his own disgnuM^
Preseribes the theme, the tone, and the grimace,
And, when accomplished in her wayward school,
Calls gentleman whom she has made a fooL"



LESSON XCIX.

FIGURES OF BHETOBIO.

731. The most important figures of rhetoric are tt
follows: — Sim'-i-le, Met'-a-phor, Al'-le-go-ry, Me-ton'-
y-my, Sy-nec'-do-che, Hy-per'-bo-le, Vi'-sion, Per-son-i-
fi-ca'-tion, An-tith'-e-sis, Cli'-max, F-ro-ny, and A-poph'-
a-sis.

732. Simile is the direct comparison of one object
to another, and is generally denoted by lihe^ as^ or so.

781. Mention the most important flgnres of rhetorio. 782. Define Simil&
How is the comparison Bometimes made ? For what pnrpoies are aimilM iMOdt



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m&usxm. 275

^^ Laws are like cobwebs, which catch imiall flies, but
let wasps and hornets through."

Sometimes the comparison is made without any formal term to denote
it Thus : *^ Adversity brings to light the merit in a man ; a gem is lus-
treless till it is rubbed and polished.** Here we have a good simile, though
neither like, as, nor so appears. — Similes are used either to explain the
meaning or embellish the style.

783. Metaphor is the implying of a resemblance be-
tween two objects, not by any term denoting similitude,
but by assigning to one the name, attribute, or action
of the other ; as, " Flattery is a sort of bad money, to
which our vanity gives currency."

Metaphor is the commonest of all figures. It appears in various fonnBy
sometimes in a »ngle word. We use metaphorical language, when we
speak of a hard heart, a cold reception, bright hopes, fancies gambol-
ling unbridled through the brain, pleasures strewed over the highway of
life,&c.

734. Allegory is a combiaation of kindred meta-
phors, forming a kiod of story, whereby it is sought to
teach some important truth.

Most of the parables of Scripture are forms of this figure. Sometimes
an allegory is so extended as to fill a volume ; as in the case of Bunyaa^s
** Pilgrim's Progress ^

735. Metonymy is calling one object by the name
of another that sustains some relation to it. The prin-
cipal relations on which this figure is founded, are as
follows : —

1. Cause and efibct; as, "Extravagance is tiie ruin of many,^— that
is, the cause of ruin,

2. Ancestor and descendants ; as, " Th^ shall Judak trimnph,''-4hat
10, the descendants of Judah,

8. Attribute and that to which it belongs; as, "Pruie shall be brought

low," — ^that is, the proud,

, ■ ■ II. ■ ■ ■ I

788. Define Metaphor. As regards frequency of use, how does metaphor com-
pare with other figures f Give examples of common metaphorical expressioni.
T84. Pefino Allegory. What examples of allegory are alluded to t 986. Define



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S)76 noTnoDB.

4. CoBteiaer and liiiiig eonftained; as, "Jcnudem ahall r^i<te,"—
that is, (AejMopfe of /frMaJem.

5. Emblem and thing represented; as, "This was offensiYe to tb»
erown^^—^baX is, the king,

6. Material and thing made of it ; as, "G<dd is aU-powerfol,*'— that is,
mof^y.

736. Synecdoche is using the name of a part for that
of the whole, the name of the whole for that of a part,
or a definite number for an indefinite ; as, ^^ My roof
is at your service," — ^that is, my house. " His head is
grey," — that is, his hair. " A htcndred swords leaped
from their scabbards,"— that is, u great number.

737. Hyperbole is the exaggerating of an attribute,
or the assigning to a subject of some impossible act ;
as, " Her brow was as white as snowP " So bright
their arms that the Sfwn, himself started with sudden
fright."

738. Vision is the representing of past events as
now going on, or what is merely imagined as actually
seen; as,

"Lol anc^tedbyHeayenwiththeYials of wrath,
BehM where hefiiet an hU dnolate path I
New in darkness and HUows he sweeps from my sight;
Rise, rise, ye wild tempests, and cover his flight ! ^

739. Personification is the attributing of sex or life
to an inanimate object, or intelligence to an inferior
creature ; as, '^ Then the hutterfly spoke^ with a glance
of disdain."

740. Antithesis is the contrasting of opposites, to
heighten their effect; as, '^ Hat/red stirreth up strife;
but love covereth all sins."

741. Climax is such an arrangement of words,

Metonymy. Mention the principal relationi on which metonymy te founded, and
five an example of each. 780. Define Synecdoche. 787. Define Hyperbole. 981.



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YlGfUKEB. 277

clauses, members, or sentences, that the weakest may
stand first, and that each in turn, rising in importance,
may make a deeper impression on the mind than the
one before it ; as, " Then Virtue became silent^ hea/rt-
sicky pi/ned away^ and died.^^

742. Irony is the asserting of directly the opposite
of what we wish to be understood ; as when I say,
" Go on ; time is worth nothmg^'* — ^meaning that it is
very valuable.

743. Apophasis is the pretended suppression of what
one is all the time actually mentioning ; as, "Z^AoK
say nothing of the immorality prevalent in Paris — ^im-
morality which is all the more dangerous, because ar-
rayed in the most attractive garbs."

EXEBCISE.

Point out the figures^ whether of etymology^ syntax^ or rhetoric :
— ^As cold waters to a thirsting soul, so is good news from a for
oounlapy. — ^Is the pen mightier than the sword ? — ^Faithful are the
wonnds of a Mend ; bat the kisses of an enemy are deceitfiil. —
Where no wood is, there the fire goeth out ; so, where there is
no tale-bearer, the strife ceaseth. — ^What shall indnce a Inan to
deny his faith ? Shall love of pleasure ? shall ambition ? shall
persecntion? shall the certainty of death itself ?— Her tears might
have pnt out a world on fire. — ^Reverence the hoary head. — ^Then
groan'd the Earth. — ^When there's a fire, be sure to throw the
looking-glasses out of the window, and carry the feather beds
carefully down in your arms. — ^To waste one's time is foolish, not
to mention the sin involved in it.

"But hark I thro' the fast-flashing lightning of war,
What steed to the desert flies frantic and fEur ? "

"Eternal Hope I when yonder spheres sublime
Pealed their first notes to sound the march of Time,

Define Vision. 789. Define Personification. 740. Define Antifhesifl. 74L Define
OHmftx. 743. Define Irony. 748.' Define Apophaaif.



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ST8



Thj Ji^OQS joqUi beg«&— but not to fade.
When all the sister planets have decayed ;
When wrapt in fire the realms (ji ether glow,
And Heaven's last thnnder shakes the world below |
Thon, nndismayed, shalt o'er the ruins smile,
And light thj torch at Natore's fbnend pile I '*



LESSON O.

PROSODY.



744. Proaody is that part of grammar which treati
of the quantity of syllables, of feet, and the modes in
which they §ire combined in verse.

745. Verse is language so arranged in lines that
syllables of a certain length may occur at certain in-
tervals.

Terse is the form in whidi poetry generaUy appears. Poetry is dis-
tlngi^flhed from prose not only by this form, bat by its oontaining mors
figures, as well as peonliar words and expressions.

V46. There are two kinds of verse,_I£hyme and
Blank Verse.

747. Bhyme is that kind of verse in which there is
a correspondence of sound in the last syllables of two
or more lines; as,

** True wit is nature to adyantage dress'dj
IVhat oft was thought, but ne'er so weU ezpresa'd,^

748. Blank Verse is metrical language without rhyme ;
as,

"ShaU we serve Heaven
With less respect than we do minister
To our gross selves ? "

744. What to Prondyff 746. Wbat to Venieff How to poetry dtotiiigvklMd
ftomproMt 74& How many kbKto of T«rse are there t Name them and dtfin*



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749. By the Quantity of a syllable is meant the
time required for its utterance. According to this
time, syllables are distinguished as Long and Short.
One long syllable is equivalent to two short ones.

760. A long syllable xnay be d^M>ted by a Bhort horizontal line placed
oyer its Towel, a short syllable by a curve ; as, pSs^l!ng,

751. Remember that Towel sounds have nothing to do with the quan-
tity of syllables in verse. Met^ in which « has its short sound, is more
likely to be long in verse than fne, in which e has what is known as its
long sound.

762. In words of more than one syllable, accent constitutes length ;
unaccented syllables are ^ort. In the case of monosyllables, nouns, ad-
jectives^ verbs, adverbs, and interjections, are for the most part long;
articles are always short; prepositions and coiyunctions are generally
flhoTt ; pronouns are long when emphasized, — ^when not, short. Observe
the quantity as marked in the following lines : —

" 5f fill thg cftus^ which c5nsplre t5 blind
M&n's erring jadgmSnt, &id misguide thS mind,
Whftt ih^ weak head with strdng^ bifis rOles,
t^ pride ; thg nev^r-£EUling ^i^ce U foOls."

758. A Foot is two or more syllables, constituting a
portion of a line. ^

754. The most important feet in English verse are
as follows : —

The Iambus, a short ^Hable and a loi^, w. sSvere.

The Tro'chei, a long syllable and a diort, ^^ trembling.

The Spondee, two long syllables, — c6ld winds. •

The Pyrrhic, two short syllables, s;^ wil- 1 ddmgss.

The An'apest, two short and a long, ^./ w - bSnicade.

The Dactyl, a l<mg and two short, - w ^ tendSriy.

The Am'phibrach, a ^ort, a long, and a short, ^^^ tremendofis.

The Amphim'acer, a long, a short, and a long, -v^- sftddl^bSgs.

eaoh. 748. Wbat is meant by the Quantity of a syllable t As regards quantity,
how are syllables distinguished? To what is one long syllable equivalent f 750.
How may a loog syllable be denoted f A short one ? 751. What caution is given
with respect to the quantity of syliables f 752. In words of more than one syllable,
what constitutes length f State the prineipleB that apply to the quantity of
monosyllables. 758. What is a Foot f 754. Mention the moat important Uset that



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880 PB060DT.

755. Of these, the Iambus, the Trochee, the Ana-
pest, and the Dactyl, are the principal. A line may
be wholly composed of any of fliese four feet, and it is
then called Pure.

The four remaining feet never form whole lines by
themselves, but are sometimes interspersed with other
feet. A line into which different feet enter is called
Mixed. Observe the following examples : —

1. Pure Iambic, — ^Tib ed- 1 ucft- | ti6n ^nns | thg c5in- | mdn mliid.

2. Pun lh>ehaic.-9hl thS | pain, thS | bliss 5f | dying!

8. Pure AnapesHe,-^h6 will 81^ | 'twSs ft bftr- 1 b&ofis deed.
4. Pure Daetylie,^ESJidl& h£r | tSndSriy.

1. Ifixed Iambic, — Nd rif- \ iige s&ve | th^ wll- 1 d^rnesa | r^nHdnflL

2. Mixed TVocAotc.— SOfUy | sweet in | Lf/didn | measiires.

8. Mixed AnapetHe, — Soft scSnea \ 6£ c5ntdnt- | m&it ftnd ease.
4. Mixed Dactylic — Sv9r m6ve | cheerily.

EXSBCISE.

Give the quantity of each tyllahle in the foUomng Um$; ink
9uch lines as a/re divided^ name each foot : —

" Sweet is the breath of mom, her rising sweet,
* With charm of earliest birds ; pleasant the sun,
When first on this delightful land he spreads
His orient beams, on herb, tree, fruit, and flower,
Glistering with dew ; fragrant the fertile earth
After soft showers ; and sweet the coming on
Of grateful evening mild."

"I have passed | o'er the hills | "of the storm- | y North,
And the larch | has hung | all his tas- 1 sels forth ;
The fish- I er is out | on the sun- 1 ny sea,
And the rein- 1 deer bounds | through the past- 1 ure free,
And the pine | has a fringe | of soft- 1 er green,
And the moss | looks bright | where mj step | has been/'

occur in English verae, and the syllables of which each consists. 766. Of which
of these feet may lines be whoUy composed! What are snch lines caUedf What
nse Is made of the other feet f What is meant by a lOxed Line t Give example
of pnre and mixed lines.



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PBOSODT. 281

LESSON CI.

PEOSODY (CONTINUED).

756. By Metres are meant the diflferent gystems
according to wliich verses, or lines, are formed. They
are named from the feet. employed, and their number.

757. Metres in which the iambus prevails, are called
Iambic ; those in which the trochee prevails. Trochaic ;
the anapest, Anapestic ; the dactyl, Dactylic.

758. Distinguished by the number of feet in a line,
the varieties of metre are as follows : Mobom'eter, which
consists of one foot ; Dim'eter, of two feet ; Trim'eter,
of three ; Tetram'eter, of four ; Pentam'eter, of five ;
Hexam'eter, of six ; Heptam'eter, of seven ; Octom'eter,
of eight.

759. Some metres, besides a certain number of com-
plete feet, contain a syllable over at the end of the line.
Such metres are called Hy-per-cat-a-lec'-tic.

760. Scanning is the process of dividing a line imto
the feet of which it is composed.

761. Examples of the diflferent metres Ibllow. Some
of the lines are pure, and some are mixed. The figures
1, 2, 3, &c., respectively denote monometer, dimeter,
trimeter, &c. Vertical lines mark divisions into feet.

To scan, pronounce the syllables that constitute the successiYe feet,
after each foot mentionmg its name. The fifth iambic line in the Exercise
below would be scanned thus: WTuxI^b fame, spondee; a /on-, iambus;


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 23

Online LibraryG. P. (George Payn) QuackenbosAn English grammar → online text (page 23 of 24)